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ME. 1599 
EARLY CALIFORNIA 
.EARNING TWO HANDS 
bUR ITALY, ETC. 



Vol. W No. 



Lavishly 

Illustrated 




THE MAGAZINE Of 

(ALirORNIAAH-THEWEST 



WITH A SYNDICATE 
OF WESTERN WRITERS 



EDITED BY 

CHAS.f.LUlimS 

A«OriATt tDiroR 

.ORArtELLERYCttANNIH&, 








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THE 



Land of Sunshine 



THE MAGAZINE OF 

CALIFORNIA AND THE WEST 



EDITED BY 

CHARLES F. LUMMIS 



Staff— David Starr Jordan, Joaquin Miller, Theodore H. Hittell, Mary Hallock Foote, 

Margaret Collier Graham, Charles Warren Stoddard, Grace Ellery Channing, John Vance 

Cheney, Ina Coolbrith, William Keith, Dr. Washington Matthews, Dr. Elliott 

Coues, George Parker Winship, Frederick Webb Hodge, Chas. F. Holder, 

Edwin Markham, Geo. Hamlin Fitch. Chas. Howard Shinn, T. S. 

Van Dyke, Chas. A. Keeler, Louise M. Keeler, A. F. Harmer, 

L. Maynard Dixon, Charlotte Perkins Stetson, Constance 

Goddard Du Bois, Batterman Lindsay, Chas. 

Dwight Willard. 




XI 

June, 1899, to November, 1899 



LAND OF Sunshine Publishing Co. 

LOS ANGELES, CAL. 



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Copyright 1899 by 
Land of Sunshine Publishing Co. 

fo7 



0/^300: 

'^(''^^ Tfir hAl' '|:UAkY 

The Land of Sunshine. 

CONTENTS OF VOL. XL 

PAGE 

Aboriginal Art in Obsidian, illustrated, H. C. Meredith... 255 

A Little Curio (story), Julia B. Foster 270 

Among the Yaqui Indians, illustrated, Verona Granville.. 84 
An Afternoon in Chinatown, illustrated, Olive Percival... 50 
Angle of Reflection, The, Margaret Collier Graham 

48, 121, 182 

Arizona's Biggest Gold-Mine, illustrated, Sharlot M. Hall, 148 
Big Bonanza, The, illustrated, Theodore H. Hitten...2i4, 276 
Bird-of-Paradise Flower, The, illustrated, Juliette E. 

Mathis 199 

Blossom of Barren Lands, A (poem), illustrated, Eugene 

M. Rhodes 251 

California Aquarium and Zoological Station, A, illustrated, 

Charles Frederick Holder 77 

California Babies, illustrated 60, 124, 189, 243, 301, 359 

California Goat-Ranch, A, illustrated, Kate P. Sieghold... 252 

California in 1757 (map) 269 

California Red^woods, illustrated, Bertha F. Herrick 95 

California State Normal School, illustrated, Melville 

Dozier 1 34 

City of the Saints, The, illustrated, Annie Getchell Gale, 201 
Congress (Ariz.) Gold-Mines, illustrated, Sharlot M. 

Hall 148 

Cowboy's Pencil, A, illustrated, by Ed. Borein, C. F. L •• 159 

Diaz, the Mexican Magician, illustrated 308 

Dry Loco-Weed (poem), Grace A. Luce 307 

Early California History, from documents never before 

published in English ^ Viceroy Revilla-Gigedo's 
^^ Report. 1768-1793, 32, 105, 168. 225, 283, 33^ 

Fray Zarate-Salmeron's Relacio7i 33^ 

Ed. Borein, Cowboy artist, illustrated 159 

First Rain, The 306 

Happy Hunting Ground, The, Idah M. Strobridge 21 

Indian Problem, The, illustrated, Chas. F. Lummis 

T39. 207, 263, 332 

In the Lion's Den (by the editor), 42, 113, 174, 234, 290, 345 

Invitation (poem), Louisa M. Groshon 335 

Italy and Our Italy, Grace Ellery Channing 24 

Joaquin Miller's Monuments, illustrated 240 



Keeper of the Camp, The, illustrated by L. Maynard 

Dixon, Elwyn Irving Hoffman... 29 

Landmarks Club, The 123, 355 

Land We Love, The, illustrated 58, 128, 246, 297, 356 

Learning Two Hands, illustrated, Mrs. C. M. Bradfield... 9 
Leaves Lorn the Popol Vuh (poems), John Vance Cheney.. 3 
Lion's Den, In the (by the editor), 42, 113, 174, 234, 290, 345 

Mayne Reid, illustrated, Chas. F. Lummis 4 

Mex (poem) Sam T. Clover 165 

Mexican Magician, The, illustrated 308 

Missions of California, Some Unknown, illustrated, Con- 
stance Goddard Du Bois 317 

Morn on the Pacific (poem) , Herbert Bashford 195 

My Brother's Keeper, illustrated, Chas. F. Lummis, 139, 207 

263, 33S 

Myth of Queen Xochitl, The '^Uistrated, Owen Wallace.. 259 

Nature of the Beast, The, ili d, Juan del Rio 329 

New Mexico Sheep-King, A, illusc ated, C. F. L 197 

One Day at Pacheco's, Idah M. Strobridge, illustrated by 

Alex. F. Harmer loi 

Our Literary Pioneer, illustrated, Chas. F. Lummis 4 

Piute Legend, A,. Idah M. Strobridge 21 

Raisin-Making, illustrated, D. B. Kessler 18 

Revilla-Gigedo, Viceroy, Report on California, 1793, 32, 105 

168, 225, 283 

Salt Lake City,, illustrated, Annie G. Gale 201 

Some Unknown Missions of California, illustrated, Con- 
stance Goddard Du Bois 317 

Summer Dusk (poem), Nora May French 195 

*'Tennessee" and "Partner," illustrated, Ralph K. Bick- 

nell 325 

That which is written (book-reviews by the editor), 46, 117 

178, 237, 294, 350 

War Vie^YS in the Philippines 53, 185 

Yaqui Indians of Sonora, The, illustrated, Verona Gran- 

. ville 84 

Yuccas, The (poem), Robt. Mowry Bell 240 

Zapote Blanco, The, illustrated, Dr, F. Franceschi 199 

Zarate-Salmeron, history of California and New Mexico, 

1538-1626 336 



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(INCORPORATBD) capital stock $50,000. 



The Magazine of California and the West 



EDITED BY CHAS. F. LUMMIS 



The Only Exclusively Western Magazine 



AMONG THE STOCKHOLDERS 

DAVID STARR JORDAN 

President of Stanford University. 
THEODORE H. HITTELL 

The Historian of California. 

MARY HALLOCK FOOTE 

Author of The Led-Horse Claim.,^ic. 

MARGARET COLLIER GRAHAM 
Author of Stories of the Foothills. 

GRACE ELLERY CHANNING 

Author of TTie Sister of a Saint, etc. 

ELLA HIGGINSON 

Author of A Forest Orchid, etc. 

JOHN VANCE CHENEY 

Author of Thistle Drift, etc. 

CHARLES WARREN STODDARD 
The Poet of the South Seas. 

INA COOLBRITH 

Author of Songs f torn the Golden Gate, etc. 

CHAS. EDWIN MARKHAM 

Contributor to Century, Scribner's, 
Atlantic, etc. 

CHAS. FREDERICK HOLDER 

Author of The Life o/ Agassiz, etc. 
GEO. HAMLIN FITCH 

I^iterary Editor S. F. Chronicle. 

CHARLOTTE PERKINS STETSON 

Author of In This Our World. 

ETC., 



AND CONTRIBUTORS ARE: 
JOAQUIN MILLER 
WILLIAM KEITH 

the greatest Western painter. 

DR. WASHINGTON MATTHEWS 

Ex-Prest. American Folk-I,ore Society. 

GEO. PARKER WINSHIP 

The Historian of Coronado's Marches. 

FREDERICK WEBB HODGE 

of the Bureau of Ethnology, Washington. 

CHAS. HOWARD SHINN 

Author of The Story of the Mine, etc. 

T. S. VAN DYKE 

Author of Rod and Gun in California, etc. 

CHAS. A. KEELER 

A Director of the California Academy 
of Sciences. 

LOUISE M. KEELER 
ALEX. F. HARMER 

L. MAYNARD DIXON 

Illustrators. 

CHAS. DWIGHT WILLARD 

CONSTANCE GODDARD DU BOIS 

Author The Shield of the Fleur de Lis. 

BATTERMAN LINDSAY 
ETC. 



CONTENTS FOR JUNE, 1899: 

The Keeper of the Camp Frontispiece 

Leaves from the Popol Vuh, poem, by John Vance Cheney 3 

Our Literary Pioneer, illustrated, by Chas. F. Lummis 4 

Learning Two Hands, illustrated, by Mrs. C. M. Bradfield.... 9 

The Raisin-Making, illustrated, by D. E. Kessler 18 

The Happy Hunting Ground, by Idah M. Strobridge 21 

Italy and "Our Italy," by Grace Ellery Channin^ 25 

The Keeper of the Camp, by EHyn I. Hoflfman 31 

Early California, unpublished documents '■■ 34 

In the Lion's Den (editorial).. 42 

That Which is Written (reviews by the Editor) 46 

The Angle of Reflection (department), by Margaret Collier Graham 50 

Chinatown, illustrated, by Olive Percival 52 

The Land We Love, illustrated 54 

California Babies, illustrated 5" 

Philippine War Pictures 

Terminal Island, illustrated 

Bear Valley, illustrated ,,.., 

Entered at the I^os Angeles Postoffice as second-class matter. 



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Directors: — W. C. Patterson, Pres.; Chas. F. Lummis, Vice-Pres. ; F. A. Pattee, Sec.; H.J. 
Fleishman, Treas,; K. Pryce Mitchell, Auditor; Chas. Cassat Davis, Atty., Cyrus M. Davis. 

Other Stockholders :— Chas. Forman, D. Freeman, F. W. Braun, Jno. F.Francis, E. W. Jones, 
Geo. H. Bonebrake, F. K. Rule, Andrew Mullen, I. B. Newton, S. H. Mott, Alfred P. Griffith, 

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THE KEEPER OF THE CAMP. Drawn by L. Maynard Dixon. 



^ND8 OF THE SUN EXPAND TH ■ SOUL.' 



THE LAND OF 

SUNSHINE 



Vol. 11, No. 1 



LOS ANGELES 



JUNE, 1899. 



Leaves from the Popol-Vuh. 



BY JOHN VANCE CHENEY. 



THE FIRST DAWN. 



He that engenders had called forth the world ; 
The mist, ingathered from the vast of space, 
Together drawn, had fashioned a great face 
Of vale and mountain, tree, and river curled. 
Of all the leaves and flowers was none unfurled, 
No bird had song, no voice the giant race 
Of beasts ; for darkness held her ancient place. 
The day-god's bolt glowed in his hand, unhurled. 
But eastward, now, dream colors, faint and far 
Foretold to those first lives the end of night. 
And from the sea and land all rose as one ; 
The mother-dark, with neither moon nor star. 
Was thick with wild eyes looking for the light. 
And throats of thunder for the coming sun. 

THE DEATH OF THE FATHERS FOUR. 

Strange tremor seized and shook them, hoar and old, 
The Fathers Four, the Sires, of mighty frame ; 
Down on their clear gods'-eyes a dimness came. 
As when the rain-wings on the mountains fold. 
While to their hearts crept up the numbing cold. 
And flickered, as in wind, the spirit's flame. 
Calling their sons and weeping wives by name. 
Thus said they, of all men the font and mold : — 
"Once more the Shadow Chief across the sky 
We follow, with Him who brought us we return ; 
'Twill fall to you as first to us it fell. 
The days and nights come hither, and go by, 
The fire within will sink, no longer burn 
But, as with us, with you it shall be well." 

Newberry Library. Chicago. 

'The folklore of the ancient Central Americans 



Copyright 1899 b/ Land of Sunshine Pub. Co. 



Our Literary Pioneer. 



iY CHAS. F. LUMMIS. 




URIOUSIyY enough, the first man to write 
fiction of the Southwest, the first author (in 
our own speech) to know and love Arizona, 
New Mexico, Texas, Colorado, the Wonder- 
land of the United States, was an English- 
man. And to this day, though we have put- 
graver scholars to that field, no other man- 
has made it so fascinating as this fighting 
bantam Irishman, Capt. Mayne Reid, made it half a century 
ago. 

Furthermore, no other writer was ever so deeply wor- 
shipped by so many young Americans, Since his time, 
the United States alone has produced more brainy people who 
have given their best work to the young, than the whole 
history of mankind held before. There have been in this 
country alone fully fifty writers for youth, better educated and 
of more intellectuality than Mayne Reid. We have had not 
only the Oliver Optic print-factories in literature to reel off 
juvenile calicoes by the yard ; we have had as well the unpre- 
cedented genius of the Jungle Books, the glow of the 7 angle- 
wood Tales, the up-to-date finish of Little Lord Fauntleroy, 
and hundreds of other juveniles really good. Yet the striking 
fact remains that none of them ever had such an audience, in 
numbers or in partisanship, as Mayne Reid had. Nor have 
any others so well deserved it. Boys who were boys thirty- 
five or forty years ago know that. If the boys of today know 
less of Mayne Reid — why, so much the worse for them ! 

There is no dark secret about his power. It was not luck. 
He had red blood ; he cared for the things young natures care 
for — or generous natures of any age — and he knew what he 
was talking about. ''Adventure" to him was not a cos- 
tumer's stock in trade, but a fact. His life held more of ro- 
mance and adventure, probably, than the lives of all the popu- 
lar authors of today put together. In other words, he knew 
more of life. 

It is a fact strange but true that no naturalist, geographer, 
philosopher, historian who has written of this field has better 
stood the test of fifty years. To this day no one has ever been 
able to pick a serious flaw in Mayne Reid's history, geogra- 
phy, ethnology, zoology — in fact his local color. How remark- 
able is this record can be realized only by those who seriously 
know what in the same period has befallen Prescott — as much 
greater student and writer as the sun is more than sixpence. 
But the field man lasts, the closet man did not. 

This small but lion-hearted soldier of fortune — if wp can 




OUR LITERARY PIONEER. 5 

apply the term to one who soldiered not for fortune but for 
fun and generosity — was the very first man who taught Amer- 
icans the charm of the American West ; and to this day his 




peer has not arisen. I do not mean for technical skill — we are 
infested with "better artists." But we have not yet had one 
who knew the land so well and loved it so deeply and could 



LAND OF SUNSHINE. 




L. A Eng. Co 
CAPT. MAYNE REID'S " HACIENDA," AT GERRARD'S CROSS, BUCKS. 

make his love so contagious. A too fluent writer and one too 
hasty for finish, he was a marvelously clear observer, a true 
lover of nature, and a companion whose enthusiasm pardoned 
his talkativeness. His adult novels are too sensational for our 
taste nowadays, though equally true to life; but his "boy's 
novels ' ' are the wholesomest thing a wholesome boj'- can be 
inspired withal. They teach love of nature as no others do ; 
they are clean and manful, and so exciting that no sane boy 
alive can fail to kindle to them. The Boy Hunters, and The 
Young Voyageurs, The Plant- Hunters, and The Cliff- Climber s. 
The Bush Boys and The Young Yagers, 7 he Desert Home — if 
these are not in your bones, more vital still than anything that 
far greater writers can give you nowadays, why, you missed 
half the fun of being a boy, that's all. And with half the fun, 
considerable of the profit. A really wise parent will give his 
boys all these books. 

Mayne Reid was born in the North of Ireland in 1818. His 
father, a Presbyterian clergyman, designed his son for the min- 
istry ; but the boy had another pulse. He graduated from 
college to — the wilderness. At twenty-two he landed in New 
Orleans ; and was disgusted to find his learning a scant equip- 
ment for life. He got a place as " store -keeper " on an old 
Louisiana plantation — and material for stirring and true tales 
of the palmy slave days. He tutored and taught school. Then 



OUR LITERARY PIONEER. 






-WAA* 




^'^ '^. vitov.vm^'l 



8 LAND OF SUNSHINE. 

he went trading, trapping and hunting into what was the 
Great American Desert, and wandered over it for five years. 
He went with pioneer frontiersmen ; he lived with Indians, 
learning their tongue and feeding full on that life of war and 
wild hunting. Then he drifted to Cincinnati and joined a 
company of strolling actors : and at last fetched up in Phila- 
delphia — then the literary heart of the country — and began to 
make a living by poetry and kindred writing. He was an in- 
timate friend of Poe, and has left us a " defense " which is in 
itself enough to convince one in the teeth of all the currish 
packs that have barked at that strangely abused genius. 
When the Mexican war came Reid got a commission in the 
first volunteer regiment raised in New York. He was to the 
fiercest battle of that war (the storming of Chapultepec) pre- 
cisely what Roosevelt was at San Juan, or Funston in Calumpit 
— the typical hero, the daredevil who was first. Gen. Scott 
praised him in general orders for conspicuous gallantry, and 
his fame was as full and as generous throughout all the army. 
On that bristling rock he fell with a wound from which he 
never really recovered. 

Settling to a literary life in New York, he broke out again 
when Hungary's vain struggle for freedom so stirred our fath- 
ers; and sailed at once to offer his sword. The " rebellion " 
was crushed, and Reid had no more chance to fight for the lib- 
erty of others ; but he became the life-long and intimate friend 
of Kossuth. He sat down in England and began to write the 
romances which have given him fame. His first was Tke 
RiHe Rangers^ written at Don Piatt's house in Ohio directly 
upon his return from the Mexican war (1848) and published 
in London in 1850. It was an instant success. The Scalp 
Hunters soon followed from the press, and made his place se- 
cure. His first boy's book was The Desert Home (1851) less 
noted than Robinson Crusoe, but tenfold truer to life. Thence 
forward for a third of a century his books poured forth in an 
impetuous flood. Out of fifty volumes from his pen, doubtless 
one-half will live. 

In 1867 the impulsive Irishman returned to this country, 
which never ceased to be his love, and made his home in New 
York and Newport. He was perhaps the first author to get 
big prices in the United States. Frank Leslie's paid him $8000 
for the serial rights of The Child Wife ; The Fireside Compan- 
ion $5000 for The Finger of Fate — one of the most worthless 
of his tales. In 1868 he started a juvenile magazine of his 
own in New York called Onward, In fourteen months his 
health broke down, and the magazine died. In 1870 he re- 
turned to England, and never saw America again. Writing 
and by turns suffering from the old wound received on Chapul- 
tepec, he rounded out a life simple as a child's, brave as any 



LEARNING TWO HANDS. 9 

hero's. And he never forgot the land he fought for and in a 
way discovered. He died October 22, 1883. Less than five 
months before his death, he wrote to a friend in this country : 
*' America is indeed the land of novelties, as it is that of my 
love and longings ; and you are to be envied — perhaps you 
know not how much — for being able to claim it as your home. 
I only wish — fervently wish — I could say the same for my- 
self ; but, alas ! my disabled state may hinder me from ever 
again seeing that far, fair land of the West, so endeared to me 
by early recollections." 



Learning Two Hands. 

BY MRS. C. M. BRADFIELD * 

HERE is at least an effort to teach some 
American boys and girls two hands; and 
in the public schools of the city of Los 
Angeles the children are learning. Ambi- 
dexter drawing is taught now in all grades, 
and with gratifying success. 

The value of freehand drawing can h, rdly 
be overestimated. It brings, eye, mind and 
hand into intimate relations, and teaches attention, flexibility 
and accuracy to all three. It develops the sense of form and 
proportion, enforces observation, demands correct translation 
by the hand of that which eye and mind have formulated. 

Drawing with both hands, at the early age wherein eyes, 
mind and hands are most susceptible of training, unquestion- 





C. M. Davis Eng. Co. PAPKR MODELING, 1ST GRADE. 

•Supervisor of Drawing. Los Angeles City Schools. 
From photos, by Mr. Griffltb, of the Union ave. School. 



LEARNING TWO HANDS 



J5 




ably gives a more rounded 
development. It proves to be 
as easy to train both hands as 
to train one. Indeed, with 
proper direction, ambidexter 
drawing can be done without 
consciousness of the hands at 
all. Distance and direction, 
the two lundamenlal ideas of 
geometry, and the base of size 
and form, are first taught. 
Direction is the foundation of 
all design ; since it is the 
shape of things, not their size, 
which determines their rank 
in beauty. The methods of 
teaching direction are some- 
what indicated by the accom- 
panying photographs, show- 
ing point and straight line 
figures and figures enclosed in 
squares. Then follow circles, 
spirals and curves of all kinds, 
as units of design. 

These and object drawing 
(always using both hands) fas- 
cinate almost any normal child, 
and the ease of accomplish- 
ment is enough to prove that 
nature meant us to use both 
hands with equal facility. 

Another great aid to ambi- 
dexterity is paper modeling, 
also taught in these schools. 
It employs both hands at the 
same time, as hardly any 
other form of manual training 
does. In this course we begin 
with the geometrical solids ; 
the cube first, as it is simplest. 
The child draws the pattern of 
a cube, develops the surface, 
cuts it out, folds and pastes it. 
From this, by degrees, he goes 
on to make all kinds of prisms, 
cones, pyramids, cylinders, 
octahedrons, dodecahedrons 
and the like, and objects based 
upon these forms. Nearly all 



LEARNING TWO HANDS. 



17 



nil 


IM 


■i ■:i# 


f'juiai 


■ 






i 


: 1 


i ^' 

fk 





Davis Eug. C'< 



PAPER MODELS MADE BY SCHOOL CHILDREN. 



forms, in nature and in art, can be referred to geometry, and 
often the easiest way to teach children to draw a leaf or flower 
is to show them what geometric form it most nearly approaches. 
There is practically no end to the objects that can be made 
in paper modelling, and the training is admirable. The pat- 
terns must be drawn and cut out with great exactness, else 
they will not fold properly. Well made, they are used as ob- 
jects for freehand drawing and for working drawings. So, in 
this course of paper modeling, the child learns to draw pat- 
terns and working models, to draw to scale, to cut, fold and 
paste, and acquires some practical knowledge of solid geometry. 
As the illustrations evidence, this most exact and pleasant 
form of manual training can be taught in all grades by the 
class teacher, with no more expense than that for paper, paste 
and scissors. Whatever is to be his walk in life, the child who 
has this ambidexter training has a better start than the child 
without it. There is no vocation wherein it is not " better to 
have two hands than a hand and a half;" no circumstance in 
which it is not of value to have had eye, hand, observation, 
judgment and will trained to accuracy and firmness, as these 
exercises train them. 



i8 

The Raisin-Making. 



BY D. E. KESSLER. 



^C^i^HE raisiu-making in a Southern California grape-growing sec- 
N^l ^ lion is the culmination of the whole year. Through the swift 
JL march of golden days about the circuit of the almanac the fruit 
rancher guides, aids and watches the vines. When the last brown 
leaves have fallen in sunny December the process of pruning begins. 
Denuded of its foliage the many arms of the vine sprawl from a central 
stump over the ground, in crude resemblance to some uncouth sea deni- 
zen. With pruning shears and saw the rancher removes the tentacle- 
like branches, leaving from ten inches to a foot and a half of knobby 
stump (according to the age of the vine and mode of pruning) rising 
from the broken surface of the ground. The acres of pruned vineyard 
present rather the appearance of acres of knotted sticks set twelve feet 
apart in rows of mathematical exactness. A man can ordinarily prune 
an acre a day. 

Then come the winter rains ; a week of sunshine, then a day or two 
of uncertain weather opening with a sharp drive of pelting raindrops ; 
the chasing, frolicking clouds letting a patch of sunshine through on 
distant hill or adjacent field. It spreads, narrows, and may enwrap you 
for a moment in a yellow warmth, and then is blotted out bj'^ a low, 
scudding cloud. 

This for a day — rain in patches, in flurries, in mists, in a soft, settling 
fineness that will hardly keep you in doors, with singing birds and nod- 
ding, beckoning flowers without. Then perhaps for a night a settled 
downpour, swishing and singing round the corners, running in rivulets 
through the groves and vineyards. Following this, another week or so 
of warm, clear brightness that dries upon the soaked soil a hard crust, 
and coaxes the germs of wild flowers up and over every spot in beds of 
bloom, tinting the hills, the roadside, the vineyards in rainbow hues. 
But these fragile beauties of exquisite daintiness are weeds, and out 
comes the cultivator. Up and down the long rows brown furrows cut 
through masses of pink, lavender and the gold of poppies, until all is 
again a chocolate stretch of powdered soil. This also prevents the 
baking, so that the next rain will soak into the earth and not run of Hhe 
hard surface into useless guUeys. This process is continued after every 
rain until the month of May, when the rainy season is practically over. 
Hoeing and suckering are then to be done. 

The brightness of wild verdure fades gently into soft tans and^browns, 
the deciduous trees don the mantle of green, and the dreamy, sunlit 
summer broods over the land, the days like jewels slipping through her 
hands, an unvarying chain, soft, warm and opalescent. 

Then in September when the days are mellowest, the sky is deepest, 
the leaves are rustling ripely, and the amber bunches of the muscatel 
hang heavy and rich from the bending, creeping branches ; when culti- 
vation has long ceased and the reaching vines meet and twist in a tangle 
across the aisles — then the raisin-making begins. 

Into the section from all directions come men, singly, by twos and 
threes, or in gangs, whites, Mexicans, Indians ; men of many nation- 
alities and walks of life. On all the ranches preparation is active. At 
the larger ones where the acres are numbered by hundreds, and the dried 
product is graded and packed upon the ranch, the machinery is being 
overhauled, busy hammers are nailing together the boxes for the pack- 
ing, tents are erected along the roadsides ; and everywhere wagon-loads 
of trays are being distributed down the long aisles between the rows of 
vines. 

One morning you arise to find a camp of Mexicans at your gate. In 
the early light they file past the house, a swathy, undersized race with 
glittering eyes and soft, voluble utterance. Later, when the "high 



THE RAISIN-MAKING. 



19 




^yvr - «" - "' 




20 LAND OF SUNSHINE. 

fog " has dissolved save for some clinging whisps and fragments caught 
like down upon the rockj^^ hillsides, you go down into the vineyard. The 
gang moves in a bunch, clipping oiF the translucent clusters of Musca- 
tels, arranging them upon the trays to shrink and shrivel under the rays 
of the sun into the concentrated delicacy we know. Behind them the 
lines of trays lie, a basking array of shimmering fruit, and someone in- 
terested is shoving the clusters together, that the tray shall be honestly 
filled, for the workers are paid by the tray. 

On your return you perhaps plod through a few acres of orange grove 
— for a fruit ranch is seldom exclusively vineyard — and visit the camp 
under the cypress along the road. A few Mexican women are busy pre- 
paring the noonday meal, chopping huge joints apart with an axe, 
stirring the gypsy kettle resting upon stones over an open fire, jerking 
scrambling youngsters from under the feet of the horses and mules 
staked the other vside of the road. You may hold a limited conversation 
with one of the younger women as she sits combing her hair — the princi- 
pal amusement of the Indian and Mexican women — the older ones 
would not understand should you speak to them. 

After two weeks' exposure to the dry heat the filled trays are ready to 
be turned so that the grape may be cured evenly. This is accomplished 
by two men, one on either side, placing an empty tray over the full one, 
dexterously reversing it, then, carrying the upper one with them, repeat- 
ing the process on down the row. It is at this stage in the curing that 
the grape is most delectable. 

The amber is changing through ruddy stages to amethyst, and the 
sun-warmed balls are drops of honey — double-distilled, so sweet they 
make you long with a great thirst for the red water-tank shimmering in 
the sunlight forty acres away ; but you must eat and eat, and go on eat- 
ing even while your palate is cloying with the sweetness. 

In another week the dried grapes are ready for the sweat boxes. These 
wide, open boxes contain from 150 to 160 pounds, and as the raisins be- 
come sufficiently cured they are sorted from the others and placed there- 
in, the large, perfect clusters and the inferior, broken pieces in separate 
boxes. These are usually carried to a sweating-house, a closed structure, 
in which they soften and moisten evenly, the drying having made the 
stems exceedingly brittle ; or simply stacked in one corner of the pack- 
ing-house to await the grading and packing. 

At this season of the year rain is possible, and one of the unpleasant 
features of the business is a midnight turning out of all hands to stack 
the trays, with imminent showers overhead, and perhaps a thorough 
drenching before the finishing. This also involves the extra labor of a 
respreading of trays when the sun again comes forth. 

There is after the first gathering always a second crop which was too 
green for curing at the time of the first. This is usually made into wine 
or vinegar, or left hanging on the vines. At the time of its ripening the 
sun's heat is not sufficient to transform it into raisins. 

Every ranch of any considerable size has its own packing-house and 
grading machinery, but there are several such institutions in the section 
to which smaller landowners take their product. The raisins destined to 
be "loose muscatels" go first through the stemmer, a machine in which 
the stems, bits of leaves, etc. , are separated from the fruit ; then the 
grader swallows them, and shaking and bobbing through successive 
sieves they finally emerge in neatly assorted heaps as seedless, two, 
three, and four crown loose muscatels. Thence they are boxed and la- 
beled, ready for shipment. 

The layers pass into the nimble fingers of a room full of girls, who se- 
lect, snip imperfect raisins and superfluous stems from the bunches, and 
arrange them in forms holding five pounds. Four of these are a series 
filling a twenty-pound box, the first three simply wrapped in white or 
blue paper ; the top, the most carefully arranged, folded in a wrapper, 



THE HAPPY HUNTING GROUND. 21 

resplendent with pictures, and bearing the brand of the raisin. The four 
are successively pressed by machinery into the box, which is then vari- 
ously labeled Layers, lyondon Layers, Clusters, Two or Three Crown 
Layers, as the case may be, and stacked away awaiting the final venture 
so vital to the rancher, the shipping into the land of the commission 
man, the wholesaler, the retailer and the consumer. 

The characteristic scenes, accompaniments of the season, are novel and 
interesting to the new comer. Driving down a palm-bordered road 
with limitiess stretches of green bushes on either hand, knots _ f blue- 
clad men stooping and rising from the billowy mass, the faint sound of 
their voices, and occasional bird-pipe breaking through the sunlit silence 
of the pure, raisin-scented air, you stop before a cluster of packing- 
houses at a cross road, where the rumble and crash of machinery and 
busy pufif of engine rise in a cheerful din. 

Across the road under the drooping, berry-hung pepper branches some 
Indian women sit before their very primitive camp, combing their hair, 
and perhaps a few unemployed men are gambling absorbedly near them. 
You enter the packing-room and watch the deftly-working girls at the 
long tables, an impression of tanned faces, bright eyes and nimble ton- 
gues, with a sweet heavy odor of raisins greeting you. There will be a 
sprinkling of Mexican girls, but the majority are daughters of the sec- 
tion, Americans, friends and neighbors. 

At the end of the season the floating population, principally Mexican 
and Indian, have a ball and general **good time." This will end in 
more or less drinking, some "cutting" and a dispersing until the next 
September. The residents breathe a sigh of relief when the demonstra- 
tion is past, and Nature and people relapse into the quiet even tenor of 
their ways. 

El C»}on, Cal. 



' The Happy Hunting Ground. 

A PIUTE DOCTRINE. 

BY IDAH MBACHAM STROBRrDCE. 

\ @\HERE Piutey go when them git dead ? I no know. I 
\]\/ never see. I just hear somebody talk ; tell um what 
* * kind 'nother place he go bime by when he heap git 
die. That's all. I never not see that place. Who tell um 
me ? Oh, that dead men sometimes he come back, he talk. 
Him come in the night ; in night time him come. That's way 
he do. Just night. 

Well, this way : over there pretty far up in sky somewhere 
— pretty long far — is big country. Heap good country. Lots 
rivers. River all got um fish. All kind Piutey fish. Trout 
— chub ; that kind. No got carp. Piutey no like um that 
kind. No got um that kind in that 'nother country. I^ots 
creeks ; lots rivers. High mountain ; good many big — high ! 
Plenty deer — antelope — mountain sheep. Lots. Lots rabbits 
too. Good place for hunt ; can hunt all time, never no kill um 
all, everything. 

Lots grass, tules ; trees ; all that kind thing. Lots good 
flowers. No got ranch there that white man ; no white men 
come that place. No fence ; no house ; no that way. Just 



22 LAND OF SUNSHINE. 

good country, that'vS all. No alkali flats ; no got nothin' bad. 
Just good all time ; just good thing. 

Nobody fight ; men lie no never die. No never lie — steal — 
no git mad. Men he no git drunk ; no git tired. Him never 
work ; never. Just smoke — catch um fish — plenty dance — 
shoot um deer ; that 's all, you know. Sometimes have big 
hunt ; heap big hunt ; sometimes have heap big dance. Git 
um pine nuts up in mountain. 

When Piutey die he git go that country pretty quick. 'Bout 
one night, all 'lone, he go. He fly, go there. He git that 
country he quit fly, he walk ; just walk then. Clothes? No, 
he no take clothes when he leave here — just take hat, that 's 
all. May be. 

Over there that country he wear buckskin clothes ; wimin 
too wear um. Plenty beads ; moccasins too. Got um good 
moccasin. All men — all that wimin wear hair heap long. All 
um got long hair. Everybody he paint um face. Chief, them 
got some feather in hair. No got hat, them chief. Chiefs 
them got more better things than other Piutey. Them got 
um four — may be five wives. 'Nother Piutey got just one 
wife ; that's all. 

When die — when go to that country — everybody git be 
young men, young wimin again. Everybody young man ; 
everybody young wimin. Everybody, he young. How that 
way ? I no know. Just that way ; that what I think. Maybe 
old men he die here ; he git go that 'nother country, quick — 
heap quick — right away he git to be young man again. That 's 
good, I think. Never git tired. Boy — girl — little papoose, 
he die here this country, he git go that other place 1 e big men 
— big wimin right away pretty quick. He never stay children 
that place. No children there. No grow slow like here. No 
that way. Grow git big one day. One. day he git big wimin 
— big men when he die. Children he die — old men he die, 
just same ; when he git go that country he be young men — 
young wimin. Never no old men — no children live there. 
Just be young all time ; all time he young. That 's way he 
do, stay young all time. 

Never go 'way ; just live there all time. All time. All 
time. You sade that ? Not same like here. Never die. That 
place he never git die ; he never quit, never, I no know how 
he fix um that way never quit. He just do that way ; never 
no more die. 

Men go that pretty far country he find um all family pretty 
quick. Father, mother, children, all um he find um. He find 
um there right away. Got um camp all together just same 
like here. 

Got one big boss that country. I guess he that same old 
man I tell you 'bout. The old man first he father everybody 



THE HAPPY HUNTING GROUND. 23 

b'long Piutey and Bannock. Him big boss. Big chief. Him 
take care all them Injins. 

That country b'long to all kind Injins? No ; that just for 
Piutey — for just Bannock — some Shoshone, may be. Piutey 
let them Shoshone stay there. All other kind Injin — all white 
men stay outside that country. They live far over by the 
edge of that place. No can come inside that good country in 
where Piutey and Bannock live. 

White men live close ? Yas. That what I think. That 
what other Piutey tell um me. White men no live inside; just 
out by the edge. I guess so. You sabe this ? White men 
may be he die ; he got git go somewhere. Where he go ? I 
think he go that same place by the outside. Not inside where 
Piutey stay ; not there — just outside. Rabbit — horse — deer — 
everything he git go somewhere when he die. Him all go to 
that other country I guess. I just think so. Piutey live In- 
side by middle that place. Deer — horse — rabbit — Bannock 
Injin too ; may be some Shoshone live inside. All um other 
kind — 'nother kind Injin, white men all live just by outside. 

That good place. Heap good. You bet ! Everything git 
new all time. Nothin' never git be old. Everything plenty ; 
plenty everything all time. Everybody got good horse. Heap 
good ; gentle. Horse that kind run fast; no buck. 

No, no use um money that place. Nobody come find um 
gold rocks in mountain. Not that way do there. That way 
no good. Nobody rich that country — nobody that countr3' be 
poor. Just got 'nough ; that 's all. Just got 'nough. No 
work ; just have good time. Everybody got just same kind 
everything. May be chief got some little more ; just chief. 
That 's way do that place. 

All um live in wick-ee-up same like here. All um use bow 
— arrow ; just same like long time ago. No use um gun no 
more. Never. 

Piutey over by inside that country he git white skin all time. 
Just same like white men. That 's way he look when he git 
die. 

Wear um clothes white men kind there ? May be some he 
do that way. Not all. Some he do. Some he no wear um. 
Do just what way he like when he go there. That 's way he 
do. 

May be Injin live pretty close by that edge where white 
men live, he wear um that kind clothes. May be he live in 
middle that good place where all um Piutey live, there that 
place he no wear um. That 's way, I think. Out edge that 
place close by white men, there find um knife — pan — clothes — 
plenty thing, all same white men make um. 'Nother Piutey 
no use um. 'Nother Piutey just got um buckskin clothes — 
beads — that kind things; all same Injin make um. 



24 LAND OF SUNSHINE. 

Never eat white men grub, same way like lie do here. Never. 
Just eat Injin grub. That 's way he do when die. 

Got um all summer — all same winter ? You bet ! Just same 
kind like here. Winter, summer ; day, night. All same. 

How I know that way ? My father tell um me. Who tell 
um my father ? Oh, I guess grandfather. How he know ? 
I no know. I just think this way ; dead men — dead wimin 
come back when dark, tell um 'bout that kind place. No, I 
never see dead men come talk. I never see. Plenty old men 
see ; plenty old men tell um me. Dead men sometimes come 
when dark ; come talk that kind. He come just when night ; 
never come when day. Just come look 'round, see how this 
country look. He no stay here. Just dark night he come ; 
go back pretty quick. 

No, he no like this country no more when he git die. That 
'nother kind place more better. Heap good. By that 'nother 
country everybody go bime by. Everybody stay there then. 
This place burn up when everybody git go 'way. That 's 
what I think. Everybody git go to that 'nother country, stay 
all time. Stay there live all time. Never git die. Never. 
All time stay there. That 's what I think. Old men tell um 
me that way. 

Hamboldt, Nevada. 




Italy and Our Italy. 

BY GRACE ELLERY CHANNING. 

^QHE patriotic American feels an instinctive aversion 
~ for the voluntarily expatriated /.merican, and as a 
class the expatriated justifies hi- countryman's con- 
tempt. Where he has sought Europe only as an 
exemption from home cares and burdens and re- 
mains to turn life into a lazy holiday, he commonly 
becomes, as one of the "American colony" that 
infests the larger European cities, a thing to be 
avoided like the cholera ; like the cholera, too, a 
thing his country can spare. 
These, however, are the loafers ; there is another class — students and 
workers — who fall equally under the spell of European life. Whether 
these linger under that spell fighting with tender consciences or come 
home to fight it out with harsh circumstance, they are equally doomed 
to homesickness — over there for the home ; over here for the life. 

To those who have known only our East, with its impossible climate, 
its conventions born of a life rigidly circumscribed by nature and as 
rigidly reacting upon the intellectual and moral atmosphere, Europe 
must ever remain the worker's playground — that is to say the place 
where he can work. But to those of us who have been born to, achieved 
or had thrust upon us by accident of illness the pleasure-ground and 
garden of the world, it is a miserable, and seems at first an indefensible, 
thing to be forever gazing •' with reverted eyes" toward the unhopeful 
lands of an elder day. 

Why is it that we do ? And need we ? 

Two things draw the student and worker irresistibly to Europe : the 



ITALY AND "OUR ITALY." 25 

economy of life, the pleasure of life ; economy of life in its larger sense, 
pleasure of life in its deepest. 

What Europe is to the wealthy tourist and millionaire is of no conse- 
quence. They may find it pleasant ; they certainly do not find it cheap. 
But the millionaire and the wealthy tourist are inconsiderable factors in 
the sum of life ; they construct for themselves exceptional conditions 
wherever they go, and with these we have nothing to do until we — for 
our sins — become millionaires or wealthy tourists ourselves. The mass 
— even of travelling mankind — is still neither the one nor the other. I 
do not think even the resident finds Europe cheap ; for he is taxed out 
of his peace of mind as well as his income, his last earthly possession, 
and even his salt, and sometimes they tax his taxes. Why then is it so 
cheap, so desirable, so beguiling for the worker in a score of lines, so 
restful for the tired in any ? 

Dr. Weir Mitchell, in *' Wear and Tear," notes the fact that the brain 
worker accomplishes more with less expenditure in Europe than in 
America, and any student will tell you the same of his own experience. 
" I accomplish so much more abroad!" "It is so much easier to work 
over there !" Dr. Mitchell, not unnaturally, from the standpoint of the 
Eastern States, concludes that the difference is climatic ; but we who 
have tried the West must admit, if honest, that there is still a balance 
in favor of Europe, and we know it is not climatic ! 

What is it? 

It is because of the stupidity of our manner of life, mainly. Leaving 
aside the obvious aids to special work, in the presence of great libraries, 
schools of scientific research and training for the special student ; in the 
facilities for the study of the Arts, wherein we mutt continue to be at a 
disadvantage for a period of growth ; leaving out all that is inimitable, 
the monuments of art, the vast collections, the great galleries, and (what 
follows as a corollary) the trained public which is in itself an education 
to the student, there remains a whole field of stupid differences which 
we are wilfully fostering and increasing, to our unmeasured loss and 
injury. 

For it is not only the student ; him we might cheerfully allow to go 
abroad for the special course the ages have been preparing for him ; it is 
the worker of limited purse, but not unlimited strength or time, seeing 
that he can count on but one lifetime on the planet, who after wrestling 
fiercely or doggedly with conditions here, sooner or later finds himself 
sighing for a few years of European life to work in. 

We do not, after all, spend the major part of our lives, even in Europe, 
in galleries or libraries or in contemplating " monuments ;" it is not 
these things which make life abroad so fascinating, potent though they 
are ; it is largely the absence of the tyranny of things, that is to say, the 
cheapness and the ease of living. This, and the outdoor life. 

That any dweller in Southern California should have to look wistfully 
back to Europe for an out-door life ! 

Leaving aside, so far as it is possible to disentangle such interwoven 
elements, the ease and the cheapness, let us consider this one question 
of the out-of-doorness of Europe compared with this land of out-of- 
doors ! 

Italy is the country most nearly resembling " Our Italy " — with the 
possible exception of Spain. Tuscany is very like Southern California ; 
the Val d'Arno very like the San Gabriel Valley ; but shall we say that 
Florence is very like Los Angeles ? Yet, associations aside — Los An- 
geles ought to be more beautiful than Florence ; Nature is on her side. 
And Los Angeles has her Past, to which she owes most of the beauty 
and charm she does possess. 

But consider Los Angeles — the " Electric City" — from the out-door 
point of view. Noble parks we are making — it is perhaps the best we 
are making — but for practical purposes the little Plaza in the heart of 



26 LAND OF SUNSHINE. 

the city is worth them all, and the Plaza is a legacy from the Spaniard. 
No provision for out-door life is complete which does not provide for it 
on the spot, in the heart of the busy places. Little gardens, into which 
the man or woman with half an hour to waste (or save) may drop, 
fulfil a need no distant park, however splendid or beautiful, can meet. 
To the one he may make an excursion twice or thrice a year ; the other 
he has joy of daily, whether he rests there or merely passes it in his 
frenzied American hurry to get somewhere. 

There is no European city, town or village so poor but it has its pub- 
lic squares, its little parks as well as its great ones, its promenades, its 
bands, its caf^s, beer-gardens, music halls — centers, all of them, of social 
life which every tourist enters into delightedly over there. And with 
reason. It is not the people we know who minister most to us ; it is 
also the people we do not know, need not know, would not know if we 
could ; it is the spectacle of mankind, at which we are spectators. 
Thinkers, students, artists, have always therefore loved the city streets 
when no better might be. For this reason Victor Hugo rode his Paris 
omnibus, and one might still see — till recently — the solitary Ibsen at 
the same table of the same caf6 every day, at the same hour, drinking 
his coffee and casting over the top of his paper shrewd glances at the 
students, professors, foreigners — the learned and the unlearned — about 
him. 

Abroad, the business-man, the professor, the student, the house- 
mother, the artist, all drop into the garden or out-door cafe in the after- 
noon, and their band plays, or they play billiards; or they talk and visit; 
or they watch and rest. True, the great gallery and the library are open 
also ; but you will find your distinguished artist and your eminent 
writer in neither. He has worked in his shop all the morning ; he is 
playing now. And he has so many choices of places to play in ! 

Here, if we are in search of diversion we have a choice of shopping 
or putting on our best bonnets and gloves and "calling " on our ac- 
quaintance. Indoor sport, for those who have a taste for it ! If we 
bicycle, we may indeed spin into the country, and life is by so much 
the more rich since the wheel was invented ; but there are times when 
the tired brain is more refreshed by a change of thought than by even 
a change of scene. 

We have no simple pleasures. Individually, w*. may have, but collec- 
tively we have not. The American is socially timid. He will get dol- 
lars' worth of pleasure for his franc in some simple pleasure abroad, but 
over here he dare not go where he is not sure his world goes. Therefore 
his world never does go. 

And with what have we replaced the bier-gar ten and caf^, the open-air 
concert and promenade of other lands? In the most out-of-door climate 
in the world, what form of social enjoyment has the genius of the 
Anglo-Saxon wrought out for himself? The social columns reply : the 
after-noon ** Tea " and card-party ! The flower of Southern Californian 
society gets together to gamble for cut-glass bon-bon dishes and hand- 
painted ash-trays — not now and again, but every day in the week, and 
month after month. 

"I suppose " said a wondering visitor from the Kast, ** it is a survival 
of the early gambling days and mining camps." 

Unluckily, the gamblers are from the Kast. 

In addition there exist sundry clubs for the study of Ruskin, Brown- 
ing, Bmerson, Shakespeare— that is to say, all the out-door poets and 
philosophers. Indoors we read of the " wise thrush who sings his song 
twice over " and all the ** banks where the wild thyme grows," while 
on our wide mesas the larks are singing unheard, and on our arroyo 
banks the yellow violets " take the winds of March with beauty." 
The whole intelligence of our imported population has arrived at 
nothing more original, suitable and fit than the importation of their 



ITALY AND "OUR ITALY." 27 

winter-bound and frost-nipped pleasures too ; the pinchbeck of pale 
Eastern gold — the echo of Eastern society without the special culture, 
fruit of its special conditions, which made that tolerable. 

These deplorable social conditions are written so that he who wheels 
may read, in the large print of architecture. For the old Spanish ranch 
house, with its patio and cloistered porches for the family life, what do 
we find? "Suburban" residences; sea-side cottages twenty-five miles 
from the sea, roofs for shedding snow under the orange trees, the houses 
of the arctic East transplanted bodily to a semi-tropical climate. Or we 
find the faithful effort of an architect with a conscience — a Moorish or 
Spanish model answering to the skies and air of an answering land — 
planted squarely on an Eastern lawn, separated from the public street by 
an inch of "coping" and from the neighbors by nothing. Homes, that 
is to say, in which the only possible home-like is within the walls ; the 
only possible family-life as much doomed to indoorness by the inexora- 
ble architectural fact as by the Eastern fact of climate. 

No English seclusion of stone- wall, even, or tree-y park ; no Italian 
bosky thicket or terraced garden with paths for love to wander in, and 
sweet sunny spaces for little children to grow happy in ; no nooks for the 
student, vistas for the artist, withdrawn places where the tired may relax 
or the busy labor, within the sane influences of sun and air. 

For what then, in the name of reason, do our people forsake the East 
with all that the young West cannot yet have, if not for the things which 
she has and the East can never know ? 

Did we conquer the Spaniard and cannot even reap our fruit of con- 
quest ? Are we ourselves to be conquered by our own traditions — a sight 
for all the world to wonder at and laugh ? Those of us who had the 
good fortune to " come out," as we involuntarily say, even fifteen years 
ago remember the gracious traces of that elder day we supplanted, and 
watch with a contempt which it is not even a courteous duty to veil, the 
travesty of social life which has supplanted that. We feel a certain 
scorn, however pitiful, for the nouveau riche hanging his costly house 
with chromos and lining his library bookshelves with false bindings ; is 
it any less an advertisement of one's ignorance or scant culture when as 
the nouveau riche in climate we mistake the semi-tropical for the frigid 
and hang upon it the unbefitting, valueless architecture and entertain- 
ment, costume and custom of alien climes ? 

No peasant in Europe would err so grossly. Dwellers in the close 
cities must depend much upon their public squares, gardens and promen- 
ades, but they will have outdoor life, every available inch of it. The 
caf^ lines the sidewalk, and the populace steps cheerfully around it ; the 
poorest worker draws his work to the doorsill. 

Besides all this provision, in Italy, for public outdoor life, there exists 
everywhere the provision for outdoor life in seclusion. It is not only 
the great villas and palaces which have their wall-surrounded, terraced 
and fountained gardens, with stone seats and tables, where the after- 
dinner coffee is served as a matter of course and common sense, when- 
ever the sunset or moon rise most invite ; it is the tiniest, squalidest 
home which may possess its paradise too. 

Enter the narrow dwelling of the fisherman or straw-worker — the poor- 
est of the poor — follow the bare passage to the end, and nine times out 
of a Tuscan ten you will emerge in an enchanting garden, walled in, 
with its tiny, trellised arbour, its tree or two, its flowers and seats ; and 
here the family washing, the family eating, the family industry go on — 
spinning, sewing, net-making, straw- making— whatever may be the 
form of industry by which the poorest people in the world (next to the 
Irish peasantry) wring their scanty living from the earth — it is carried 
on out of doors. I have often wondered how much this has to do with 
the nature of an Italian, who carries a source of never-failing sunshine 
in his heart and in the depths of his saddened eyes. 



28 LAND OF SUNSHINE. 

The bare houses, without ovens, without closets, without furnaces, 
without bath-tubs, without any modern conveniences — they are not made 
to live in truly ; but the Italian does not expect to live in them. They 
are his occasional shelter merely. 

We claim it as our superiority that we have invented the home ; in a 
sense — and that a noble one — I believe it is true ; but the Latin might 
justly retort that we have made cages of our homes. If within our 
houses the h©me life reaches a higher level of unity and tenderness than 
elsewhere (which at least every American would like to think) it is with 
justice urged that we confine it within those walls. For an American 
family to take an ** outing" is a great event ; and for the circle of which 
the white-haired grandparent is the center and the baby the circumfer- 
ence, one must look in German gartens or Italian and French gardens. 

The climate of Germany does not deter its dwellers ; the tramontana 
of Italy works no ill ; and coming home to our pale-cheeked children, 
faded women and tired men, our furnace-heated houses (for the furnace 
is beginning to decimate Southern California), and closed windows, one 
is made thoughtful. The Italian notoriously dies of consumption, and 
the New Bnglander. But it is the well-fed New Englander in his hot- 
house against the ill-nourished, the well-nigh starved, Italian. 

What ought we to have in Southern California — of all that makes Italy 
a name to conjure by ? Parks, as many and as splendid as we will, but 
also little parks, gardens, coffee -gardens, beer- gardens, concert-gardens, 
and gardens in our homes. Not a mere patch of drenching blue-grass 
over which the hose forever weeps and on which no child may run nor 
elder rest, but real gardens shut in, not inhospitably to the public (for we 
ourselves are the public) but modestly, as we shut in our sleeping-rooms for 
privacy and seclusion, and no one quarrels with us therefore. We have 
as much right — the poorest and the richest of us — to our bit of out-door 
home as our bit of in-door home. Finally, let us have our out-door pub- 
lic home, too ; not alone the Club (though there is nothing against that), 
but the out-door pleasure for all ; the out-door concert of the best, and 
the out-door cafe and garden — for eating and drinking are social in- 
stincts. An Italian will spend two hours over his modest glass of red 
wine, a German over his cup of coffee or stein of beer ; it is reserved for 
the Englishman and American "swilling" his mixed drinks to make a 
" Temperance" object-lesson of the street. 

In equipages and liveries there is no Eastern city but can outdo us ; 
even the flare of costumes (made by Eastern dressmakers for Eastern 
climates, commonly) is cheaply over-matched in Chicago or any other 
town ; but what an unmatched pageant of life there might be here, 
would man (and woman) but fit himself or herself ever so little to the 
environment! Every other animal is modified by his environment ; only 
man cherishes the hope of modifying his himself, and "right now," 
while he is waiting, or without waiting. 

When one thinks of the beauty of shade and sun, of garden and 
grove, of park aad drive and promenade, possible, one anticipates the 
recording angel's tears. Time was when a suburb of Los Angeles, then 
unknown as it is now famous, was one great garden in itself ; when the 
avenues of shade, orchards of splendid fruit and bloom, the rose gardens 
of Persia, and all the song-birds of the earth, made setting for tiny half- 
Spanish ranch houses — homes which escaped captives of the East in- 
habited when they must, but as little as they could ; when horses in pic- 
turesque trappings made the shady avenues picturesque ; when the 
canons and mesas were as- much a part of daily life as the front-parlor ; 
when life was like a dream come true, and there was no reason for hop- 
ing to die. 

And now! The shade trees are down — they "littered the streets." 
Trees have not the first notion of tidiness ! The ferny pepper is gone — 
its roots "humped up" the superior asphalt, whose untempered glare and 



THE KEEPER OF THE CAMP, 29 

reflex heat now make pleasant the way of the pedestrian — the orange 
groves are suffered to die of neglect — there is "no money" in them, since 
land became worth so much a front foot — and the horse is gone with the 
alfalfa which fed him. We drive now (with lireries) or wheel ; but we 
do not have the old roads to wheel over, which the Village Improvement 
Society (brains and conscience of the town) kept as no City Council or con- 
tractor ever did or will. Gone are the gardens, too ; a couple of rose 
bushes constitute a garden now, set in a green — very green lawn — (it is 
its one merit) stretching to the asphalt edge, and no tree ever makes 
it untidy. Palms — as useful as telegraph poles for the purpose — serve as 
shade trees. And in the rows of pretentious stone or cement houses, 
without blinds for shade, without porches — except a front one in which 
a toilette makes a figure — without a court-yard, without a summer-house, 
roof-garden, anything that might possibly serve as a possible screen be- 
tween life and the Raymond tourist ; with an exterior "open as day to 
melting Charity," but with an interior lumbered with all the trifling im- 
pedimenta with which the house-bound Easterner strives to construct an 
ideal of life and multiply duties, sit those whom climate has lured 
hither — gambling for glass bon-bon dishes and hand-painted ash-trays ! 
It makes even an expansionist sad for the future of the Philippines ! 

Pasadena, Cal. 




The Keeper of the Camp. 

BV ELWYN IRVING HOFFMAN. 

ITH a head whitened by the snows of many 
winters ; with a face withered into a mass of 
deep wrinkles ; with eyes that had not, for 
ten long years, seen even so much as the 
very faintest ray of God's sunlight — that 
old Nahali sat hovered over her fire one 
cold day in December. It was a small fire 
— the same sort of a fire as the ones that 
had robbed her of her vision. A chunk of oak laid between 
two smoke-blackened stones, a bed of dull-glowing coals be- 
neath it, and gray and black ashes in a close circle around it. 
The smoke, thin and light, rose straight to the small opening 
in the peak of the conical roof, through which it twisted as it 
were boring its way out. It was a poor fire, and after reach- 
ing around for some fuel to put on it and finding none old 
Nahali drew her thin, ragged dress more closely around her 
and bent her head over the coals. As she did so, the smoke 
struck her on her withered chin and seemed to feel its way up- 
ward across her trembling lips, along her thin nostrils, over 
her squinting, sightless eyes, and through her tangled white 
hair. As she breathed, it crept into her mouth also and she 
coughed — a weak, hollow cough that might have told its own 
story. For old Nahali was nearing the great river across 
which lie the Happy Hunting Grounds and she was very- 
feeble. The smoke making her cough, she drew back a 
little ; but it was cold, bitterly cold, and soon with a shiver, 
she hovered again over the smoke. 



30 LAND OF SUNSHINE. 

Outside, the earth was covered with snow — not a great deal, 
but still enough to give things a very wintry appearance. It 
lay in little ridges on the limbs and twigs of the bare trees, 
and with its shroud of white, impressed a sense of deeper 
silence upon the half-dozen wigwams that stood in a circle 
around the hut in which old Nahali sat. For there was no 
one in these wigwams — no one in the whole camp except 
Nahali. They had gone away, bag and baggage, two days 
before to attend a "Big Soup," twenty miles over the mount- 
ains, and they had not yet returned to camp. They should 
have been home that morning, and old Nahali had expected 
them at that time, but they had not come, and it was now late 
in the afternoon. Nahali hoped that they would return be- 
fore nightfall, for she was very cold and the wood they had 
left her had been used up, and she had eaten nearly all the 
acorn bread that they had put by her. 

But they did not return. The gray, wintry sky grew 
grayer, the cold air became colder, and a dark shadow stole 
slowly over the white hills. The wind began to blow, and its 
icy breath made old Nahali wish again that her people were 
with her. She did not upbraid them for leaving her — she had 
been left too many times to think of complaining. The oldest 
squaw of the tribe, she had for some years been * ' the keeper 
of the camp," being too feeble to go away as the others did, 
on trips after food, or to neighboring rancherias to attend the 
big soups that were of frequent occurrence. 

When they had left, two days before, her relatives had 
hardly thought it worth while to say good-bye. To tell the 
truth, they cared very little for old Nahali, for she had 
outlived her usefulness long years before. "Q[er great-great 
grand-children were getting to be good sized pickaninnies; 
her great grand-children were men and women grown ; her 
grand-children were of advanced ages ; and her two daughters 
were quite old. It was hard to believe that she could be the 
head of four generations and still alive, but it was really so. 

The wind increased until it moaned and wailed around the 
wigwam. But Nahali did not hear it, for she was as deaf as 
she was blind . She knew it was growing colder, however, and 
she hovered closer and closer over her little fire, which was 
almost entirely extinct. It was so low that it did not make 
even a smoke, and as for warmth — old Nahali, the keeper of 
the camp, was already becoming numb ! 

As she sat thus, over the two or three coals that were still 
feebly alive, squatted down like an old witch in her scanty 
rags, the skin flap of the wigwam was pushed back and a man 
entered. He was a tall man, robed in a great robe of rabbits' 
fur, and in his hand he held a long wand covered with many 
scalps of the scarlet-headed woodpecker, and further decorated 



THE KEEPER OF THE CAMP. 3i 

with long feathers of the yellow-hammer and the blue-jay. It 
had been intensely dark in the little wigwam just before he 
came, but now it was all light and warmth. Old Nahali felt 
the change and raised herself slowly and felt Ubout her as if 
she would touch the source of it. And where did it come 
from — what was the source of it ? Ah, that was the strange 
thing ! — it did not seem to come from anywhere. It filled the 
whole room as if it were sunshine, and it had a great warmth 
— a blessed warmth ! 

Old Nahali felt around her — felt the cold stones, the hard, 
brittle coals, the soft, smooth ashes ; then she raised her thin, 
bony arms above her head and groped through the air. Find- 
ing nothing, she let her arms slowly fall and began to mumble 
to herself — low, inarticulate sounds that had no meaning. 

Then it was that the chief — for the stranger's dress and 
bearing proclaimed him to be a chief — opened his lips and 
spoke. And though he spoke in a low voice, Nahali heard 
him and raised her head and was no longer deaf. 

** Can Nahali hear ? ' ' asked the chief. 

* * Nahali can hear, ' ' answered the squaw in an awed voice 
but with lifted head. 

The chief smiled and waved his wand slowly to and fro. 

" Can Nahali see ? " he asked. 

There was a silence. The old squaw squinted her half- 
closed lids closer together, and the water from beneath them 
oozed out and rolled down her furrowed cheeks ; but she could 
not see. 

'* Nahali cannot see," she answered him, at last. The chief 
smiled again — a soft, compassionate smile. 

*' It is as well," he said. " Nahali has seen enough ! She 
has seen all that there is to be seen — sorrow, and joy, and love 
and hate, and beauty and ugliness. She has witnessed the 
rise and set of suns and moons and seen the yews of summer 
bloom and fade. To her eyes have been spread the glory of 
the heavens, and she has seen also, the grandeur and baseness 
of mankind. But there is one thing Nahali has not yet seen. 
May the curtains hang before her face till she has passed into 
the Happy Hunting Grounds ! For there she will see much 
beauty, and will know much happiness. No more will Nahali 
be forsaken — no more will Nahali be left alone to sit in the 
cold ." 

For it was very, very cold — the warm light had disappeared, 
and the tall chief had gone ! 

It is strange what visitors one will have when one is old and 
the snow-burdened wind blows upon one with its icy breath. 
Strange visions, yes. But the Indians knew nothing about 
this when they came into camp next day, wading through the 
snow that had fallen heavily during the night. 



32 LAND OF SUNSHINE. 

They only knew that old Nahali, the useless, the unwanted, 
was dead — lying, just as she had fallen when the Great Chief 
left her, with her thin, bony arms outstretched, and her dark, 
wrinkled face turned to the cold, gray ashes. 

French Corral, Cal. 

* Early California. 

UNPUBLISHED DOCUMENTS — THE VICEROY'S REPORT. 



^' 



^HE detailed report of the Count de Revilla Gigedo, Viceroy of 
Mexico over a century ago, is one of the clearest, ablest, most 
concise, most reliable early documents on the history of Cali- 
fornia and the northern coast. It has hitherto been inaccessible to 
American students, except in Spanish ; and the accurate translation 
which begins below will be of service to every student of California 
history.! 

Of the sixty-two viceroys of Mexico from 1535 to 1822, few were the 
equals in statesmanship, activity and zeal of the second Count de Re- 
villa Gigedo — an American by birth, for he first saw the light in Habana, 
Cuba. He arrived on the frigate "San Ramon" in Vera Cruz, Oct. 8, 
1789, and the 17th of the same month took formal possession of his 
high office, which he held until July 11,1 794. 

To the Licenciado, don Carlos Maria de Bustamante, we are indebted 
for the preservation of this important docunient. Bustamante, who 
was born in Oaxaca, November 4, 1774, and'died September 21, 1848, 
did enormous service for the history of Mexico. True, his passions 
sometimes misled him and his editorship in some cases was careless ; 
still all, enemies and friends, are debtors to Bustamante 's unceasing 
labors. 

REPORT 



Don Juan Vicente de Guemes Pacheco de PadilIvA, Count of 

Revii^i^a Gigedo, 

VICEROY OF NEW SPAIN, 

ON 

California. 

1768-1793. 



The viceroy of New Spain, Count de Revilla Gigedo, compiles in this 
detailed report the events which happened in the peninsula of the 
Californias and in the department of San Bias since the year 1768, and 
makes the suggestions he considers advisable. 



Most Excellent Sir .• 

1 . The maritime department of San Bias, the peninsula of the Cali- 
fornias, and the explorations carried out on its northern coasts, have been 
matters of grave consequence, and have received my utmost attention 
since the day on which I took charge of these vast dominions. 

2. Up to now the steps taken by me have met with success. I have 
undertaken them in conformity with the King's orders, with the most 
sincere desire of success and having in mind the actual state of aflfairs. 

3. According to their kind and nature, I have, through the corre- 
sponding channels, rendered an account of everything to His Majesty, 
accompanying same with testimonies of credit, explaining my reasons, 



EARLY CALIFORNIA. 33 

and asking for advice on those matters which I consider most important 
to the royal service. 

4. 4.S a happy result thereof, I have had the satisfaction of receiv^'^g 
repeatedly the approval of the King on points relating to the undertak- 
ings in the Californias. 

5. These enterprises have never been finished, and the only thing 
lacking is, that a new friendly agreement between our Court and the one 
in London shall put forever an end to the differences due to the events 
at Nutka, and preserve the peace and harmony so important to the sub- 
jects of both powers. 

6. So I hope ; and for this reason I take still greater pleasure in the 
extraordinary task of compiling briefly and clearly what has been done 
and carried out by the viceroys, my predecessors, in the Californias and 
San Bias ; what I have reported and represented about these matters in 
my different letters ; and finally what remains to be done according to 
my opinion. Having these data present, Your Excellency can arrive at 
an understanding of everything, inform His Majesty thereof, and issue to 
me his royal orders. 

State of the Peninsula of the Californias in 1767. 

7. In the year 1767, the peninsula of the Californias embraced the 
territories which lay between the cape of San Lucas, situated in latitude 
North 22° 48^, and the mission of Santa Maria de Todos Santos, in lati- 
tude 3 1 Yz degrees North . ( 1 ) 

Hits State, Fortifications and Expenses Incurred. 

8. At that time the capital of the peninsula was the feeble ** presidio" 
of Our Lady of Loretto (2). It had as garrison a troop of cavalry, 
mounted and armed in accordance with the customs of the country ; its 
pay (including that of the crew of the vessel carrying supplies) amounted 
to $32,5 15, which paid out of the royal treasury. The Jesuits really col- 
lected and distributed this money, and also took care of the discipline 
and service of said troop, placed in commission for the sole purpose of 
defending and preserving the fifteen missions established and adminis- 
tered by the Society of Jesus*. 

Special Fund (fondo piadoso) of the Missions. 

9. These missions were founded and maintained at the expense of the 
capitals which the zeal and apostolic labors of the aforementioned 
father* of the Society of Jesus had acquired for the purpose of effecting 
the spiritual conquest of the Califomian Indians. The principal bene- 
factors and founders of these special funds were the Marquis de Villa- 
puentc and the Marchioness de las Torres de Rada. 

The Farthest Northern Coasts of the Peninsula are in- 
cluded Within and Considered to be Under Spanish 
Dominion. 

10. Although the most remote countries of New Spain, known under 
the name of the exterior or western territories of the Californias, have 
not been occupied by any other formal establishments than the aforesaid 
fifteen missions and the presidio of the Loretto, they were included 
within and considered to be under the Spanish dominion, as also the 
coasts farthest to the North on the continent ; further the coastline had 



(i) The correct name of this mission is Santa Maria de Los Angeles, situated in 31° 
lat. North. It was established October 16, 1766. 

Santa Maria de Todos Santos is in lat. 24° 3(/, and was originally founded in iTig at 
Lt Paz, and a tew years later removed to its present location. 

(2) Here, on October 2«c, I697, the Jesuit Father Juan Maria de Salvatierra estab- 
lished the first mission in I^ower California. I,at. 26*' 31'. 

♦In I,ower California, 



34 LAND OF SUNSHINE. 

already been discovered up to 43° latitude North (3), where the river, 
called *' Los Reyes," exists. 

Duringr the Last Two Centuries Repeated Explorations 
were Made for the Purpose of Settlings said Coasts. 

11. Our Court had always in mind to advance the spiritual conquest of 
California up to the confines of North America, by settling the coasts of 
its Pacific Ocean. This is proved by the many costly expeditions under- 
taken during the last two centuries, and especially by that one so well 
carried out in the year 1602, under the command of the general, Sebas- 
tian Vizcaino. 

The General Sebastian Vizcaino Discovered the Ports 
of San Dieg-o and Monterey, and Orders were Issued 
for Settling- the Latter. 

(12). At that time he discovered the ports of San Diego and Monterey, 
and, although in consequence thereof, the second was to have been oc- 
cupied and settled at once in virtue of a royal cedula issued by order of 
Philip III, this most important decree was not carried into effect until 
the year 1768. 

It did not take place until the year 1768. 

13. The causes of this prejudicial inaction are unknown. The wise 
and well combined rules laid down in said •* cedula" would have 
smoothed over all the difficulties liable to arise in the enterprise, and 
these difficulties did in fact disappear as soon as it became known that 
the Russians had verified diffijrent explorations on the Californian coasts 
from Hamts Kaska (Kamskatka), and that they intended to establish 
themselves thereon. 

Foreign nations could have occupied these places, as no 
armed force existed in California to off'er Resistance. 

14 They might have been able to occupy, without resistance, our 
ports of San Diego and Monterey, if they had, at the beginning, directed 
their explorations to lower latitudes. This, for the reason that the very 
limited population of our peninsula of the Californias could not have 
mustered a sufficient force for resisting a European army ; besides, there 
were no other ships in the Pacific Ocean than the small vessel used for 
transporting supplies, of which I have already spoken. 

We occupied these ports in the said year of 1768, and 
at the same time established the Department of San 
Bias. 

15. Finally, in the mentioned year of 1768, we successfully occupied 
those ports, and also established the department of San Bias for the 
main object of serving as a base of the military expedition decided 
upon against the barbarous Seri and Pima Indians which hostilized 
Sonora, and also for the purpose of opening later on commerce with 
this province and the one of the Californias. 

Missions were erected and the Salines of Zapotilla placed 

under royal administration for the purpose of 

maintaining the Department of San Bias. 

16. The erection of missions in the immediate neighborhood of the 



(3) Sebastian Vizcaino in his second voyage reached on Dec. 29, 1602, lat. 43 North, 
near to which is Cape Blanco ; but he must have assigned a wrong lat, to the river 
" Los Reyes," as no such stream exists there. 



EARLY CALIFORNIA. 35 

presidios of San Diego and Monterey was at once begun (4a). The 
expenditures incurred were charged to the special funds (4b) which 
the Jesuits at the time of the expulsion [June 25, 1767, in the City of 
Mexico. They left Ivoretto, Lower Cal., Feb. 3, 1768.] had left capital- 
ized (fincado), and it was considered possible that the department of 



(4a) The missions established in California are : 

San Diego de Alcala, June 16, 1769. 

San Carlos de Monterey, June 3, 1770. 

San Antonio de Padua, July 14, 1771. 

San Gabriel Arcangel, Sept, 8. 1771. 

San I^uis Obispo, Sept. 12, 1772. 

San Francisco Dolores. Oct. 9, 1776. 

San Juan Capistrano, Nov. i, 1776 

Santa Clara, Jan. 18, i777- 

San Buenaventura, March 31, 1782. 

Santa Barbara, Dec 4, 1786. 

Purisima Concepcion, Dec. 8, 1787. 

Santa Cruz, Aug. 28, 1791. 

Soledad, Oct, 9, 1792. 

San Jose, June 18, 1797. 

San Miguel, 1797. 

San Luis, Rey, 1798. 

San Juan Bautista, 1799. 

Santa In^s, 1804. 

San Rafael, 1817. 

San Francisco Solano, 1823. 

(4b) The following is a translation of the Report made by the Franciscan friar. 
Father Francisco Palou on February 12, 1772, to the Superior of the convent San 
Fernando in the City of Mexico, Fray Juan Roman de Mora, and shows the financial 
status of the "Pious fund" at that time. 

Copy of the pioui works founded by the different individuals for the purpose of the 

spiritual conquest of the Caltfornias : 

Year 1698 Don Juan Caballero founded the first mission and for this purpose gave.|io,ooo 

" 1699 the same founded the second 10,000 

" 1700 Don Nicolas Arteaga founded the third and furnished the same amount io,oco 

" 1702 diflferent individuals through Father Jose Vidal, Jesuit, the fourth 7,000 

" 1704 the Marquis de Villapuente founded the fifth in the sum of. 10,000 

" 1709 the same founded the sixth in 10,000 

" 1713 the same founded the seventh in 10,000 

" 1718 His Excellency, Don Juan Ruiz de Velasco, founded the eighth in 10,000 

" 1719 the Marquis de Villapuente founded the ninth in 10,000 

" 1725 the Jesuit, Father Juan Maria Luyando, founded the tenth in 10,000 

" 1731 Dofia Maria Rosa de la Petia donated to one of the missions of Villa- 
puente 10,000 

" 1746 the Marquis de Villapuente founded the eleventh in 10,000 

" 1747 The Most Excellent Dona Maria de Boya, duchess of Gandia, instituted 

the missions of California as her heirs, but they have only received... 62,000 

Total of donations , $179,000 

(4c) Balances found at the time of the Expulsion of the Jesuits : 

In cash fonnd in the Atty Gen'l's office of jCalifomia at the expulsion | 92,000 00 

Value of merchandise found in the same omce 27,255 75 

Value of merchandise in warehouse at Loretto 79i377 27% 

Total balances $199,033 I2j^ 

Loans made by the Attorney General's office of California of the capitals of said mis- 
sions as appears by the corresponding instruments: 

To the College of San Idlefonso in the City of Puebla, at 2^2 pe. cent $ 22,000 

" '; of San Ignacio " " " at 4 per cent 5,000 

,' " of San Pedro and San Pablo in the City of Mexico without int... 29,000 

" " of San Idlefonso in the city of Puebla, at 3 per cent 23,000 

" " of San Geronimo in the City of Mexico, at 3 per cent 38,500 

" " of San Idlefonso in the city of Puebla, at 3 per cent 9,000 

Totalloans $126,600 

Recapitulation : 

Total of donations $179,000 00 

Total of balances on hand i99.033 i2ji 

Total of loans 126,600 00 

Grand Total $504,633 125^ 



36 LAND or SUNSHINE. 

San Bias could cover its expenses with the products of the neighboring 
salines, from now on to be worked on account of the royal treasury, and 
with other resources of minor importance. 

These expeditions and establishments were the cause 
_ of heavy expenses. :. _ 

17. This advantage was never obtained. The expenses of San Bias 
are constantly on the increase, and the costs of its establishment, and 
of the expeditions to Sonora and California, from 1768 to 1771, were 
necessarily large to the royal treasury, although part of the expenses 
were defrayed by generous voluntary contributions and also out of the 
special mission funds. 

No Economy was practicable. 

18. To exercise any cautious economy was an impossibility when 
everything had to be done hurriedly in distant countries, without any 
settlements in the largest part of their enormous area, and with Sonora 
subject to the cruel hostilities of the Indian enemies ; and, to state the 
whole matter in as few words as possible, without troops, vessels, arms, 
munitions, utensils and provisions. 

Difficulties apparently insuperable were overcome; the 
Viceroy, Marquis de Croix, returned to Spain; and the 
Baylio Frey Don Antonio Bucareli took his place. 

19. Notwithstanding these difficulties — which might be considered 
insuperable — were overcome, and, as far as it was possible to zeal and 
constancy, the important ends of the enterprises were accomplished. 
The Viceroy, Marquis de Croix, having finished his term of office, left to 
his successor, the Bailio (6) Frey don Juan de Bucareli, th« glory to con- 
tinue the work and to carry it to the best state of perfection. 

Events which happened in the time of the Viceroy Bu- 
careli. 

20. As in everything which had passed, the mental and personal 
labors of the Inspector General, the Marquis de Sonora (7), had played 
an important part, and as this functionary still remained in the kingdom 
( New Spain ) for a few months after the Marquis de Croix had sailed on 
his return to Spain, Galvez was enabled to inform the successor, Don 
Antonio Bucareli, of everything which had taken place, so that the new 
Viceroy would find it less difficult to perfect promptly all the arrange- 
ments required in the department of San Bias and the peninsula of the 
Californias, economizing expenses and avoiding confusion. 

21. The hostilities of the Seris and Pimas had somewhat ceased in So- 
nora, but the Apaches created worse havoc in New Galicia (8) therefore 
the expenses which decreased in the first province augmented in the 
second owing to the formation of a corps of four flying troops of cavalry, 
and to other help furnished as well in soldiers as to the presidios. I refer 



(6) Bailio, a knight of the religious military order of Saint John, who has taken the 
vows and is invested with the command and enjoys the usufruct of a castle, town or 
other rural or urban property. 

(7) Don Jos6 de Galvez received in 1764 unlimited power to inspect all the different 
branches of the government in New Spain, and make whatsoever changes of magis- 
trates and officials he considered convenient. On July 6, 1768, he arrived in Lower Cal- 
ifornia for the purpose of arranging matters in that province, and for the principal 
object of extending missions and presidios to Upper California. His plans were suc- 
cessfully carried out by Father Junipero Serra and the commander, PortolA. In 1776 he 
was appointed Secretary of the Indies and in this capacity had his brother, Don Matias 
de Galvez, and afterwards his nephew, Bernardo de Galvez, appointed Viceroys of New 
Spain. Galvez died in 1787. 

(8) New Galicia, the present Mexican States of Durango, Chihuahua and Coahuila. 
which by the royal order dated in Madrid on Dec. 4, 1786, were formed into the "inten- 
dencia " of Durango. 



EARLY CALIFORNIA. 37 

only slightly to these matters here, because this compilation must be 
strictly limited to events and matters relating to San Bias and the Cali- 
fornias. 

New Rules for San Bias and the Californias. 

22. New rules were made for the administration of both provinces. 
In San Bias a formal commisariat was established for making the pay- 
ments and keeping strict accounts ; a small arsenal was also put in 
operation for careening and repairing all the vessels of the department ; 
one frigate and two dispatch boats (paquebotes) were stationed there ; 
and, for all these purposes was assigned to it yearly the amount of |63,- 
907. 

23. Although the expenses of the presidiai troops of the Californias 
were estimated at $55,435, including the salaries and pay (haberes) of 
the governor of the Peninsula, commissary of Loretto, storekeepers or 
those acting as such (habilitados) of the presidios, and of a small num- 
ber of carpenters, blacksmiths, and muleteers, the whole expenditure 
amounted to only |26,500 ; because a rule was established that payment 
should be made in clothing, goods, and provisions, and that there 
should be charged or added to the cost price of these articles, 100 per 
cent at the old establishments and 1 50 per cent at the new presidios of 
San Diego and Monterey. The only exceptions to this rule were the 
salaries of the governor, $4000 and of the commissary at Loretto, $1500. 

24. Lastly a Factor, with a salary of $2000, was appointed for collect- 
ing the amounts payable by the royal treasury in this capital (Mexico), 
and for making the necessary purchases and remittances of textile fab- 
rics and merchandise for San Bias and the Californias. In consequence, 
addint; all these items gives a total yearly amount of $92, 476. 37 j^, pay- 
able from the royal treasury. The salaries assigned to the Franciscan 
and Dominican missionaries, their traveling expenses by land and sea, 
as also the necessary expenditures for the establishment of new missions 
are to be made from the special funds. 

New Enterprises. 

25. After finishing this matter, the viceroy, don Antonio Bucareli* 
thought it well to confine his measures to the preservation and tem- 
poral and spiritual development of the old and new Californias, toward 
improving the salines in the immediate neighborhood of San Bias. 
This for the purpose, that said department might also flourish as far as 
possible, and so be able to comply with its principal object, the fur- 
nishing and forwarding of the necessary supplies to the presidios and 
missions of the Californias ; but this quietness did not last long. 

26. Information was received about the excellent port of San Fran- 
cisco ; the old project of discovering a land route was again taken up ; 
discussions were held in reference to opening the communication be- 
tween the presidios of Monterey and San Diego, blocked up by the 
Santa Barbara channel whereon numerous pacific and docile Indians 
dwelt ; attention was called to the immense number of pagans desirous 
of congregating in missions ; and, also to the fertility of the territories 
in the north, which invited Spaniards to settle and cultivate them. 

First Exploration to Hig-her Latitudes. 

27. The Viceroy already flattering himself with the possible accom- 
plishment of these useful projects, received the royal orders of April 
1 1 and September 23, 1773, which increased his zeal and compelled him 
to put into practice more difficult and costly plans. 

28. The Count de Lascy, Minister Plenipotentiary at the Court of 
Russia, notified our Court of the discoveries which had been made by the 

(9) This new " reglamento " was formulated May 19, 1773; discussed and amended 
July 8, 1773 ; approved by the viceroy July 23, 1773, and went into force January 1st, 
1774. 



38 LAND OF SUNSHINE. 

vassals of that empire on our northern coasts of the Californias ; these 
notices were copied and forwarded with said royal orders and others of 
later date. 

29. In all of these decrees, His Majesty commanded that proper steps 
should be taken for investigating if the Russians continued and pro- 
gressed with their expeditions ; that the schemes of this nation should 
be guarded against ; and also that means should be found for dislodging 
any foreign settlement established on those coasts, previously giving 
the necessary intimations and using force only as a last resort. 

30. Although the Viceroy was aware of the obstacles which hindered 
the Russians from carrying out their plans, due to the scarcity of settlers 
and supplies in their territories of Kamts Kaska, still he felt that these 
diflSculties in the course of time might be overcome, and that we should 
profit by these obstacles, and impede foreigners from becoming neigh- 
bors of ours on the peninsulas of the Californias. 

31. This is the opinion which he expressed in his letter 1048 of July 
27, 1773, stating therein the necessity of giving another form to the de- 
partment of San Bias, and of supplying it with competent ofi&cers of the 
royal navy, practical pilots, an arsenal (maestranza), sailors, and also 
with a larger number of vessels wherewith to succour the Californias 
and undertake explorations to higher latitudes (exploraciones de altura). 

32. He also reported that the new presidios of San Diego and Mon- 
terey were weak establishments, only good for giving a title to the soil 
(que solo Servian para senalar el dominio), and for keeping within cer- 
tain bounds the innumerable pagan Indian tribes surrounding these estab- 
lishments, which, owing to the burdens imposed upon the royal treasury, 
he had not decided to fortify. 

33. That he found no way of avoiding the increased expenditures in 
which the department of San Bias will involve him, a department situ- 
ated in one of the most unhealthy climates of the Pacific coast ; and 
finally in the same letter, number 1048, and in those written afterwards, 
he continued reporting upon the wise measures taken by him. 

34. The discovery of an overland route from Sonora to Monterey had 
already been made (10) later on the important occupation of the port of 
San Franci<co took place (11), and all those measures were continued 
which tended to subjecting (as was later brought about ) gradually the 
Indians of the Santa Barbara channel and to the establishment of new 
missions and Spanish settlements (pueblos). 

35 . The reconnoisance of the Goatzacalcos river on the Gulf of Mex- 
ico, and the country lying between its mouth and the harbor of Tehnan- 
tepec on the Pacific coast was also undertaken, and it was ascertained 
that a possibility existed for transporting artillery over it, as had already 
been done, according to old traditions, by Hernan Cortes, for arming the 
vessels he had ordered to be built in the harbor of Tehuantepec, and 
which discovered the coasts of the Californias (12). 

(10) Don Juan Bautista de Anza, captain of the presidio of Tubac, on the frontier of 
Sonora, left the presidio of Altar with twenty of his soldiers and accompanied by the 
Franciscan missionaries, fathers Carets and Juan Diaz, on January 8. 1774, and arrived 
at the mission of San Gabriel in California on May 22nd of the same year. Anza pro- 
ceeded from there to Monterey for the purpose of consulting with Father Junipero 
Serra. A second expedition, also commanded by Anza, left Tubac on Oct. 23, 1775, and 
reached San Gabriel on January 4, 1776, 

(11) The first huts were built July 26. 1776 ; on the 28th the first mass was said in the 
temporary chapel. The port was occupied August 18 and formal possession taken on 
Sept. 17, 1776. The chapel ol the mission of Dolores was dedicated October 3, and 
the mission formally inaugurated October 8, 1776. 

(12) The first discoverer of the peninsula of California was the pilot Fortun 
Ximenez, who entered the gulf, afterwards called " of Cortes," with the vessel "Con- 
cepcion" in the latter part of 1533. He and twenty- two of his crew were killed by the 
Indians at La Paz, Lower California 

The three vessels, Santa Agueda, San Lazaro and San Tomas, which Cortes had or- 
dered built in Tehuantepec, sailed under his personal command from Chiametlan on 
April 16, 1535, arrived in the bay of La Paz on May 3, 1535, and returned to Mexico in 
1537. 



EARLY CALIFORNIA. 39 

36. Finally, for the purpose of examining if the Russians had settled 
in the most remote northern parts of our actual possessions, the Viceroy 
despatched the frigate "Santiago" under the command of the brevet 
ensign of the second class, Don Juan Perez, first pilot of the royal navy, 
giving him the necessary instructions for carrying out the orders ; and 
this wa« the first exploration to higher latitudes. 

37. The frigate left San Bias on the 25th day of January, 1774, stopped 
at the ports of San Diego and Monterey for the purpose of delivering the 
corresponding supplies ; set out again on its navigation June 7 ; arrived 
at 55° 49^ latitude north ; opened communications with the Indians of 
that coast; did the same in the port of Nutka, to which the name of San 
Lorenzo was given, and where it dropped anchor on August 8. The 
vessel returned November 3 to San Bias (13). 

38. It cannot be claimed that these reconnoisances were exact. They 
really only occupied a little more than two months and a half, and the 
ship's logs show doubts and uncertainties which impair their value. 
Still the positive knowledge was at last acquired, that not a single foreign 
establishment existed on the whole of the coast explored. It was proved 
beyond doubt that the commander of the frigate " Santiago" had taken 
possession of the port of Nutka, five years previous to the arrival of the 
English captain. Cook, at the same port, where he had careened his 
vessels, and finally this expedition facilitated greatly our future 
explorations. 

SECOND EXPLORATION. 

39. The second expedition took place in the year 1775, under the 
charge of the lieutenant of the first-class, Don Bruno de Ezeta, with the 
same frigate, " Santiago " and the little schooner ( goleta ) called "La 
Felicidad " (alias "LaSonora"), the command whereof had been en- 
trusted to the lieutenant of the second-class, Don Juan Francisco de la 
Bodega y Cuadra. 

40. Both vessels left San Bias February 11, 1775, and sailed in 
company to 47^, where they separated. 

41 . The frigate returned after having reached 50°, because the scurvey 
had broken out among the crew. The schooner went as far as 58°, and 
on the return both vessels joined again in the port of Monterey, and 
entered the harbor of San Bias November 25. 

42. The department of La Trinidad, in 41° 6^ ; the open roadstead 
( rada ) of Bucareli in 47° 24^ ; the archipelago and port of the same name 
in 55° 18^ ; and the one of Los Remedios in 57° 20^ were discovered and 
reconnoitered by this expedition and formal possession thereof taken. 

43. Furthermore, Ezeta came to the mouth or entrance bearing his 
name in 49°, (14) called by him " Bahia de la Asuncion," but could not 
examine it. Bodega anchored and took possession of the port which 
hjis his name, situated in 38° 18\ and in the immediate neighborhood of 
the harbor of San Francisco. 



(13) Juan Perez, the commander of the "Santiago" (alias "Nueva Galicia"), was a 
native of Mayorca, and well versed in navigation on the Pacific, having made several 
voyages to the Philippine Islands. Fray Juniper Serra returned on this vessel from 
San Bias to San Diego. In Monterey Fray Juan Crespi and Fray Tomas Pefia de la 
Pena joined the frigate as chaplains, and Father Crespi wrote the diary of this expe- 
dition. On July 20, touched the extreme northwestern point of Queen Charlotte Island, 
near to 55° lat. North, and arrived on Monday, August 8, in the roadstead of Nutka, 
called afterwards, in 1788, by Captain Cook, King George's Sound, 

(14) The date of the discovery of the bay "La Asuncion de Nuestra Senora," or 
" Entrance of Ezeta," or "Columbia river," is August 17, 1775, and the correct latitude 
46° 11' north. 

The Royal Audience governed from November 30, 1786, to May 8, 1789. Don Alonzo 
Nunez de Haro y Peralta, Archbishop of Mexico, was Viceroy of New Spain from May 
-8, 1787 to August 16, of the same year. 



40 LAND OF SUNSHINE. 

Death of the Viceroy, Bucareli, and compilation of the 
Measures taken by him. 

44. Although preparations were made without delay for the third ex- 
pedition, which was to have started in the year 1777, for the purpose of 
making explorations from Ezeta bay to latitude 58°, and to finish same in 
latitude 65°, it did not take place until the year 1779, when the Viceroy, 
Frey Don Antonio Bucareli, was already dead. (15) 

45. This Viceroy attended with true- zeal and efficiency to all the im- 
portant matters which occurred during his term of office, and he had 
besides the pleasure of seeing his orders complied with. The results 
would have been greater if, for reasons of economizing the overburdened 
public finances, he had been able to make larger expenditures. 

46. Notwithstanding, he was compelled to increase the expenses of 
San Bias and the Californias, because neither the explorations to higher 
latitudes, nor the building and careening of vessels, nor higher salaries and 
gratuities for naval officers and other employes could be dispensed with^ 
for the reason that the occupation of the port of San Francisco, and the 
development of Old and New California were of the utmost importance. 
The increase of expenditure was also due to the reconnoisance of the 
Goatzacoalos river to Tehuautepec, undertaken for the purpose of econo- 
mizing transportation costs on artillery from Vera Cruz to San Bias ; 
to the double discoveries which by land were effected from Sonora to 
Monterey, considered by the Viceroy indispensable ; and to the expedi- 
tion ( which proved to be a failure ) from the presidio of Santa F^, in 
New Mexico, to the one of Monterey. (16). 

47. Bucareli asked for and was given ample powers to incur these 
expenses and all others of equal kind without the previous assent of the 
Royal Treasury Commissions. He reported upon the uselessness of the 
port of San Bias, proposed the temporary transfer of this department to 
the one of Acapulco, and was inclined to establish it later on in a more 
healthy and convenient location of those parts discovered in Northern 
California. All this was approved by the royal order of January, 1777. 

Erection of the Independent Commandancy General of 
the Provinces of the Interior, and Measures taken by 
the First Commandant, the Chevalier de Croix, in 
California. 

48. At this time the independent Commandery General of the Pro- 
vince of the Interior, including the Californias, was formed and placed 
under the command of the brigadier, Chevalier de Croix, who established 
in 1780 and 1781 the presidios and missions of the Santa Barbara channel, 
founded the settlements (pueblos) of San Jose, Guadalupe and Porciun- 
cula (\7), and issued a separate new set of rules (reglamento) now in 
force at that peninsula, and which His Majesty approved October 24, 
1781. 



(15) The Bailio, frey Don Antonio Maria de Bucareli y Urstia, former Captain Gen- 
eral of Cuba, arrived in Vera Cruz on August 23. 1771 ; took possession of the Vice 
Kingdom on September 2, 1771, and died in the City of Mexico on April 9, 1779. His^ 
remains are buried in the Church of Our i^ady of Guadalupe. 

(16) The Franciscan Friars, Francisco Atanacio Dominguez and Francisco dejVeler 
Kscalante, left Santa F6, accompanied by eight residents of that town, ou July 29, 1776, 
and followed the route discovered by Don Juan Maria Rivera, in 1761. After having 
traveled 320 leagues (960 miles) they arrived at Lake Timpanogos (Salt Lake, in Utah) 
on September 23. Owing to the lateness of the season the project of reaching Califor- 
nia was abandoned, and the expedition turned south in search of the Colorado river, 
which they crossed October 7. On November 6, they arrived at the Moqui " pueblo "^ 
of Oraibe, lefl it on Nov. 21, and reached Santa F^ on January 2, 1777. 

(17) The settlement of San Jos6 was established at the instance of the Viceroy in 
November, 1777, and the one of Porciuncula, or more properly, Nuestra Senora de Los. 
Angeles, in 1781. 




EARLY C A LI FOR N 



New Rules. (18) 

49. They were drawn by the governor, don Felipe de Neve, and all 
the precepts of economy were strictly adhered to ; for although he ex- 
cluded or abolished the odious unreasonable overcharge of so many per 
cent on the supplies furnished to officers and soldiers, he also diminished 
their salaries and pay ; consequently the extra balance which resulted 
against the royal treasury was very small. But as during the time of 
the Viceroy, Frey don Antonio Bucareli, the little maritime department 
of San Bias had been enlarged ; a greater number of artisans and a few 
more soldiers assigned to the presidial companies of Monterey and San 
Diego ; the new companies of San Francisco and the immediate mis- 
sions formed ; and as afterwards the Chevalier de Croix established the 
settlements on the Santa Barbara channel (19), therefore the yearly ex- 
penditures of the peninsula of the Californias amounted to the sum of 
$85,616, which compared with the amount of $26,579, the first appro- 
priation, shows an excess of $59,047 without including the expenses of 
the settlers of Guadalupe and Porciuncula, who during the first three 
years were assisted with salaries and rations. 

Events which Occurred on the Colorado River. 

50. Neither are included in the above expenditures those incurred 
during said years of 1780 and 1781 for enlisting recruits, families of 
settlers, purchase of mules and horses, and the transport of all of these 
from Sonora to Monterey. Nor do these expenses contain the amount 
fruitlessly expended upon a settlement on the Colorado river, which the 
Yuma Indians destroyed, killing the greatest part of the unfortunate 
settlers, the captain appointed for conveying the supplies of the Cali- 
fornias, together with nine men of his escort and four friars of the 
Apostolic College of the Holy Cross of Queretaro, who attended to the 
spiritual welfare of said settlements. 

61. The absolute ruin of these settlements closed the door to com- 
munication between Sonora and the Californias, and although it was the 
intention to open the route again by building a strong presidio on the 
banks of the Colorado river, His Majesty ordered this project to be 
kept in suspense until a more convenient time, which now truly is ap- 
proaching ; because the Dominicans in charge of the missions of Old 
(Ivower) California are extending their labors to the countries of the 
Colorado river, a step very opportune and in conformity with the royal 
"cedula," substituting these missionaries in the place of the exiled 
Jesuits. (21) 

(18) This " Rejflamento " was formulated June 1, 1779; approved by the King Oct. 
21, 1781 printed in Mexico in 1784. The lyAND of Sunshinb published a fac simile 
and translation Jan. -May, 1897. 

(19) The " Presidio " of Santa Barbara was established in 1782. 

(20) After Anza's expeditions, the General Commander of the Interior Provinces 
with the consent of the court of Madrid, permitted the establishment of two missions 
"La Purisima Concepcion " and "San Pedro and San Pablo "on the actual Califor- 
nia side of the Colorado river under the precise condition that each mission should 
have 10 soldiers and 10 settlers But the Yuma Indians did not take kindly to this new 
state of affairs and rebelled, killing the four missionaries, Fathers Francisco Garces, 
Juan Beroneche, Juan Diaz and Matias Romero, and the largest part of the escort and 
settlers, sparing only the women and children. Other victims were the sergeant Juan 
Joi-e Robles and Captain Fernando Rivera, who were awaiting there the arrival of a 
part of the families he had recruited in Sinaloa and Sonora for the purposing of settling 
Los Angeles, Buenaventua and Santa Barbara. Seven California soldiers also perished 
at the hands of the Yumas. The buildings were destroyed by fire. He, soon as the 
commander, don Pedro Fages, received notice of this misfortune, he went with troops 
to the Colorado river, recovered the bodies of his murdered compatriots and retook or 
ransomed most of the women and children kept in captivity by the Yumas. These 
events happened during the middle and end of March, 1782. 

(21) The Dominicans by virtue of a royal cedu la of November 4 1768, claimed a 
part of the missions of the Californias for their share. After a dispute of four years 
with the Franciscans, an agreement was entered into between both on March 21, 1772, 
and on Augrust 19, 1773 the dividing line between the missions of both orders was fixed 
at a point 45 miles south of San Diego. This point was marked by a cross, bearing this 
inscription : " Division of the missions of our father Saint Dominic and of our father 
Saint Francis. Year 1773," and the cross was securely fixed in the crack of a large 
boulder or rock which stands up exactly on the high road. 

(to be continued.) 



42 




IN THE 

LION'S DEN 



The patronizing Bookman^ edited by Prof. Peck, remarks amid an other- 
wise rather incompetent book-review : 

"California seems to be a fertile field for the novelist, and we in the East, blessed 
with the opportunities afiforded by our advanced civilization, should certainly take an 
interest in our less fortunate brothers in the far West, struggling against heavy odds 
to gain for themselves equal privileges." 

Which *' privileges," pray ? The privilege of being instructed by the 
underdone? The privilege of laughing at the sort of " scholar" who 
can translate Latin with a dictionary, and who thinks California walks 
abroad clothed in a G-string and a little brief authority ? That we need 
not " struggle for." The U. S. mails reach even unto the far West, and 
we can read the Bookman as regularly as a New Yorker, if we have 
nothing else to do — or if we do not grudge time in pursuit of humor. 
The privilege of living in a city distinguished mostly by having the 
rottenest government and the vilest newspapers and two of the most un- 
weaned reviews on the habitable globe ? Well, we can stand that de- 
privation. God made California and Croker is making New York. 
Every man to his own. 

Now it is a matter of truth that, for the whole State and for every city 
in it, California has a higher percentage of literacy, culture and morals 
than New York city. It has as good colleges, churches, schools (and 
more of each per thousand population.) It hasn't as big libraries, but 
uses its libraries 500 per cent. more. It has fewer and less splendid 
theaters — but it has more than our fathers had, which is enough. It 
has as good water, police and hygienic and charitable service ; incom- 
parably better street transit and lighting. It has an incomparably 
larger percentage of citizens who own their own homes ; of citizens 
who have something to show for their lives ; of college-bred men and 
women ; above all, of people who are not provincials lost in their own 
back yard. And every Easterner who is fairly leavened of intelligence 
knows this. He need not have traveled. The statistics and history of 
his own country are enough if he is really a scholar, and not a preten- 
tious dunce. 

We do not lack even that ** blessing of advanced civilization " which 
the Bookman really means — for all our people come from the East. Only, 
out here, we do not put unleavened dough into "literary journals." We 
sometimes elect it to a city council — and are properly ashamed of our- 
selves after. So the Bookman need not "take an interest" in us. 
We have our compensations. One is remembering a matter we learned 
in the East (and are thence reminded of). Namely, how many Pecks 
it takes to make an honest bushel — the smallest thing a Californian ever 
counts by. 

AVE8 A Republic is a country where people discuss things. A despot- 

OR FREE ism is a country where they do not. An idiot asylum is a place 

CITIZENS. where they don't even care to. 

So when you hear some one crying that we must shut our mouths and 
eyes and follow the flock and its temporary bell-wether, you can know 
that that person is only half an American. He may have been born in 



IN THE LION'S DEN. 43 

this country, but he has never got acclimated. He really believes in 
the divine right of kings ; only his king happens to be the crowd or the 
party. Honest discussion is the diflference between serfs and freemen, 
and the party or the cause that cannot bear it is born to be drowned — and 
already feels itself sinking. 

The organized effort of the administration papers to scare us not 
out of discussing the Philippine question is as foolish as it will to be 

be fruitless. To yell " traitor" to every American who dares scared. 

to think without asking Mr. Hanna's permission, shows that the yellers 
know as little of business as of morals. For this is not a nation of slaves. 
We like fair play and free speech, and we are not so stupid as not to 
know when they are assailed. We are not ready for a Kaiser and les^ 
majesty and all that. Kaisering, in a Republic, has to be very judicious, 
else in a moment we shall turn and laugh in his face, and the * ' divine 
robes" will fall away, and the servant of the people will stand naked to 
the rebuke of his masters. 

They are either not very thoughtful or not very honest who not yet 
are crying, •' Sh ! you mustn't think in time of war !" treason 

Every sober man knows that in the intended sense Mw is no to think. 

"time of war." The argument rests on such war as menaces the country, 
and then, indeed, a patriot may have to fight first and think afterwards. 
But to pretend that this nation is in such danger from the Filipinos that 
we must put our reason under martial law is a little too absurd. Lawton, 
and there is no better fighter, has had twenty-two "battles" in thirty 
days, and got six men killed and thirty wounded. The only danger 
this country is in, or ever will be in, is from the citizens who think self- 
government is a sort of blind man's buflf, and that all they have to do is 
to shut their eyes and minds and grope in the wake of the gentleman 
who is "It." 

The Scientific American has proved that conscience and com- late 
petency can give an ancient and honorable name to the "organ" and 

of a firm of patent-solicitors, and this is a highly creditable silly. 

achievement. But the S. A. would better stick to cog-wheels and let 
ethnology alone if it has to get its ethnology from a hotel tout. It can 
hardly be expected to understand how idle the signature of tr. Wharton 
James in type looks to any student or to any long-lime Californian, but 
it is expected to know the gross misspelling and structural ignorance of 
the article in its Supplement of April 22. It ought also to know that the 
Enchanted Mesa has been settled by scientists, and that it is nearly two 
years too late for discredited fakirs to exploit their ignorance. It is ex- 
pected not to print so imbecile an argument : " There was an Enchanted 
Mesa, but the Enchanted Mesa is not the Enchanted Mesa — because its 
ruins are less visible than some other ruins 200 miles away." Might it 
never occur to a scientific editor that erosion varies with the hardness of 
the rock ? In the self-same valley of Acoma, 10,000 acres are eaten away 
500 feet deep. That's why there is a valley, amid which the table rocks 
of Acoma, Katzimo and other mesas tower mightily aloft. By the S. A. 
logic they cannot have survived the waste of all that giant valley. 
Therefore they have not survived. Ergo, the rocks we climb and photo- 
graph, and that people live and die on, are figments of our and their 
imaginations. Of course Mr. James is not entitled, by scholarship or by 
other reputation, to speak to any scientific question ; but the Scientific 
American is entitled to take a little better care of its readers. 

Every true American must wish a seaching investigation of the let 
charges made by scores of American soldiers, that some of our us have 

troops in the Philippines are looting houses and killing pris- light. 

soners — and no Algerian investigation will do. These charges are made 
not by mugwumps at home, but by our boys in the field. The thing 



44 LAND OF SUNSHINE. 

seems beyond belief. Certainly most American soldiers do not do these 
things. Yet, anyone who saw the Tennesseeans, for instance, terrorize 
San Francisco knows that there are two kinds of American soldiers. At 
any rate, these things should be looked into. Some of the boys may have 
written home a little boastfully, but if they have lied about our army 
they should be shot ; if they haven't lied, someone else should be shot. 

MOT The abolitionists were "traitors" to the same notch of intel- 

ALL THE lects that now call the anti-imperialists so, and for the same 

TIME. reason — because they believed that even presidents and parties 

should obey the eternal laws of justice. The same degree of ministers 
preached then for the " Divine institution" of slavery as preach now for 
civilizing the Filipinos by killing them, and for the same reason : namely, 
because they thought God was a crowd. The same sort of people who 
braved unpopularity and mobbing then, for conscience sake, are doing it 
now. They will be as fully vindicated by time, and for the same reason: 
namely, that " You can't fool all the people all the time," as Lincoln 
pithily expressed the final truth about American sense and conscience. 

DUR Apaches, before now, have tried in their blundering way to 

OWN be impolite to prisoners; and the Inquisition — that remarkable 

SAVAGES. and unpleasant religious police — had certain methods not 

wholly neighborly. But never did Apaches, Spaniards, Hottentots nor 
pirates remotely rival the postgraduate fiends of Palmetto, Ga.; citizens 
of the United States, assembled on the 23d of April, in the year of grace 
1899, to show their true nature. In the name of all the gods at once, 
what do we need of new Cannibal Islands, so long as we have Georgia? 

.ETTERS The Den has well over 50,000 readers. Undoubtedly not all 

AND of them agree with the lyion. But being Americans — or free- 

LETTERS. men wherever, for many are in foreign lands — they respect 

independence. Being educated people, they are tolerant of thought ; 

and even in a diflference of opinion they are not blackguards. 

Out of these 50,000 and odd, the Lion has had three scurrilous letters 
— or rather two ; for a Florida gentleman who values a cent above his 
dignity, committed his vulgarity to a postal card. 

If this little magazine, on the Far Edge, has 50,552 readers who are 
men and women that believe in free thought, and only three who are 
hoodlums that do not, there is large hope for our experiment of a re- 
public. 

In the same time, between 700 and 800 letters of earnest godspeed 
have come to the Den. From United States Senators, from ex-cabinet 
officers, from college presidents, from scholars, poets, and all sorts of 
plain Americans. Conscience isn't a matter of arithmetic. This beast 
would think, and " think open," with what little tools God has given 
him, if he were the only molecule in the universe that thought so. But 
it is comforting to find oneself in good company. 

The interesting Mr. Denby, one of the Liberator's commissioners, 
assures us that the commission's sophomoric "Proclamation" to the 
Filipinos ** is the most important proclamation since the Declaration 
of Independence." Of course it is. Precisely as Mr. Denby is a more 
important person than one A. Lincoln, who once issued an obscure pro- 
clamation — to emancipate slaves, not to make them. 

The proclamation to the Filipinos justly observes that ** there can be 
no real conflict between American supremacy and the rights and liber- 
ties of the Filipinos." Of course there cannot. Shooting a man down 
has nothing to do with his rights or liberty. Only a dude or a mug- 
wump could imagine for a moment that it had. Aren't we going to 
give him a better government — and incidentally a home in heaven? 
Even if we must (as Shafter pleasantly observes) kill off five million 
Filipinos to pacify the other five million. 



IN THE LION'S DEN. 45 

Summer ! How the word has reformed since we used to know summer 
it ! For nearly every one of us now out here in God's country in god'S 

knew summer where it was a profane word — back yonder, countr 

under the humid skies where it swelters and stews and sweats and 
swears. We knew it as a synonym of discomfort not unmixed with 
danger ; of sultriness and stickiness, of boiled faces and mopped brows ; 
of peril from the sun and scant betterment by the shade. We knew 
breathless days and gasping nights ; and every now and then a neighbor 
sunstruck. Summer was a season to " get away somewhere. " 

But now we have got away for good from that whole bungling dic- 
tionary. We have come to a land in whobC bright lexicon winter and 
summer are heavenly twins, words of good cheer. Here, summer is a 
word to conjure by. We are never knocked down by the sun, never 
enervated, never wilted. Children play and men work daylong in the 
ardent sunshine ; in the shade the weakest invalid never has to gasp. 
And the summer nights ! This beast has known Southern California 
for fifteen years ; and in that time has never seen a night there when he 
needed less than two heavy blankets. That is one reason why a decent 
climate is not enervating. And if in any Eastern August a divine reve- 
lation could show the benighted what a California summer actually is, 
no one would be left in the East, except those too poor to buy a ticket 
or too lame to walk. 

These pages go to press when it cannot be known what the which shall be 
Hague shall bring forth. We have sent good men thither— the more 

though with a strange sound in their ears. Let us hope that a enlightene 

republic— M^ Republic — shall do as well as the heaviest monarchy on 
earth for the hopes of humanity. And we shall have more grace in 
doubting the Czar's sincerity when we have shown some of our own. 
Universal peace is only another word for universal common sense. 

The movement to found a great Woman's College in Pasadena will win if NOTHING 
California brains are half as endemic as they think they are. There are |g jqq qqqq 

plenty of rich people in Southern California, and some elsewhere, with wits 

enough to recognize the value of such an investment— its value for the F*^" "^ 

country and for the girls, if American girls might be colleged in a decent climate ; if, in 
the most critical period for themselves and for the next generation they might not only 
acquire algebra but good bodies, and be noiselessly relieved of the hideous nervous 
system which the present generation has invented for women. Prof. Bragdon, who is 
at the back of the plan, is no ignote Squeers out of a job, but head of the old Lasell 
Seminary at Auburndale, Mass., and a man, East or West. He would make a worthy 
college. A girl on the average would live longer and happier who was educated in a 
"country" college in California than in the rarest hot house of the refrigerated Hast. 
But we can have just as good colleges here as there. And the Ivion thinks nothing is 
too good for a good American girl. 

A coast publication regrets that Stanford University has a president whose BRAINS 
soul IS his own ; and by contrast lauds President Harper of Chicago Uni- ^j^q 

versify for being too smart to have any opinions on crucial public questions. cu aptimcr 

Every man to his sort, of course, But there are Americans who do not SMARTNtb 

think the highest qualification for a college president is that he be an artful dodger or 
a moral fugitive. And— leaving aside Dr. Jordan's safe plurality in brains— there are 
Californians proud of having for our head teacher the better citizen of the two. 

When the average newspaper does any serious work in American econom- PRETTY 
ics— tariff, finance and the like— it generally borrows Edward Atkinson's SMALL 

brains. This lends peculiar humor to the present newspaper assault on 

that quiet, dry but brave old man. There is perhaps no American whose BUSINESS, 

learning is more universally in circulation ; for he happens to be the first authority on 
topics we handle every day. The most childish thing ever done oflacially in the United 
States was to suppress him. Atkinson mailed eighi copies of his pamphlets (which 
are documents of" the U. S Senate) to Admiral Dewey, Gen. Otis and six other officers 
in Manila. He notified the government what he was doing; and the government was 
worried enough to tami>er with the mails — our mails, not Mr. Atkinson's nor the ad- 
ministration's—and stop documents of congress lor fear they would corrupt Dewey! 

The packers who sold the beef are commended. The Commisary General LIKE 
who bought it gets a vacation at $6500 a year The Secretary of War who POLITICS 

fixed the contracts is "vindicated." The American soldiers who ate the ' c ace 

beef are not, indeed, exonerated ; but there seems to be no disposition to LIKE BEE 

punish them— or such of them as survived it. The only man found guilty is the Com- 
manding General who objected to having American soldiers eat rotten beef. But this 
. is a merciful country. In Guatemala Miles would be dungeoned or shot for proving the 
' War Department as spoiled as its beef. Here we let him off with a reprimand. 




OD 



So good a thing never befell letters as 

will happen them if the time shall ever 

>' come again when people write only because they 

Kn'^f" ■" .^ have to. That is, because they contain something and it 

t^>'C"^'* won't be contained longer. If it were made a felony to 

write anything, doubtless literature would become nobler at once. 

Those whose lava burned in them would risk prison ; but the present 

itching 90 per cent, would hold in their dust. We have nowadays few 

bursting reservoiis; but many gilded pumps fetching up soda-water 

from unknown shallows. 

Stanley Waterloo, whose S/ory of Ab, the cave-man, was so 
SHORT much out of the ordinary, and withal so interesting, now pub- 

STORiES. lishes a volume of short stories under title of The Wolf's Long 
Howl. The twenty tales are of a rather wide assortment, some tragic, 
some mirthful, some touching — and nearly all good reading. Their 
leading quality is ingenuity. Well-taken and unexpected plots are 
decidedly Mr. Waterloo's best hold. There is also an attractiveness in • 
his medium, by force of its directness mingled with a certain whimsi- 
cality. The most intimate criticism to be made is that his stories do not 
happen y while we read them. We are never quite able to forget that 
they are being told. H. S. Stone & Co., Chicago. $1.50. 

RLAND'S As to the strength of Hamlin Garland's unusual novel. Rose 

STALWART of Dutcher' s Coolly^ there can be no two opinions. It is full of 

ANIMAL, power, in description and in human character. As to its taste, 
there may yery properly be quarrel. It is clearly not of the virgini- 
busque orA.^r \ yet older people are not less vulnerable. "Rose" is a 
strong figure. Every girl, doubtless, has had something of her contacts, 
biit we do not account it needful to record, in life or in fiction, every 
time she hears an obscenity, nor every intimate animal tide that may 
surge in her. Unless we are disembodied we can take certain things for 
granted, and I think Mr. Garland has not helped his large story by 
yielding to what he thought frankness. The Macmillan Co., New 
York, $1.50. 

A year or so ago a sensation was made by a novel of immacu" 
WITHOUT late conception up to date. Its title was Without Sin, and its 
SIN" author, '* Martin J. Pritchard," turned out to be a handsome 
young woman. A new novel from her hands, The Passion of Rosamond 
Keith, is as unconventional in its plan, which involves the naked cruci- 
fixion of the heroine in the Albanian mountains. Yet the book is not 
in any sense prurient ; and despite a good many impossibilities is very 
good reading. H. S. Stone & Co., Chicago. $1.50. 

An unnoted slip in the March number merits correction. The Fran- 
ciscans of the Mission Santa Barbara of course would not permit any 
desecration of the Mission. They did not count it a desecration that 
the Princess Louise and President Harrison's wife stepped into their 
beautiful garden. Therefore the garden did not need to be, and was 
not, ** reconsecrated." 



OTHER 



THAT WHICH IS WRITTEN. 47 

A Little Legacy y by Mrs. L. B. Walford, is a collection of seven swtet, 
unaflfected English short stories, somewhat of the fairy godmother com- 
plexion but so well told that no cynic need mind the secure triumph of 
love and virtue — and without even a villain. The volume is one of the 
dainty " Blue Cloth Books.' H. S Stone & Co., Chicago, 75 cents. 

Charles Battell Loomis, an undeviating humorist whose pranks 
reach from Dan unto Beersheba — yea, verily, from the Independent even 
so far as Town Topics — has made a very attractive little book of Just 
Rhymes. They are clever rhymes themselves, and greatly exalted by 
Miss Cory's unusual drawings. R. H. Russell. 

D'Arcy of the Guards is a very taking little novel of the War of Inde- 
pendence, by Louis Evan Shipman. The adventures of the fighting 
Irishman and his defeat by a lovely " rebel" of Philadelphia, are good 
reading. H. S. Stone & Co., Chicago, $1.25. 

Chas. Dexter Allen the well-known bibliophile and student of book- 
plates has begun the publication of In Lantern Land, a sound, sane 
little monthly bent to letters. It is bright, courageous and interesting. 
Box 1 147, Hartford, Conn. %\ a year. 

Wm. Geo. Jordan, who made Current Literature what it was, has just 
resigned the editorship of the Saturday Evening Posty of which he was 
equally the pith. It will be interesting to watch for his breaking out 
in a new place. 

J. C. L. Clark, of Lancaster, Mass., has issued a booklet of Verses. 
And very good verses, too. Probably the neatest is his retort to Kip- 
ling's bitter sarcasm of ** Adam-Zad." The Czar's message of peace is 

" Christ speaking through a man 
And— perhaps you understand him as well as an Englishman can.'* 

La Creme, a tiny but beautiful monthly bibelot, publishes one com- 
plete story per issue. No. 1 contains Kipling's "My Lord the Elephant." 
Chas. E. Brown & Co., Boston, 25 cents a number. 

Edwin Markham's The Man with the Hoe, and other poems, fill a vol- 
ume now in press with the Doubleday & McClure Co. It promises to 
be an important addition to California literature. 

Sonora Ilustrado, by J. R. Southworth, ** writes up " another North 
Mexican State from the commercial standpoint ; and has a large number 
of half-tones to illustrate the text. 

The Advocate of Peace, Boston, surprises one by the vigor and breadth 
of its speech. It is the kind of speech that appeals to any sober man. 

Mansfield & Wessels, N. Y., issue the Kipling Note Book, a neat and 
interesting series of jottings. 15 cents. 

The Philippines Co., N. Y., issues a map and a concise sketch of 
Manila and the Philippine Islands. 

A small book oi Poetns is published for H. A. Farrand, Philadelphia. 
There are passages of strength. 




BY MARGARET COLLIER GRAHAM. 



LLF-MAOE Discontent is the offspring of irresponsibility. The self-made 

RESPONSIBILITIES. generally trace results to their rightful course, and desiring 
credit for their triumphs are fain to shoulder their defeats as 
well. 

The man who holds himself responsible for himself is withheld from 
bemoaning his failures by the same modesty that forbids him to boast of 
his successes, but the rickety soul that fastens its faults upon circum- 
stance fills the air with its egotistical ferment. 

Self-depreciation is a crude form ot vanity, an endeavor to make others 
say what we should like to think of ourselves. To accept our limitations 
with dignity and spare the world their reiteration is almost to overcome 
them. One cannot know himself too well, but he should remember 
that society has need only of his virtues — his shortcomings are for those 
who love him. 

^E MORE If women complain more than men it is because they have put 

COM PLAIN ERS. their lives out of their own hands. Their rewards are not ac- 
cording to their deserts. Having shifted their responsibility 
they have no personal pride in the result. A married woman's poverty 
merits no more severe reproach than " poor thing." Her success elicits 
no higher praise than "fortunate creature!" Some one else makes 
heaven or havoc of her life. If the latter she is answerable for but one 
mistake — her marriage. And who has not made one mistake ! She may 
complain if she be so minded. Unfortunately she is often so minded, 
and she will remain so while life is not her own to make or to mar. If 
personal responsibility is ever merged into political socialism we may 
expect our men to become what the best of our women are striving to 
escape. Already we see will and character crumbling at the edges from 
the corrosion of paternalistic theories. 

RCUMSTANCES If the "downmost man " is down by reason of the weight of 

OR GRAVITATION, circumstances, and not from gravity, every man above becomes 
part of his burden, and may reproach himself there tor accord- 
ing to the sensitiveness of his moral cuticle. This sympathy and self-re- 
proach do no harm to him who feels them ; it is when the man below 
begins to feel sorry for himself that trouble brews. Self-pity is the first 
step in moral dirintegration. The real danger of the trust is not economic 
but moral — the substitution of ** somebody should" for "I must." And 
yet the inherent moral force of humanity generally proves greater than 
we foresee. There have been countless unfulfilled prophecies of evil in 
the world's history, while the best that has come has seldom been 
foretold. 

TERNATE Not least amongst the evils of partisan politics is the tradition 

PESSIMISTS. by which half the press of the country is foresworn to pessim- 
ism while the opposing party is in power. Society already 



THE ANCLE OF REFLECTION. 49 

doubts itself more than the facts warrant. We say human nature does 
not change, but every reform bears witness to the contrary. Possibly 
with the world, as with the individual, reform is rather an increase of 
discipline than a change of heart. Humanity learns to handle its forces 
better, to check benevolence in the interests of justice aud modify justice 
in the interests of benevolence. 

Just at present society has reached the stage of the "good-hearted 
fellow" who gives to beggars because he thinks it "awfully hard lines" 
to beg. The beggar meanwhile lets his benefactor work for relatively 
the same reason. Each saves himself pain. By-and-by each will learn 
that he cannot help himself or another by hurting either. 

We are manifestly a people of great things. We abound in "the Biggest 
material for bluster. Our size, our numbers, our wealth we on earth " 

have always with us. Even our frauds are gigantic. Individual 
knowledge that these things have little to do with happiness does not 
perceptibly affect our national burliness. You and I know that the mag- 
nificence and perfection of our battle-ships are an infinitesimal factor in 
daily comfort compared with the excellence of our door-locks and 
hinges, but we maintain a discreet silence concerning these domestic 
worries when we are in the society of nations. 

In the privacy of our homes it sometimes occurs to some of us why, 
to wonder vaguely why a people who lead the world in great indeed? 

enterprises cannot have their streets cleaned and their dishes 
Washed with less irritation of soul. Why the merchant, the farmer and 
the housewife still have for their motto, ** If you want ifcdone well do it 
yourself." Why we paint such glowing pictures of our national future 
and say, "Of course you can't expect-:-" of every political and social 
reform. Why we are hopeful of the mass and hopeless of the individual. 
Why the ** flower of our young men" will gaily give themselves as tar- 
gets for Mauser bullets and hide themselves behind a desk or a game of 
golf to escape an Australian ballot. Why we have so few rough riders 
over oflficial corruption among those who "still have their way to 
make." Why the men who brave hunger, exposure and death for glory 
and the women who applaud them for it turn pale at the thought of a 
little poverty for principle . Why we cannot put an end to lynching in 
the South and to political pilfering in the North. And as the wonder 
grows there comes to some of us an unpatriotic impulse to have one 
Fourth of July in ten set aside for the public recital of what we have not 
done. A day for the nation to afflict its soul ; not because it cannot 
mend all these things ; not because it is not slowly mending some of 
them, but because in spite of its greatness it is mending so few of them 
and those so slowly. 

Sooth Pasadena, Cal. 




50 



An Afternoon in Chinatown. 



BY OLIVE PERCIVAL. 



*Y*UST across the historic little Plaza of the old town of Los Angeles 
/^A and opposite the quaint old Church of Our Lady of the Angels, 
\c>^ is a fascinating bit of the Orient. It is the Chinese Quarter, fa- 
miliarly called Chinatown. 

Here, in the narrow, sunless streets of Our Cathay, are the pictur- 
esqueness of the Far East and its wealth of pure, rich colors ; here, also, 
are its squalor and its odor. 

Gliding silently along the streets or posing about the gloomy door- 
ways, you see brightly-clad creatures, whom you have previously met 
only on tea-chests and fans. That wonderful personage standing there 
in the shadow-box of his own doorway is a wise and great doctor, skilled 
in the healing virtue of dragon's blood, bodies of lizards and snakes. 




C. M. Davis Eng. Co. 



GROUP OF CHINESE CHILDREN. 



dried bugs and blood and teeth of the tiger. Look at his immaculate 
white socks — at his queer shoes and pale-green trousers tied down around 
his slender ankles ; and under his sleeveless wadded jacket of violet 
brocade he is wearing a splendid yellow tunic. His extreme haughti- 
ness of manner is eminently becoming to one in such garments clad. Only 
coolies laugh and chatter on the streets or in the presence of "foreign 
devils,' those strange beings who travel for mere pleasure and who act- 
ually walk in public side by side with women 

That little fellow in the faded green silk frock and Chinese shoes, and 
American-made sailor hat and rusty corduroy pants, is creeping back to 
school at the prescribed school-boy pace. His primer is the same as that 
adopted by the Board of Education a thousand or two years ago and, as 
his lessons must be all studied aloud, he develops lung power while the 
immediate neighborhood dreams of machine shops and saw-mills. He 
memorizes what the sages have writ about ancestor- worship, filial piety 
and avoiding evil company — he writes with a brush and India ink — and 
is altogether strangely interesting. He is as self-conscious as the school- 
boy of any other nation when visitors are present — and compels atten- 
tion by shrieking his lesson louder than the combined others or by pull- 



AN AFTERNOON IN CHINATOWN. 5' 

ing the queue of his neighbor. He evidences a healthy interest in fire- 
works, ice-cream and circus processions. 

You pass the Chinese theater, where is billed one of the popular plays 
of one or two hundred acts — where is offered one of the few remaining 
opportunities for the study of the drama in its pristine freshness. In 
front of the vendor of sweetmeats on the corner, is a butterfly cluster of 
bright-eyed, bright-robed children who, as you approach, cease their 
blackbird chatter and inspect you with interest. If you carry no camera, 
you may be favored with a few little smiles and friendly monosyllables. 
But with a camera how can you expect to be popular among these well- 
informed little people who very well know that the picture-taking ma- 
chine brings nothing but evil fortune to the living and distress to the 
spirits of their ancestors, at whose tablets they worship ? 

This dame who stops and buys some sugared cocoanut shavings and 
roasted melon seeds, is on her way to the joss-house — where she feels 
impelled to go and burn some incense sticks and to pray for The Three 
Happinesses, long life, a family of sons and wealth. She did not come 
from the foot-binding section of China and so her feet are of natural 
size. She is a fine lady and does not whiten her face with rice powder, 
nor redden her lips, nor wear gay flowers in her hair — like the poor, 
pitiable slave-women. Her frock and her trousers are of poplin of some 
inconspicuous color, and her little elegancies of dress seem to be only a 
bracelet and ear ornaments of jade. She wears no hat — therefore her 
hair is wonderfully dressed. She screens her face from the gaze of the 
curious with a fan of pheasant feathers. 

You follow at a respectful distance and stand at the joss house gateway, 
listening for a time to the clang and the quiver of the gongs and sniffing 
the incense clouds. Then you pass along the many strange little streets, 
where the buildings are sunless yet not cheerless — for gay lanterns swing 
from the balconies and wooden awnings, mysterious placards of red, 
green, yellow, adorn the walls — and on the window-ledges and balcony 
railings are rows of china flower-pots in which bloom showy flowers. 

That butcher-shop is decidedly less attractive than its bric-a-brac 
neighbor but, from various standpoints, it is quite as interesting. The 
Chinaman can roast a pig, dry a duck or make an amazing sausage — all 
in ihe most distinctly original, skilful fashion — yet, withal, an array of 
these delicacies does not appeal to the fastidious Yankee, however 
hungry. The discreet Yankee is not severely critical — while sight-see- 
ing in Chinatown. That stupid, uninteresting coolie standing there on 
the edge of the unswept pavement (apparently unaware of your appear- 
ance) may suddenly turn and in very plain English hurl the old fact at 
you that his nation was civilized before the advent of Abraham, Isaac or 
Jacob. 

In the curio-shop next door, you will find tea-pots, the apparent mod- 
els of those first imported to Europe (such as were used in the day of the 
interesting Mr. Pepys) that have proved very satisfactory to the Chinese 
tea-drinker for hundreds of years. Why, pray, shonld a chauge be made ? 
There are infinities of tea-cups, all handleless, saucerless ; there are 
brandy-pots with their accompaniment of thimblebowls ; there are brace- 
lets and ear- and hair-ornaments and fans and vases and sandalwood- 
boxes ; there are silks and embroideries. These curio-shops are a fasci- 
nation, even after you have cheerfully handed your last car-fare over the 
dusty counter. 

If you are particularly adventuresome or thirsty you end your after- 
noon ramble in Chinatown with a cup of tea d la Chinoise. A haughty, 
dark -robed Celestial, with his queue coiled in a Psyche knot, a scarlet 
napkin in his hand, places a little bowl of clear, fragrant tea on the 
marble-topped, teak-wood table before you. His unapproachable Dig- 
nity brings you no spoon, no cream, no sugar — not even a slice of lemon; 
but he does bring you a pretty little dish of sugared mysteries. Then you 



52 



LAND OF- SUNSHINE. 



remember that the Orientals take sweets with their tea and coffee, in- 
stead of bread and butter and many other things — and while you wait 
for the scalding beverage to cool, you experiment with the sweetmeats 
and speculate about the Chinese inscriptions on the wall hangings. 

Next best to a trip to Hong Kong, or any of the other Heavenly Cities 
of the Celestial Empire, is a ramble in Chinatown — Cathay in miniature, 
and on your side of the Pacific. 

Los Angeles, Cal. 







J\ J" 




■/ / / V 




^B^ -^ 


p 





C. ML. Uavis Eng. Co. 



A CHINESE SI.AVE. 



Photo, by Taber, S. F. 



53 



War Views in the Philippines. 

BY CEO. C DOTTER OF STEERE'S BATTERY. 




TiiK CASilLI^A, SUNK BY ADMIRAI< DEWKV IN MANILLA HARBOR. 




SAN ROQUE, BURNED BY RETREATING INSURGENTS. 
C. M. Davis Eng. Co. Photos, by Geo. C. Dotter, Battery D. U. S V. 



I 





Mmsmmmmm 

C. M. Davis Eng, Co. 



A STREET IN MANIIyA. Plioto* ^T Geo. C. Dotter, Battery D, U. S, V. 
(Calle de San Pedro.) 




CM. Davis Eng. Co. 



Photo, by Mrs. P. A. Stanley. 



THE SPOUTING WEIvI< AT WHITTIER, CAI^. 

The derrick is 49 ft. higli, and the casing 10-inch. This gives a standard for estimating the height of the jet. 



'i \ B R A~ 

Of- THR 



IJN-IVERSIT 




^ I Ml 



1*1 



U^l 



II II 



CALIFORNIA BABIES 



!l I! 



I! II II II 



If 




C. M.Davis En g. Co. 



HAPPY AS A BIRD. 



Photo, by Schumacher. 



CALIFORNIA BABIES. 



6i 



^t^?r 



^■i 






L. A. Eng. Co. 



•I 3 



THE ORATOR. 



Photo, by Steckel. 




C. M. Davis Eng. Co 



WHO SAID DINNER?" Photo by Mojonier. 





Mausard-CollierEng. Co. ''ONE SHOE OFF AND ONE SHOE ON." Photo, by Scholl. 



64 



A Great Mountain Resort 




m 



»HE mountain resorts within convenient reach of 
Los Angeles are numerous and interesting. Each 
X lias its own individual charm and merit ; but 
among them all Bear Valley is unique. Nothing 
could be more wholesomely satisfying. No en- 
gine shriek disturbs its quietude nor does the dis- 
tant hum of business life recall care and excite- 
ment. Voices there are, but of nature undis- 
turbed, nature not out of tune. The chirrup of 
the chipmunk, the cough of the squirrel, the call 
of the quail, the bubbling of the brook, the sough 
of the wind through the pines, blend in a ca- 
dence of restful harmony. There are all the good 
things too for the outer and inner man — homely 
comforts. There is rest a plenty and hard work 
enough for the seeking, but of the demands of 
fashionable society and reminders of business per- 
plexities none. Free from unnatural restraint 
body and mind recover tone, while nature be- 
comes purified and the soul expanded as is only 
possible when removed from narrow ruts and self- 
ish ends and surrounded by "God's first temples." It will renew the 
interest of those who have enjoyed its trout brooks and lake, its mineral 
springs and pine-scented ozone to learn that the time and distance of 
the trip have been shortened by half through the construction of a new 
route. Heretofore the visitor was compelled to spend the night at San 
Bernardino and then undergo a stage ride from sunrise to sunset. Now 
one can breakfast at Los Angeles and dine the same day at Gus Knight's 
Bear Valley Resort ; or returning, breakfast in the regions of the snow- 
plant, lunch amid the orange groves of Redlands and dine at Los Ange- 
les or the ocean. 

By the new route Bear Valley is but 24 miles by stage from Mentone, 
on the Santa Fe, or Crafton on the Southern Pacific railway. The stage 
leaves the former station at 10:30 and the latter fifteen minutes later, on 
the arrival of the first morning train from Los Angeles, beginning June 
13th, 20th, and 27th, and thereafter on each Tuesday, Thursday and Sat- 
urday until October. The stage leaves Bear Valley on Mondays, Wed- 
nesdays and Fridays, arriving at Redlands at noon. 

Regular round trip tickets for the stage can be secured for |5.00, or one 
way for $3.00 at 132 South Spring street, Los Angeles, or from the Santa 
V€ ticket agent at Pasadena or Redlands. The toll for private convey- 
ances is the cheapest of any mountain road into the same regions. 

Excursion tickets for the round trip from Redlands, including one 
week's board and lodging, are |13.00. The regular rates for board and 
lodging are $2.00 a day, or $10.00 a week, and include hotel apartments, 
private or adjoining furnished log cabins, fresh beef, milk, butter, fish, 
game and vegetables and fruits in season. Tent grounds, horses, sad- 
dles, vehicles, guns and fishing tackle can be rented, and provisions pur- 
chased. A log-cabin dining-room, and the pleasure-hall with its piano 
and huge fireplace compete for popularity, while recently-completed 
golf links (one of the best in California) near the hotel, divide honors 
with fishing and hunting, driving and mountain-climbing. 

The new Bear Valley and Redlands Toll Road enters the Santa Ana 
Caiion and crossing over into Bear Creek Caiion ascends the summit near 
Bluflf Lake, a point noted for its commanding view, extending from Red- 
lands and San Bernardino to Perris and Alessandro, and out to the 
islands of the ocean. Here, too, is the last glimpse of the haunts of men 
before disappearing into those of the grey timber squirrel and deer. 



66 



LAND OF SUNSHINE. 







-^ 



v.;^^^||^'-^ 



'4*#^ 



C. M Davis Eng Co 



TUK BKAR VAl,l,KY STAGS), WHEEIw-DEeP IN FKRNS. 



F. A.:Sclinell,Photo. 



Often passing refreshing springs, crossing snow-fed trout-brooks, skirt- 
ing deep gorges and traversing fern glens and tndless park-like forests 

of statelv pine, spruce 
and hemlock, the route 
in itself more than re- 
pays the undertaking. 
In Keller's Caiion the 
road passes for two 
miles through a veri- 
table arbor of large 
alders and emerges at 
the head of the canon 
of beetling and rug- 
ged cliffs. 

Unlike the old route, 
this one lias no ad- 
verse grades. It is a 
steady ascent of the 
south side of the range 
to an altitude of 7600 
feet and as steady a 
descent into the heart 
of the mountains to 
the 6000-foot level at 




A PARADISE. FOR CHII^DREX. 



Gus Knight's Camp. 
This lies within about 



A GREAT MOUNTAIN RESORT. 



67 




* ^ M- t * 






A FIVE HOUR CATCH FOR TWO RODS FROM BEAR VALI^EY LAKE. 

a mile of Bear Valley Lake, which has for years supplied orchards forty 
miles below. Its borders encroach upon the surrounding timber during 
the winter, but receding in summer provide excellent pasturage for 
hundreds of fine cattle. Mountain beef is noted for its tenderness and 
flavor— and the air at this place is so pure and dry that the unsealed but 
screen-lined log meat house rivals all the mechanical refrigerating pro- 




A PORTION OF GUS KNIGHT'S CAMP, BEAR VALLEY. 

cesses of the lowlands. In fact the purity and dryness of its atmosphere, 
its mineral springs, the maguificeut surroundings and opportunity for 
rest and recreation must soon render the present facilities for seventy 
guests but the beninning of a growth to an immense patronage. F. p. 



A Unique Ocean Resort. 




w 



^HETHER the Terminal Railway Com- 
pany knew what a good bargain they 
were getting in the purchase of the 
long strip of sand dunes, between San 
Pedro Bay and the Wilmington Estuary, 
is not a matter of definite record. The 
company needed this piece of land to give 
them an outlet to the harbor that was des- 
tined to be constructed at San Pedro : that 
was all ; but, in acquiring it, they came 
into possession of the most complete and 
satisfactory watering place and seaside resort to be found anywhere in 
the vicinity of Los Angeles. 

In a comparatively small compass, Terminal Island combines all the 
advantages that go to make the various other resorts severally desirable. 
It is accessible, well improved, surrounded by a beautiful outlook in 
every direction, with perfect surf- bathing, calm water for boating, op- 
portunities for yachting, fishing either by boat or from the wharf, with 
good golf links, and with hotel accommodations of the most satisfactory 
character — what more can one ask of a beach resort ? 

This strip of land is called an island only by courtesy, so to speak ; 
for the narrow thread of tide water that formerly divided it from the 
mainland has long since been filled in. Here is something that many 
of us have long been seeking — an island that one may reach without 
going aboard ship. You may ride all the way comfortably in the cars 
of the Terminal railway, making the trip in about forty minutes, and 
the trains are so arranged as to allow the man of business, who takes his 
summer vacation on the installment plan, to spend his nights at the 
beach and his days in town. 




AT TERMINAI, ISLAND. 



A UNIQUE OCEAN RESORT. 



69 



The ocean beach of the Island faces to the southeast, for the coast-line 
from Long Beach to San Pedro takes a southwesterly turn. Thus the in- 
habitants of the Island may behold the sun of a morning rise out of the 
Pacific. To the southward lies Dead Man's Island, and beyond that, 
Catalina. San Pedro is to the northwest, and Wilmington and Los 
Angeles to the north. 

The ocean thus enclosed is 

calmer than at most other points ' 

along the seaboard near Los An- 
geles. There is a surf, of course, 
and at rare intervals — perhaps ten 
days in the year — good-sized 
breakers come in ; but as a rule, 
the waves are just the height to 
give the bathing a zest that still 
water can never impart. As the 
water is shallow — for the beach 
shelves slowly for a considerable 
distance — the temperature of the 
water is exceptionally warm. 
There is no undertow or danger- 
ous deep water currents, and no 
rocks mar the smooth level of 
the sandy beach. A more per- 
fect combination for bathing purposes it would be impossible to 
devise. 

From the ocean side to the interior bay is a five-minute walk, for the 
Island is narrow and fiat. The Estuary is a perfectly calm sheet of 
clear water, with a background of gray hills and picturesque old build- 
ings. The view strongly suggests Holland, and is a favorite one with 




THE OLD BREAKWATER LEADING TO DEAD MAN'S ISLAND. 




C. M. Davis Eng Co. 



YE TERMINAI, TAVERN. 



Photo, by Pierce. 



70 



LAND OF SUNSHINE. 



local artists. Here are boats and motor launches to be had, of all kinds 
and sizes, and one may cruise about in the interior bay, or may round 
Dead Man's Island or Point Firmin into the open sea. There are also 
many sailing craft, and in the summer months, famous yacht races 
take place in the bay in front of the Island. 

The fishing is excellent, either from the end of the wharf, where one 
may land surf fish, rock bass, smelt, or whiting, or from a boat where 
he will get baracuda and yellow tail. 

There are good golf links, and the game is much played on the Island. 








i 




C. M Davis Eng Co. 



TYPICAI, SURF BATHING SCENliS. 



Photos, by Dau^'herty. 



A UNIQUE OCEAN RESORT. 



7i 



If the visitor is disposed to explore the surrounding country, he may 
visit San Pedro and the light-house at Point Fermin, or do a three mile 
walk on the shingle to Long Beach. Dead Man's Island is a favorite 
place, in spite of its grewsome name, for beautiful natural aquaria are 
to be seen there. Considerable shipbuilding is under way at the west- 
ern end of Terminal Island ; and the harbor construction is beginnine 
near the Point. ^ 

Although the building of summer residences on the Island began 
only three years ago, the beach is now im- 
proved for nearly a mile, with a broad, firm 
sidewalk, electric lights, and several score 
of cottages. The latter are, for the most 
part, of artistic design, full of individuality, 
and are much more elegant than the struct- 
ures one usually beholds at 
I seaside resorts. A high stand- 
ard was established in the be- 
ginning, and it has been pretty 
,^l steadily maintained. Of course 
j)tm ^^^ these manifold advantages 
of Terminal Island would 
amount to but 
little to the gen- 
eral public — es- 
pecially to those 
dwelling in the 
interior towns 
— if there were 
no large hotel 
for the accom- 
modation of 
visitors; and un- 
til this year, the 
Island has lack- 
ed that one 
great and im- 
portant feature. 
Thanks to the 
enterprise of 
Mr. Frank S. 
Gordon, the 
want is now fill- 
ed. "The Gor- 
don Arms,'' 
which will 
open about the first of July, is one of the most beautiful and most per- 
fectly equipped hotels to be found at any Southern California watering 
place. It can accomodate about 100 guests. There are no inside rooms 
and all are unusually fine in arrangement and furnishings — twenty of 
the suites being connected with private baths. Card rooms and ladies' 
parlors are connected by folding doors with a most inviting office. There 
are huge clinker-brick fireplaces both in the office and on the second 
floor. 

The 36 X 60 foot dining room occupies the end of the ell of the build- 
ing and thus commands a good view of the ocean and the inner bay. 

As the cuisine of the hotel will be first-class, it is furnished with a 
perfectly equipped kitchen with all the latest improvements. 

The hotel is lighted by e'ectricity and is provided with call bells in 
every room. 

One of the most popular features of this hotel will be the porches. 




A CATCH OF BARRACUDA AND YELLOWTAIL. 



72 



LAND OF SUNSHJNE. 




American Eng. Co. 



STII.I. WATER BOATING 












SURF BOATING. 




1 



74 



LAND OF SUNSH INE. 




MR. FRANK S. GORDO^f. 



From the upper terrace, which is reached from the 
second story, one may sit out in the air and enjoy the 
view of the ocean, which rolls up just below, or the 
bay to the north. The lower porch, 18x360 feet in 
size, is much of it enclosed in glass, and this portion 
will be used for the purposes of grill rooms and cafe. 
North of the hotel there are a number of cottages, 
with rooms arranged in suites with separate outside 
entrances. These are for the use of guests, who will 
take their meals at the hotel. They are supplied with 
electric bells and every convenience. 

In front of the hotel runs the beach promenade — a 
broad walk over a mile in length and lighted from 
end to end by electricity. 

Sixty feet of frontage near the hotel will be devoted 
to the hotel's surf bath house. This will have forty 
dressing rooms, a ladies' hair- dressing parlor and a 
barber shop. Its upper story will be converted into 
an observatory and roof-garden with seats, etc. 

Fine golf links near the hotel will prove an addition to such other 
outdoor amusements as surf bathing, fishing, bicycling and driving on 
the hard beach, promenading on the long walk, yachting and still 
water boating. 

The manager, Mr. S. P. Anderson, a well known hotel man, formerly 
connected with the Van Nuys Annex, will conduct the hotel after the 
most approved methods. It will be a first-class house of the same grade 
as the Coronado, Van Nuj'S and Green, but the prices will be as moderate 
as the entertainment furnished will allow. 

A convenient and attractive new depot has been added to the railway 
facilities of Terminal Island, so that trains to and from the city can stop 
within a few hundred feet of The Gordon Arms, and it is only a short 
walk from it to the golf links and the boat-house. 

There is no doubt that this will prove one of the most popular sea- 
side hotels to be found anywhere on the California coast, attracting 
visitors both in the summer and the winter months ; for the winter 
climate of Terminal is warm and pleasant, as its summer climate is cool 
and bracing. 

Ye Terminal Tavern is a comfortable beach house, containing a 
number of pleasant rooms, where visitors may be accommodated, and 
providing a good fish dinner for the man who visits the Island merely 
for the day. It is near the wharf and the 
Terminal bath house and pavilion, where 
the band plays on Sundays and holidays, and 
it is here that the great crowd of daily visitors 
from the city congregate. It is under new 
management, Mr. McCament, the well known 
Pasadena caterer, having recently leased the 
place. 

The still water pastimes made possible by 
the inner harbor have indeed been an attrac- 
tion enjoyed by no other coast point within 
easy reach of Los Angeles, but the real pop- 
ularity of the place dates from the establish- 
ment of its shore conveniences. 

With its new and beautiful hotel, and with 
a number of new cottages and other im- 
provements, the outlook for a lively and 
entertaining season at Terminal this year is 
certainly most promising. photo by warceau 

MR. S. P. ANDERSON. 




A BROADWAY ACCESSION. 

A IvMOST opposite the Broadway establishment of B. F. Coulter & Co., andafe\^ 
^ doors north of the quarters of the Friday Morning Club, has been opened i 
branch of the Ingleside Floral Company's Spring street store. 

Finished in -white and gold throughout, its mirrors reflecting the cut-flowei 
laden counters, and its large inclosed window space filled with carnations, swee 
peas, amaryllis, hot-house roses, tropical palms and rare ferns, it is at once the mos 
artistic and inviting establishment on this well appointed street. 

An innovation in this connection, but a most harmonious and delicious one, is i 
$4000 Tufits soda fountain. It is assuredly the most delicately artistic fountain ii 
this section, while its forty syrups and six mineral waters will also be found unsur 
passed in number and flavor. It is of beautifully grained Italian onyx, which, un 




Eu({ Co Photo, by Maude. 

BRANCH OF INGLESIDE FLORAI, COMPANY'S SPRING STREET STORE, 



326 SOUTH BROADWAY. 



like the Mexican stone, is of the most delicate shades of light green, gray and pur 
white. Together with its plate mirrors, elegant coffee urn, fine counter service an 
young lady attendants, it gives a finishing touch to quarters which impresses thei 
daintiness, cleanliness and artistic charm on all who enter. 

That a great many will enter is assured by the attractive glimpse to be had of th 
interior from the sidewalk and the strains of exquisite music from a large Regin 
music box at the far end of the store. 

With the thirty acres of outdoor flowers and the 17,000 square feet of glassco\ 
ered hot-houses of the famous Ingleside gardens at his command, the proprietoi 
Captain F. Kdward Gray, has become indispensable, not only to the tourist an 
small buyer, but in the decoration of halls, churches, residences, weddings, funei 
als, etc., as well as in shipping cut flowers, seeds and bulbs to all points in California 
Arizona and New Mexico and more distant Eastern points. 



When answering advertisements, please mention that you "saw it in the I,and of Sunshine 



ERM 


IINAL ISLAND 


The 
Ideal 
Sportsman's 
Resort 


BEST 
FISHING 

BEST 
BATHING 

BEST 
BOATING 




W; 


Q 


r 


BEST 
SAILING 


LOTS FOF 


\ SALE 


Edward D. Silent & Co., 


212 West Second St. los Angeles 


C.A.SUMNER & CO., 

134 South Broadway,' Los Angeles 



FURNISHED HOUSE, 

TERMINAL ISLAND 

TO RENT during August and September, a 
nine- room house — five bedrooms — at Terminal 
Island ; completely furnished throughout ; fronts 
on the ocean, in best locality. Price |80 per 
month, or $150 for the two months. Will rent 
August, September and October for $200. 
Zl , Address, TERMINAL ISLANDER, 
Care of L,and of Sunshine, 

501 Stimson Bldg., 

T,o8 Angeles. 

Berlin Dye and Cleansing Works 

DRY PROCESS 

M. S. KoRNBLUM, Proprietor. 

348 S. Broadway, Tel. Main 675 

Works cor. Washington St. and Griffith Ave. 
Los Angeles, Cal. 



ASTHMA 

rr IS OUB SPECIALTY 

Bronchitis, Lungjhroat, 

Wasting and Nervous 

Diseases cured to 

stay cured 1 1 

Oof New Method treatment and 
Remedies Cure all Stomach, Liver, 
Kidney and Chronic Blood Diseases 

FRHB our Book on Health 
Dr. Gordin's Sanitarium 

5l4 PINE St., H. F., Cal. 

CONSULTATION FREE. 






^ 


i 


H- 


V 


^1 



lA/ILL develop or reduce 
" any part of the body 



A Perfect Complexion Beautifler 
and 

Remover of Wrlnides 

Dr. John Wilson Gibbs' 

THE ONLY 

Electric Massage Roller 

(Patented United States, Europe, 
Canada.) 
" Rs work is not confined to the 
w_j M ,- T, ■ X o '"ce alone, but will do good to any 
Trade-Mark Registered. part of the body to which it is ap- 
plied, developing or reducing as desired. It is a very pretty 
addition to the toilet-table."— Chicago Tribune. 

"This delicate Electric Beautifler removes all facial blemishes. 
It is the only positive remover of wrinkles and crow's-feet. It 
never fails to perform all that is expected." — Chicago Times- 
ilerald. 

"The Electric Roller is certainly productive of good results. 
I believe it the best of any appliances It is xafe and effective." 
— Harriet Hubbard Ayer, New York World. 

For Massage and Curative Purposes 

\n Electric Roller in all the term implies The invention of a 
physician and electrician known throughout this country and 
Kurope. A most perfect complexion beautifler. Will remove 
wrinkles, "crow's-feet" (premature or from age), and all facial 
blemishes— POSITIVE. Whenever electricity is to be used for 
massaging or curative purposes, it has no equal. No charging. 
Will last forever Always ready for use on ALL PARTS OF THE 
BODY, for all diseases. For Rheumatism, Sciatica, Neuralgia, 
Nervous and Circulatory Diseases, a specific The professional 
standing of the inventor (you are referred to the public press 
for the past fifteen years), with the approval of this country 
and Europe, is a perfect guarantee. PRICE : Gold, $4 00 ; 
Silver, |3 00. By mail, or at office of Gibbs'Company, 1370 
Broadway, Nkw York. Circular free 

The Only Electric Roller. 
All others so called are Fraudulent imitations. 




Copyright. 



Copyright. 



"Can take a pound a day off a patient, or put it on." — New 
York Sun, Aug. 30, 1891. Send for lecture on "GreatjSubject of 
Fat." NO DIETING. NO HARD WORK. 

Dr. John Wilson Gibbs' Obesity Cure 
For the Permanent Reduction and Cure of Obesity 

Purely Vegetable. Harmless and Positive. NO FAILURE. Your 
reduction is assured — reduced to stay. One month's treatment 
$5.00. Mail, or office, 1370 Broadway, New York "On obesity, 
Or. Gibbs is a recognized authority. — N. Y. Press, 1899." 

REDUCTION GUARANTEED 

"The cure is based on Nature's laws"— New York Herald, 
July 9, 1893. 

Deafness Cannot be Cured 

by local applications, as they cannot reach the 
diseased portion of the ear. There is only one 
way to cure Deafness, and that is by constitu- 
tional remedies Deafness is caused by an in- 
flamed condition of the mucous lining of the 
Eustachian Tube. When this tube gets inflamed 
you have a rumbling sound or imperfect hear- 
ing, and when it is entirely closed Deafness is 
the result, and unless the inflammation can be 
taken out and this tube restored to its normal 
condition, hearing will be destroyed forever ; 
nine cases out of ten are caused by catarrh, 
which is nothing but an inflamed condition of 
the mucous surfaces. 

We will give One Hundred Dollars for any case 
of Deafness (caused by catarrh) that cannot be 
cured by Hall's Catarrh Cure. Send for circulars, 
free. F. J. CHENEY & CO., Toledo, O. 

|3(r*Sold by Druggists, 75c. 

HARDWOOD FLOORING .... 

Parquet— strip— Wood Carpet— T. & G. Oak 

and Maple Flooring. Oak floors laid and 

polished, $1 25 per yard. 
Rinald Bros. Porcelain Enamel Paint for bath tubs, 

walls or wainscoting, in all colors. 
EXCELSIOR FliOOR POI.ISHING CO., 

Marshall & Jenkins 
Tel. Green 1611. 430 S. Broadway, I,os Angeles. 



When answering advertisements, please mention that you " saw it in the Land of Sunshine. 



Outing Pleasures 



made 
complete 



when Outing Goods are HOpripp'Q 



We place at your disposal the best results of long experience and careful thought, 
assembling a complete stock of Practical Sporting Goods. 

No fancy gim cracks to fail you under tlie test of real use, 
but just tiie things needed in this section. 

'yc MnpC We make a better tent for .less money than any other house . 
* t-iA^ * ^ We can prove this statement. 

r* A A/l D CI TDMinri TDP The new ideas and the best of old ones, 
W/\tTlf^ rUlVl^l 1 ^IvCr AH at new and trade- compelling prices. 

niCmXin XAr'I^I C ah kinds of tackle for all kinds of fish. 
riOllll^VJ 1 /\WIVL,i:; one kind of price— the lowest. 

**^''*JnofheTm^aLro'f GUNS AND AMMUNITION 

Our leader is the AD3ITRAI.WHEEt,«25 r\/C\ PQ AISIH Ql IISinDIPQ 
You'll miss a good thing if you pass it. ^ iV^LrCrO ^l\U OLJi^ Lf K.lCf^ 

The best imported and dome^stic QQLF AND TENNIS 

Let Us Estimate for Base Ball Suits. 



Phone 
Main 658 



Wn. H. HOEQEE 



138-142 
S. Main St. 



Messrs. HAWLEY, KING & CO. 

announce that 

This week another car of the old reliable COLUMBUS BUGOY CO.'S 
vehicles will arrive. Newest styles and colors. 




We also carry a full 
line of 

MOVER 

CORTLAND 

and 

OSGOOD 

CARRIAGES 



® ® ® 



Agents for the 

VICTOR 

BICYCLE 

standard the world 

over. Only one 

grade. 

Price $40.00 



HAI^F-TOP CABR10I.ET 

This fashionable Cabriolet can be used as a family carriage without coachman. 
Wide rear seat. Morocco trimmings. 

Pneumatic-tired Surries and Road Wagons in stock. 

COR. BROADWAY AND FIFTH ST., LOS ANGELES 



When answering adverlisemeuts, please mention that you " saw it in the Land of Sunshine.'' 




OLD MEXICO AND RETURN IN A DAY 

Through Orange and Lemon Groves, 
reached only by the 

National City and Otay Railway 

Leaving foot 6th St., San Diego, at 9:30 a m. 

ROUND TRIP 50c. 

Grand Mexican Fiesta week at Tia 
Juana, July 17th to 23rd. Mexican games, 
races and spoits, wierd dances and games 
by native Indians, bronco tiding by noted 
vaqueros, Mexican meals and other at- 
tractions peculiar to the country. 

Fine Mexican BandH in Attend- 
ance. Rare opportunities afforded ama- 
ture photographers to add to their collec- 
tions views of the old and new Custom 
House, the old Spanish Chapel, groups of 
Indians and natives in fiesta attire, the 

Boundry Monument marking the line between the United States and Mexico, and other points of 
interest. Beautiful onyx, quaint Mexican curios and cigars can be purchased there at reasonable 
prices. To Americans a novel and interesting custom is to write a postal card to friends in the United 
States, and have their handkerchief stamped by an official as a souvenir of the republic. Ample facilities 
and writing material for all. A representative of the President of the Republic, with other prominent 
government and educational officials will be present. 

SFECIAIi NATIONAL, EDUCATIONAL. ASSOCIATION DAYS— July 17, 18 and 19— 
during which time the new school house will be dedicated and a typical Mexican school conducted, in 

itself an attraction and nov- 
elty to American teachers. 

Fair Round Trip on 
all trains of 17, 18 and 19, 
from San Diego to Tia Juana 
(American side, but short 
walk to Mexican line), 50c. 
Frequent and ample train 
service. Special rates, in- 
cluding free 'bus, on other 
days. 

For further informa- 
tion apply at Teachers' 
Headquarters, all hotel and 
railway offices in San Diego, 
or at Station, foot 6th St 

E A. HORNBECK, 

Superintendent. 





Satin Cerate 



Cleanses and beautifies the 
skin and creates a lovely 
complexion. Sold by all 
druggists in Los Angeles 
and Southern California 
towns. 



PREPARED BY 



Mrs. Wcavcr-Jackson 

Manufacturer of 

Toilet Luxuries and Specialties 

318 S. SPRING ST. 

Wig Making. Hair Store. Toilet Parlors. 



Send for Booklet "Comfort and Beauty." 



IN THE PATH OF PROGRESS 

MEDICAL, PRACTICE ALONG ORIGINAL. LINES 



Some Achievements of an Independent Thinker— New Ideas in Therapeutics. 

Diagnosis Without Questions— Cures Without the Use of Poisons. 

Painless Surgery Without the Knife— Unequaled Re= 

suits from Novel Methods. 

A method which appeals to reason, 
disarms prejudice and rewards investi- 
gation. It not only cures, but it cures 
without danger, pain or the use of 
hurtful drugs Its cures are perma- 
nent, because those natural powers of 
the human body which sustain health 
are restored from their impaired con- 
dition to strength and harmony. 

1st. Dr. Piatt is the only Caucasian 
employing diagnosis by the pulse, a 
method of diagnosis devised by the 
Orientals and by them perfected into a 
science. It reveals, without answers 
to questions from the patient, the exact 
condition of the vital organs and the 
vital powers. It determines to a nicety 
the treatment required, and is equally 
valuable in prognosis as the cure ad- 
vances. 

2nd. Dr. Piatt employs, both in- 
ternal and external, only harmless but 
powerful herbal remedies. All disease 
means inflammation, and therefore 
poison. This must be removed, blood 
and tissues cleansed, new and healthy 
growth established. All heavy, con- 
centrated, mineral or poisonous reme- 
DR Ti O PT ATT ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^ worse than useless. 

XT /.or. o 4.U Tj j T A 1 3rd. As a cooperative treatment the 

No. 439 South Broadway, I.os Angeles. j^^ ^^^ perfected an absolutely dry, hot- 

air process. A temperature of 300 and even 450 degrees may be applied to any part 
of the body, and 220 degrees to the whole body. It at once relieves pain, rheuma- 
tism, paralysis and blood poisoning from any cause, reduces inflammation of joints, 
dislocations and fractures, fever sores, milk-limb, skin diseases, cancers and tumors. 

INVITES INVESTIGATION 

Dr. Piatt refers to scores of the best people in Southern California. Diagnosis 
free. Send for booklet. Parlors, Nos. 21, 22, 23 Hotel Catalina, 439 S. Broadway, 
Los Angeles, Cal. 




THE BEST PICTURES^ ^^ 

SchoU^ Artistic Portraits 



Lowest Prices 
in the city 
for such work 



3J7 W. THIRD STREET 



Ground Floor 
No Stairs 




New residents in a city or persons moving from one section to anotlier are usually forced to learn 
by experience the best places to patronize. Our object in publishing a Commercial Blue Book is to 
point out to our readers a few ot the leading stores, hotels, rooming houses, restaurents, schools, 
sanitariums, hospitals, etc.; also professional men, and the most satisfactory places in which to deal. 
As it is not our intention to publish a complete business directory, some firms equally as good as those 
we have listed may have been omited. Still, we believe that those who consult this guide will be satis- 
fied with the list submitted. The variety and class of goods handled, as well as the reputation of the 
merchant, has received careful attention in each selection made, with the idea of saving our readers as 
much time, trouble and expense as possible. 



Architect Supplies 

Sanborn, Vail & Co., 133 S. Spring st. 

Aiiyvo 



Theatrical Cold Cream Make Up. 
Kouge Gras 



Viole & Lopizich, 427 N. Main st., dis- 
tributing agents. Tel. Main 895. 

Bakeries 

Ebinger's Bakery, cor. Spring and Third 
sts. Tel. 610. 

The Meek Baking Co. Factory and of- 
fice Sixth and San Pedro sts. Tel. 
main 322. Principal store 226 W. 
Fourth St. Tel. main 1011. 

Ahrens' Bakery, 425 S. Broadway. 

Mrs. Angel's Bakery, 830 W. Seventh st. 

Baths— Hammain and Others 

Turkish Baths, 210 S. Broadway. Tub 
baths 25 cents, Turkish baths $1. 

Beach Pebbles, Moonstones, Agates, Sea 

Shells, etc., r)ressed{and Polished 

to Order 

J. A. Mcintosh & Co., L. A. Steam Shell 
Works, 1825 S. Main st. 



Bicycle Dealers 

Central Park Cvclery. W. G 
prop 



518 S. Hill st Tel. 



William*?, 
Green 1211. 



I^. A. Cycle and Sporting Goods Co., 319 

S. Main st. 
Williamson Bros., 327 S. Spring st. Tel. 

Brown 1315. 
Brown & Fortney, 226 W. Plfth st. 

Bicycle Riding Academy 

Central Park Cyclery, W. G. Williams, 
prop., 518 S.Hill St. Tel. Green 1211. 

Main Street Bicycle Academy, Harry 
Brown, prop., 547 S. Main st. 



Books, Stationery, etc. 

Stoll & Thayer Co., 252-254 S. Spring st. 
B. F. Gardner, 305 S. Spring st. 
Sanborn, Vail & Co., 133 S. Spring st. 
F. J. Liscomb, cor. Fifteenth and Main 
sts. 

Botanic Pharmacy 

Iviscomb's Botanic Pharmacy, Main and 
Fifteenth sts. Tel. We^t 68. 

Business Universities. 

Metropolitan Business Universit)^ W. C. 
Buckman, Mgr., 438-440 S. Spring st. 

Carpenter Work, Jobbing, Mill Work 

Adams Mfg. Co., 742 S. Main st. Tel. 
Red 1048. 

Carpet Cleaning Works 

Pioneer Steam Carpet Cleaning Works, 
Robt. Jordon, Mgr., 641 S. Broadway. 
Tel. 217 Main. 
Clothing and Gent's Furnishings 

London Clothing Co., 117-125 N. Spring 

St., s. w. cor. Franklin. 
Mullen, Bluett & Co., n. w. cor. Spring 

-and First sts. 

Confectionery, Ice Cream, Sherbets, etc. 
Wholesale and Retail 

Merriam & Son, 127 S. Spring st. Tel. 

Main 475. 
The Pacific Creamery, 344 S. Broadway. 

Tel. Main 459 
M. Broszey & Co., 121 W. Sixth st. Tel. 

Red 2033. 

Coal Oil, Gasoline, etc. 

Morris-Jones Oil and Fuel Co., 127 S. 
Broadway. Tel. Main 666. 



Land of Sunshine Commercial Blue Book, Los Angeles, Cal. 



Curio Stores 

Wm. F. Winkler, 346 S.Broadway. 

Decorative Needle-work and Infants' 
Wear 

Beeman & Hen dee, 310 S. Broadway. 

Delicacy Stores 

Ahrens' Bakery, 425 S. Broadway. 

Dentists 

Dr. M. E. Spinks, Spinks Block, cor. 5th 

and Hill sts, Tel. Brown 1375. 
Drs. Adams Bros., 239}4 S. Spring st. 
G. H. Kreichbaum, 356 S. Broadway. 

Door and Window Screens and House 
Kepairing 

Adams Mfg Co., 742 S. Main st. Tel. 
Red 1048. 

Druggists 

Thomas Drug Co., cor. Spring and Tem- 
ple sts. Tel. Main 62. 
National Pharmacy, 1601 Grand ave., 

cor. Sixteenth st. Tel. West 174. 
H. C. Worland, 2133 E- First st. Station B. 
H. B. Fasig, 531 Downey ave., cor. Tru- 
man St., East L. A. 
M. W. Brown, 1200 W. Washington st. 
Iviscomb's Pharmacy, cor. Main and Fif- 
teenth sts. Tel West 68. 
Catalina Pharmacy, M. Home, prop. , 1 501 

W. Seventh st. 
Viole & Lopizich, 427 N. Main st. Tel. 
Main 875. 

Dry Goods 

N. B. Blackstone Co., Spring and Third 

sts. 
Boston Dry Goods Store, 239 S. Broadway. 
J. M. Hale Co., 107-9-10 N. Spring st. 
Dye Works, Cleaning 

American Dye Works, J. A. Berg, prop. 
Office 21 OK S. Spring st. Tel Main 
850. Works 6 13-61 5 W. Sixth st. Tel. 
Main 1016. 



Furnished Rooms 

Rio Grande House, 425 W. Second st. 

Rate #2. 50 to $3.50 per week. 

^^?x'.f e'^'.?'^- ^- J- ^^°^' prop . 
416 W. Sixth St. Rate $1.50 to «5 
per week. ^ 

The Smithsonian, 312 S. Hill st. Rate 
$2 to $4 per week. 

i^?[-n' Mrs. M. J. Knox, prop., 344 
S. Hill St. Rate$1.50to|3pcrweek. 
Furnilure, Carpets and Draperies 
Los Angeles Furniture Co., 225-229 S 

Broadway. Tel. Main 13. 
Southern California Furniture Co 312- 
T ^^'4 S.Broadway. Tel. Main 1215. 
I. T. Martin, 531-3-5 S. Spring st. 

Grilles, Fretwork, Wood Novelties, Etc. 

Los Angeles Grille Works, 610 South 



Broadway. 



Groceries 



JBlectricians 

Woodill & Hulse Electric Co., 108 W. 
Third St. Tel. Main 1125. 

Family Hotels 

Hotel Gray Gables, cor. Seventh and 
Hill sts. Rates $1 to $2 per day. 

Hotel Lillie, 534 S. Hill st. Rate |8 to 
$15 per week. 

The Belmont, 425 Temple st. Rate $6.50 
per week and up. 

Fruit and Vegetables 

Marston & Co., 320 Temple st. Tel 
Main 1622. (Shipping solicited.) 

Rivers Bros., Broadway and Temple st 
Tel. Main 1426. (Shipping solicited) 



Blue Ribbon Grocery, B. Wynns & Co 

449 S. Spring st. Tel. Main 728. 
Despars & Son, cor. Main and Twentv- 

nfth sts. -^ 

H. Jevne, 208-210 S. Spring st. 
C. A Neil. 423 Downey ave , East L A 

Tel. Alta 202 
Marston & Co., 320 Temple st. Tel 

Main 1622. 
Morrison Bros , 419 S. Broadway. Tel 

Main 784. ^ 

Rivers Bros , Broadway and Temple st 

Tel. Main 1426. 
Smith & Anderson, cor. Pico and Olive 

sts. Tel. Blue 2401. 
Electric Grocery, 1603S. Grand ave. Tel 

Blue 2612. 

^^^'V^'H'f^^''"' J 436-38 S. Main st. 

Tel. White 2062. 
O. Willis, cor. Alvarado and Seventh sts 

Tel. Main 1382. 
J. C^Rockhill, 1573 W. First St., cor. 

Belmont ave. Tel. Main 789. 
A. Thomas, 838 W. Seventh st Tel 

Main 1023. 
T. L. Coblentz, 825 S. Grand ave. Tel 
Brown 777. 

Hahedashers and Hatters. 

^'"'^'i^^^r..^- ^^'^^' ^23 S. Spring st. 
Tel. Main 547. 

Hair Bazaar and Beauty Parlors 

The Imperial, Frank Neubauer, prop 
224-226 W. Second st. Tel.' Black 

1 38 1 . 

Hardware, Tinware, Glass and Paints 

Despars & Son, cor. Main and Twenty- 
nfth sts. 

Hay, Grain, Coal and Wood 

The P. J. Branneu Feed, Fuel & Storage 
Co., 806-810 S. Main st. Tel. Main 



Land of Sunshine Commercial Blue Book, Los Angeles, Cal. 



Hay, Grain, Coal and Wood— Continued 

William Dibble, cor. Sixth and Los An- 
geles sts. Tel. Green 1761. 

Morris-Jones Oil & Fuel Co., 127 S. 
Broadway. Tel. Main 666. 

Grand Avenue Feed & Fuel Co., A. F. 
Cochems, 1514 Grand ave. Tel. 
West 227. 

J. H. White & Son, 2024-2028 E- First st. 
Tel. Boyle 4. 

A. E. Breuchaud, 841 S. Figueroa st. 
Tel. Main 923. 

Hotels 

Abbotsford Inn, cor, Eighth and Hope 
sts. Rate, $1.50 per day and up. 

Bellevue Terrace Hotel, cor. Sixth and 
Figueroa sts. Rate, $2 per day and up. 

HoUenbeck Hotel, American and Europ- 
ean plan, Second and Spring sts. 

Hotel Van Nuys, n. w. cor. Main and 
Fourth sts. American plan, $3 to 
$12 per day; European plan, $1 to 
$10 per day. 

Hotel Rosslyn, Main st. opp. postoffice. 
American plan, $2 per day and up ; 
European plan, $1 per day and up. 

Westminster Hotel, n. e. cor Main and 
Fourth sts American plan, $3 per 
day and up ; European plan, $1 per 
day and up. 

(See Family Hotels.) 

Jewelers and Watchmakers 

S. Conradi, 113 S. Spring st. Tel. Main 

1159. 

£iadles', Children's and Infants' Wear 

I. Magnin & Co., 251 S. Broadway. 

Ladies Tailor 

S. Benioff, 330 S. Broadway. 

Liiquor Merchants 

H. J. Woollacott, 124-126 N. Spring st. 
Southern California Wine Co., 220 W. 

Fourth St. 
Edward Germain Wine Co., 397-399 S. 

Los Angeles st. Tel. Main 919. 

Livery^ stables and Tally-hos 

Tally-ho Stable & Carriage Co , W. R. 
Murphy (formerly at 109 N. Broad- 
way), 712 S. Broadway. Tel. Main 
51. 

Broadway Stables, Nowlin & Nowlin, 428 
S. Broadway. Tel. Main 806. 

Eagle Stables, Woodward & Cole, 122 S. 
Broadway. Tel. Main 248. 

Boyle Heights Livery Stable, J H. White 
& Son, 2024-2028 E. First st. Tel. 
Boyle 4. 



Meat Markets 

Norma Market, M. T. Ryan, 1818 S. 

Main St. Tel. West 171. 
Crystal Market, Reed Bros., 2309 S. Union 

ave. 
Model Market, R. A. Norries, 831 W. 

Sixth St. cor Pearl. Tel. 979 Main. 
Boston Cash Market, Jos. Oscr, 1156S. 

Olive St. Tel. West 126. 
Grand Avenue Market, J. A. Rydell, 

2218 S. Grand ave. Tel. White 321 1 . 
Philadelphia Market, S S. Jackson, 3304 

S. Main st. Tel. White 2063 
Pioneer Meat Market, E Rudolph, 514 

Downey ave.. East L- A. Tel. Alta 

208. 
Chicago Market, J. Wollenshlager, 410 

S. Main st Tel. Main 779. 
Fair Market, Gillespie & Bush, 514 Tem- 
ple St. 
Popular Market, J. J. Everharty, 205 

West Fourth St. Tel. Red 1289. 
Park Market, Chas Kestner, 329 West 

Fifth St. Tel. Red 925. 

Merchant Tailors 

M. A. Getz, 229 W. Third st. 

O. C. Sens, 219 W Second St., opp. Hol- 

lenbeck Hotel. 
Benhard Gordan, 104 S. Spring st. Tel. 

Green 1692. 

Brauer & Krohn, 114>^ S. Main st. 

Mexican Hand-Carved licather Goods 

H. Ross & Sons, 352 S. Broadway, P. O. 
box 902. 

Notions, Fancy Goods, etc. 

Washington Street Dry Goods Store, 
1202 W. Washington st. 

Cheapside Bazaar, F. E. Verge, 2440 S. 
Main st. 

Opticians 

S. G. Marshutz, prop. Pacific Optical 

Co., 245 S. Spring St. 
Adolph Frese, 126 S. Spring st. 
Boston Optical Co., Kyte & Granicher, 

235 S Spring St. 
Fred Detmers, 354 S. Broadway. 

Ph otograpliei'S 

Townsend&Son, 340;^ S. Broadway. 
Pianos and Musical Merchandise 

Southern California Music Co., 216-218 

W. Third st. Tel. 585. 
Fitzgerald Music & Piano Co., 113 S. 

Spring St. Tel. Main 1 159. 
Williamson Bros , 327 S. Spring st. Tel. 

1315 Brown. 

Picture Frames, Artists' Materials, Sou- 
venirs 

Sanborn, Vail & Co , 133 S. Spring st. 
Ita Williams, 354 S. Broadway and 311 
S Main st. 



Land of Sunshine Commercial Blue Book, Los Angeles, Cal 



Pleating— Accordion and Knife 

Mrs. T. M. Clark, 340K S. Hill st. 
Private Hospitals and Sanitariums. 

The California Hospital, 1414 S. Hope 

St. Tel. West 92. 
Dr. Stewarts Private Hospital, 315 West 

Pico St. Tel. West 14. 

Restaurants 

Ebinger's Dining Parlors, cor. Spring 
and Third sts. Tel. 610. 

Rubber Stamps, Stencils and Seals 

Ivos Angeles Rubber Stamp Co., 224 W. 
First St. Tel. Green 1945. 

Sanitariunas 

Electric Vitapathic Institute, 534^ S. 
Broadway, D. Iv. Allen, Mgr., Dr. 
F. W. Bassett, Medical Director. 
Tel. Main 1363. 

Schools and Colleges. 

St. Vincent's College, Grand ave. 
Sewing Machines 

Williamson Bros. , 327 S. Spring st. Tel. 
Brown 1315. 

Sheet Music and Small Musical Instru- 
ments 

Fitzgerald Music & Piano Co., 113 S. 
Spring St. Tel. Main 1 159. 

Geo. T. Exton, 327 S- Spring st. Tel. 
1315 Brown. (Agent for Regal Man- 
dolins and Guitars.) 

Shirt and Shirt Waist Makers 

Machin Shirt Co., IIS^^ S. Spring st. 
Bumiller & Marsh, 123 S. Spring st. 
Tel. Main 547. 



Shoe Stores 



W. E. Cummings, Fourth and Broadway. 
Innes-Crippen Shoe Co., 258 S. Broad- 
way and 231 W. Third st. 
Waterman's Shoe Store, 122 S Spring st. 
F. E. Verge, 2440 S. Main st. 



Sporting Goods 

ly. A. Cycle & Sporting Goods Co., 319 
S. Main st. 

stenographers 

Mrs. E. Iv. Widney, room 403 Bradbury 
Bldg. 

Surgical Instruments, Trusses, Electric 
Hosiery 

W. W. Sweeney, 213 W. Fourth st. Tel. 
Green 1312. 

Taxidermist and Naturalist 

Wm. F. Winkler, 346 S. Broadway. 

Teas, Coifees and Spices 

Sunset Tea & Coffee Co., 229 W. Fourth 

st Tel. Main 1214. 
J. D. Lee & Co., 130 W. Fifth st. 

Transfer Co. 

(See Van and Storage Co's.) 

Upholstering, Polishing, Cabinet Work 

Broadway Furniture & Upholstering Co., 
521 S. Broadway. 

Van and Storage Companies 

Bekins Van and Storage Co. Ofifice 435 
S. Spring st.; Tel. Main 19. Ware- 
house, Fourth and Alameda sts.; Tel. 
Black 1221. 

Wall Paper, Room Moulding, Decorating 

Los Angeles Wall Paper Co., 309 S. Main 

St. Tel. Green 314. 
New York Wall Paper Co., 452 S. Spring 

St. Tel. Main 207. 

Warehouse 

(See Van and Storage Co's.) 
Wood Mantels, Tiles, Grates, Etc. 

Chas. E. Marshall, 514 S. Spring st. 
Tel. Brown 1821. 



ARE YOU GOING 

TO SAN FRANCISCO? 



IF SO 

SEND FOR A COPY 

BEFORE LEAVING HOME 



An illustrated and de- 
scriptive hand-book for 
tourists and strangers. 



OF 



DEWITT'S GUIDE 
TO SAN FRANCISCO 



144 pages, flexible cover, 
with colored lithograph 
map of the city. 



SECOND EDITION 
JUST PUBLISHED 
PRICE FIFTY CENTS 



Sent on receipt of price by the ptiblisher 

Frederic M. DeWitt, 
3J8 Post Street, San Francisco, Cal. 



>vh<»n answering advertisements, please mention that you "saw it in the Land of Sunshine." 



\ The Finishing Touches 

I which make home inviting are given by up-to- 

5 date pieces of furniture. 

5 If you are in need of a Dining-room Table 

\ or anything in the line of Furniture, Curtains 

5 and Kugrs, remember otir motto : 

J Lowest Eastern Prices, Elegance of Construction and 

\ Lateness of Styles. 

Southern California Furniture Company : 

S Tel. Main 1215 312=314 South Broadway, Los Angeles | 




GaiiMa Conniry Bows 

Do you want a farm in the " Land of Sun- 
shine " ? Wecan sell you from 10 acres to 
1000 acres, at prices to suit your means. 
POINDEXTER & 'WADSWORTH, 
3«'8 Wilcox Block, L.o« Angeles, Cal. 



TYPEWRITERS.... 

Sold on monthly payments. Shipped any- 
where, C. O. D., with privilege of examina- 
tion. All kinds of Typewriting Machines 
Bought, Sold, Rented and Exchanged. Rib- 
bons, Carbon, Stationery. 
Typewriter Exchange, 319 Wilcox Bldg, 
Tel. Black 1608. Los Angeles. Cal. 



South Pasadena Ostpich Tapm 




The Largest in America. One Hundred Birds ot all ages. Ostrich nests, chicks, yearlings, 
and old pair=s in their breeding pens. An immense assortment of Feather Boas, Capes, Tips and 
Plumes in all styles, the finest grades at reasonable price.s. Goods sentC.O.D., with privilege ot 
examination. Send for price list. EDWIN CAWSTON & CO., Owners. 

•'One of the strangest sights in America."— A^. Y. Journal, Christmas number. 



All kinds of Outing Shirts at Silverwood's. 



When answering advertisements, please mention that you " saw it in the Land of Sunshine." 



Or 

mt 

Hit 

iXt 

iSf 
xlif 



H.JEVNE 



WHOLESALE AND RETAIL GROCER 



-% 

iiif 



WE PREPAY FREIGHT CHARGES 

to all points within 75 miles of Los Angeles on all orders amounting 
to $5.00 or over, excepting goods sold at special prices. 



SEND FOR CATALOGUE 



Out of town consumers can therefore enjoy all the advantages of our large, varied and 
fresh stock at the same low prices enjoyed by our Los Angeles patrons. You may include 
with your order an order for anything you may desire outside of our line and we will obtain 
same for you upon terms you will scarcely be able to otherwise secure. 

208-210 South Spring Street ^^'*te%9 

YOU ARE ALWAYS SAFE at JEVNE'S LOS ANGELES 



iiif 







For Lease 



A fine lot on Central Ave. 
and Fourth St., Los Angeles. 
Inquire 2200 Grand Ave. 




FOR MEATS, FISH, GRAVIES^ 

SOUPS, AC, THIS SAUCE 

HAS NO EQUAL 

Manufactured and Bottled only by 

GEORGE WILLIAMS CO., 

LOS Angeles, Cal. ^ 

If this sauce is not satisfactory, return it to ycur k 

grr cer and he will refund your money. Jf* 

kJ Gkobqb Williams Co. L 



THE PLACE TO LIVE.... 

ALHAMBRA 

Where 'is it? At the head of the San 
Gabriel Valley, eight miles east of Los 
Angeles and three miles south of Pasa- 
dena. Call at the office of 

GAIL BORDEN 

I Room 433 Stimson Bldg^ Los Angeles, 
Cal., and he will tell yoti all abottt the 
Garden Spot of the County. 



Hummel Bros. & Co., furnish best help. 300 W. Second St. Tel. Main 509. 




Educational Department 



Occidental College 



CLAREMONT 
CAL. 



POMONA COLLEGE 

Courses leading to degrees of B.A., B.S., and 
BX. Its degrees are recog^nized by University 
of California. Stanford University, and all 
the Eastern Universities. 

AJso preparatory School, fitting for all C<rf- 
leges, smd a School of Music of high grade. 
Address. FRANK I.. FERGUSON, 

President. 

CHAFFEY COLLEGE, ontan., cai. 

Well endowed. Most healthful location. 

Enter from 8th grade. 

Opens Sept. 29. $250.00 per year. 
Elm Hall, for young ladies, under charge of 

cultured lady teachers. Highest standards. 
West Hall, for boys, home of family of Dean, 

and gentlemen teachers. 



Occidental College 

1,0s ANGELES, CAI,. 

Three Courses: classical, uterary, 

Scientific, leading to degrees of B, A., B. L., and 
B. S. Thorough Preparatory Department. 

Winter term began January 3, 1899, 

Address the President, 

Rev. Guy W. Wadgvrorth. 

Pasadena. 

MISS OHTOfi'S 
Boarding^ and Day School for Qirls 

Certificate admits to Eastern Colleges. 

1X4 S. Euclid At*. 




GIRLS' COLLEGIATE SCHOOL 

1918-!8;»-S4-S6 

South Grand ATenue 
lios Ang^eles 



AZ.ICX K. PakSONS. B. a., 
Jbaivnb W. Dbnnbn, 

Principals. 



LOS ANGELES ACADEMY (Military) 

a Classical and English Day and Boarding 
School. Terminus Westlake branch of Traction 
line. Some of our boys have accomplished two 
years' work during the last school year at the 
Academy. Not every student is able to do this, 
but if it is in the boy we are able, through the 
flexibility of our system and through individual 
instruction to bring it out. Our illustrated cata- 
logue mailed free upon application. 

G. C. EMERY, A. M., Principal. 

W. R. WHEAT, Manager. 
P. O. Box 198, Los Angeles. 




226 S. Spring St., I^os Angeles, Cal. 

Oldest, largest and best. Send for catalogue. 
N. G. Felker, President 
JonN W. Hood, John W. Lackby, 

Vice-President Secretary 



212 iA^EST THIRD STREET 

Is the oldest established, has the largest attendance, and is the best equipped 
business college on the Pacific Coast. Catalogue and circulars free. 



F. B. Silverwood's guarantee goes with every article he sells, 



When answering advertisements, please mention that you " saw it in the Land of Sunshinb. 



I Santa Monica 





^ 



k. combines the attractions of the seashore with 

tj proximity and frequent electric and steam 

[J railway facilities to the metropolis of South- 

ern California. 

Its Modern Tourist Hotel 

the Arcadia, with its 

Sunny Rooms and Delightful 

Grounds, 

marine and mountain views and adjacent 

drives, hunting, boating, fishing wharf, warm ^"^ «"*^'°^ *^« ^'^' '«*'^°* 

salt water plunge, broad walk along the surf, and the longest wharf in 
the world, lend an attraction to this resort unsurpassed. 

For convenient and enjoyable headquarters from which to visit all 
points of interest, go to 

The Arcadia Hotel j 

. Santa Monica, Cal. FRANK A. MILLER, Prop. | 

A MAGIC ISLAND 

SANTA CATALINA 

CALIFORNIA'S WONDERFUL MOUNTAIN 
AND SEA RESORT 

3j4 Hours' Ride from Los Angeles, Cal. 



Winter and summer climate near perfection. 

A field for health and pleasure without a counterpart in America or Europe. 

Remarkable natural attractions. 

Most phenomenal Rod and Reel fishing in the world. Rod and Reel Tournam 

of the Tuna Club, May 1 to September 1. Open to all anglers. 
Wild Goat Shooting. The sensational Stage Ride. The Famed Marine Garde 

as seen through Glass-bottom Boats, and other exclusive attractions. 
The first musical organization of the West, the Marine Concert Band. 
Two big hotels, the Metropole and Island Villa. Modern appointments. Reasona 

rates. Most picturesque and best Golf Links. 
Ideal Camp Life. Perfect arrangements for campers. Shade trees, macadami 

streets, pure water, excellent sanitary arrangements. 
For full information, illustrated pamphlets, rates, etc., call on or write to 

BANNING CO., 

222 South spring Street, Los Angeles, Cal 

F. B. Silverwood carries the largest stock of Neckwear in Los Angele! 



MOUNT LOWE RAILWAY 

Grandest of all Mountain Railway Rides— Magnificent Panorama 
of Eartli, Ocean and Islands. 

RUBIO C5ANYON, 3300 feet above sea level. 

ECHO MOUNTAIN, 3500 feet above sea level. 

YE ALPINE TAVERN, 5000 feet above sea level. 

SUMMIT OF MOUNT LOWE 6100 feet above sea level. 




Echo 

Mountain 

House 

Situated on the crest of ^cho 
Mountain, commanding a 
magnificent view of Moun- 
tains, Canyons, Valleys, Ocean 
and Islands. Undoubtedly the 
finest and best equipped 
Mountain Hotel in the world. 
Elegantly furnished apart- 
ments, rooms single or en 
suite, with or without baths, 
lighted by gas and electricity. 



WORLD'S FAIR SEARCH LIGHT. 
OBSERVATORY WITH LARGE TELESCOPE located at Echo Mountain. 

Evenings to Guests, Free. 

Ye 

Alpine 

Tavern 

Among the giant pines 
in the heart of the Sierra 
Madre Mountains. The 
Tavern is absolutely the 
most unique, perfect and 
complete mountain re- 
sort in Southern Califor* 
nia. In addition to the 
apartments in the Tav- 
ern, there are a large 
number of auxiliary 
tent-houses located in 
the shade in the im- 
mediate vicinity of the 
Tavern. The accom- 
modations are complete 
and first-class in every 
respect. Cuisine unex- 
celled. 



Open 




Hotel Rates $13.50 and up-vrards per week. Special rates by the month or season, 
pecial ticket rates for guests remaining one week or longer. 

U. S. Postoffice (mails daily), Western Union Telegraph and Telephone service at hotels. 
For tickets and full information, call on or address 
( LARENCE A. WARNER, Traffic and Excursion Agent, 

314 South Spring St., Los Angeles, Cal. Telephone Main 960. 
J. S. TORRANCE, Gen'l Manager, Echo Mountain, Cal. 



Hummel Bros. 4 Co., Largest employment Agency. 300 W. Second St. Tel. Main 509 



When answering advertisements, please mention that you " saw it in the Land of Sunshikk. 




I AM INTERESTED 

in knowing that any dental work I may do for you remains 
permanently satisfactory — I use the best materials and 
spend sufl&cient time and skill to guarantee permanent and 
pleasing results — My charges, too, are invariably fair — Not 
the lowest — nor by any means the highest — They stand for 
the best work skill can supply at any price — Let me give 



you figures. 




^*pr*pr*pr'pr*i^^*pf^pi'*!fr*pr*pr^pr'pn^^ 



THE AHERN TRACT IS THE CREAM 

Don't fail to see this superb property before you buy. 

and Sierra Ma- _ 

dre Mountains; 
richest of soil, 
purest of 
mountain 
water piped 
through the 
tract, g^raded 
and beautifully 
improved 
streets, cement 
sidewalks, re- 
fined neighbor- 
hood ; class of 
buildings re- 
stricted to cost 
not less than 
S2,500. 



OF LOS ANGELES SUBURBS AN 
THE UNIVERSITY SECTION 

Glorious scenery of the foothills, Santa Moni 




Some Thirty-Eighth Street Residences in Ahern Tract. 

Twenty-three new residences have been built on this tract within the pa.ct six months. Tracti 
electriccarline within a minute's walk. W. J. AHERN (Owner), Real Estate, Insuran 
and Lioang. 3215 Termont Avenue. liOg Angeles. 




WHEN YOU VISIT 

SAN DIEGO 

REMEMBER . . . 



VL. .J^ 




ROOMS 

$1.00 P«r Oi 

AND UP 



American and European Plan. Centrall 
located. Klevators and fire escapes. Bathi 
hot and cold water in all suites. Moder 
conveniences. Fine large sample rooms fc 
commercial travelers. 
Cafe and Grille Room open all hours. 

J. E. O'BRIEN, Prop. 



F. B. Silvcrwood makes a specialty of Shirts of all kinds. 



When answering advertisements, please mention that you " saw it in the Land of Sunshine. 



OLDBST AND LAKOKST BANK IN 80CTHBRN 
CALIFORNIA. 

Farmers and Merchants Bank 



OF LOS ANOBLBS, CAL. 

$500,000.00 
925,000.00 



Capital (paid up) 
Surplus and Reserve - 



Total 



$1,425,000.00 



OFFICB&S : 

I. W. Hbixmak President 

H. W. Hbxxmak Vice-President 

ELxiniT J. Plkishman Cashier 

6. A. J. HBXMAifW Assistant Cashier 

DIRBCTO&S : 

W. H. Pbmit, C. H. Thom, J. P. P&ANCia 
O.W. Child*, LW.HELLMAif Jr., I. N. VanNuts 

A. 6LA88SLX., H. W. HBLLMAN, I. W. HXLLMAK. 

Special Collection Department. Correspond- 
ence Invited, Safety Deposit Boxes (or rent. 



First National Bank 

OF I^OS ANOEIiES. 

Largest National Bank in Southern 
California. 



W. C. Patterson. President 

W. GiLLELEN Vice-President 

W. D. Wool WINE Cashier 

K. W. Cob Asst. Cashier 




CoR. First and Spring Sts. 

Capital $500,000 

Surplus and Undivided Profits 60,000 

This bank has the best location of any bank in 
Los Angeles. It has the largest capital of any 
National Bank in Southern California, and is the 
only United States Depositary in Southern Cali- 
fornia. 



Capital Stock 

Surplus and Undivided Profits over 



$400,000 
260,000 

J. M. Elliott, Prest., W.G. Kerckhoff, V.Pres. 

Prank A. Gibson, Cashier. 

W. T. 8. Hammond, Assistant Cashier. 

directors: 

J. M. ElUott, P. Q. Story, J. D. Hooker, 

J. D. Bicknell. H. Jevne, W. G. KerckhoflF, 

J. C. Drake. 

All Departments of a Modem Banking Business 

Conducted. 



n 



VP~Vi54 





CORNER MAIN AND SECOND STREETS 



Officers and Directors. 

. H. W. Hellman, J. A. Graves, M. I,. 
Fleming, F. O. Johnson, H. J. Pleishman, 
J. H. Shankland, C. A. Shaw, W. L. <S 
Graves. ] 

J. P. Sartori, President <g 

Maurice S. Hbllman, Vice-Pres. 

W. D. lyONOTBAR, Cashier J 

Interest Paid on Ordinary and Term Deposits ] 




^.vxxv.........,^^^ 



OL 



6 



96 



Investors... I 

\ You can find nothing better. $ 

I t 

g Our 6 per cent. "Coupon Bonds" w' 

g and 7 per cent. " Paid-up Income Stock" are * 

Safe, Profitable, Standard Investments. •ff' 

** Safe as Government Bonds." $ 

The Coupon Bonds run for five years on a 6 per cent $ 

basis. The coupons are payable six months apart. ji 

The Paid-up Income Stock runs for one or three years ** 

on a basis of 7 per cent. , <! 



«^ 



The above investments are secured by „ 

First Mortoage (held in escrow by trustee). Fire Insurance (upon improvements), W 

Life Insurance (upon the borrower's life). S 

The Protective Savings Mutual Building and Loan Association $ 

406 Soutli Broadway, Los Angeles, Cat. j^ 

Title Insurance and Trust Co., Trustee. ^ 



Pedigreed Belgian Hares 



..'>>^^^ 



O^x-^^ 



A profitable and pleasurable business and one easily conducted by old or 
young is assured by the Belgian Hare. A ready market can always be found 
among those desirous of establishing choice herds, while its flesh is in 
great demand. A trio of Belgian Hares is as good as a gold mine, and the 
investment multiplies itself faster than a like amount invested in any other 
way. Call on or write to 

F. A. SCHNELL, 424 N. Beaudry Ave., Los Angeles, Cal. \ 



F. B. Silverwood carries tlie largest stock of Neckwear in Los Angeles. 



When answering advertissments, please mention that you ** saw it in the Land of Sjunshink." 




CONSUMPTION CURED 

Send for" Treatise on Consumption; its Causf 
and Cure." Sent free. 

KOCH MEDICAL INSTITUTE 



431^ S. Spring St. 



I,os Angeles, Cal. 



To Cure a Cold m One Day- 
Take Laxative Bromo Quinine Tablets. All drug- 
gists refund the money if it fails to cure. 25c. 
The genuine has L. B. Q. on each tablet. 

Fortnne« In STOCKS. 
Shares SSl.OO a month. 
Safe as a. Sank. Send 4c 

for Guide. A. H.wiLCOX & CO. 
539 Broadway, New York. 



GETRICH 



CALIFORNIA 
LANDS WITH WATER 

located near Los Angeles. Soil and climate 
suitable to the culture of the Orange, Lemon 
and Olive. All other products successfully 
grown. Good market. Educational and re- 
ligious advantages. FREE : large illustrated 
pamphlet giving reliable facts and figures 
about good California irrigable lands in tracts 
to suit, on easy payments. Title perfect 

Address, HEMET I.ANI> CO., 
Dept. U, Hemet, Kiverside Co., Cal. 




Ho-Saw-Emii 






m 
m 
m 
m 

m 
m 
f* 

m 

m 
m 

m 

% 
I '"''^^^635 149 South Main St., Los Angeles | 

i^fi^^i^iii^ «=i-i rir^fi^^^t9^33^^ ^^fi fi^^ ^^3 9^:3 ^^^ 9i^^ 3^^ 3^3 -9^^ «i3««f 



ON COLLARS AND CUFFS 



We have patented the only machine which 
removes the rough edges on collars and cuffs. 
We also produce the least destructive and 
most artistic polish to linen. 

We have facilities for doing family washings 
separately. 

Every department of our service is modern, 
reasonable and safe. 

Empire Steam Laundry 



PRtSS OP 







SBroadmay 

losflnqeles, 

Cal. 






Telepmone 

Main 4 1 7 



PRINTEK.5 «•• BlNDER>5 TO THE 

Land or 5un.51-iine 



Help— All Kinds. See Hummel Bros. & Co. 300 W. Second St. Tel. Main 509 



When answering advertisements, please mention that you " saw it in the Land of St7NSHiNB.' 



/ / / / // / 




FEET ALL RIGHT 

that are housed in the 
FOOTWEAR 

we sell. Each shoe is well made. The insides 
are as comfortable as the outsides are handsome. 
There are no seams or lumps to irritate the sole, 
nor faulty work to cause disintegration before 
the shoes have earned their cost. 
See them at 

BLANEY'S 

352 S. SPRING St.. LOS ANGELES 
KING UP MAIN 940. 

Merchants Parcel Delivery Co. 

C. H. FINLEY, Manager. 

Parcels 10c. , Trunks 25c. Special rates to mer- 
chants. We make a feature of " Specials " and 
Shipping. Office hours 7:30 a. m. to 6 p. m. 
Saturdays to 10 p. m. Agents for Bythinia. 
No. Ill Court Street, liOg Angeles, Cal. 



euts 



AT HALF PRICE 

Thb Land op Sunshine offers for sale from 
its large and well chosen Stock of over 1000 
Cuts, both half-tones and line etchings, any 
California and Southwestern subject the 
purchaser may desire. Send 50c. postage 
for Receipt and Return of Proof Catalogue 
and same will be refunded with your order for 
goods. See if we cannot both suit you and save 
you money. 

UND OF SUNSHINE PUB. CO., 

501 Stimson Bldg., Los Angeles, Cal. 



OPALS 



75,000 
Genuine 
Mexican 



OPALS 

For sale at less than half price. We want an agent iq 
every town and city in the U. S. Send 35c. for sample 
opal worth $2. Good agents make $10 a day. 
Mexican Opal Co., 607 Frost Bldg., Los Angeles, CaL 
Bank reference, State Loan and Tmst C^ 



Sulphur Mt. spri ngs _ ^, ,,,,„^ 

Accommodations for 



n 



S nia's beauty spots 

• campers. Illustrattu v;iiwumr» may uc naa ( 

S from Hugh B. Rice, agent for "Cook's > 

) Tours," 230 S. Spring St , Los Angeles ; ( 

) FISKB& Johnston, 707 State St., Santa Bar- > 

. bara, or by writing to ( 



HAWLEY & RICHARDS, Props , ; 
Santa Paula, Ventura Co., Cal. S 




fASIoRV WestTroy. N.Y. '*2Z^' 

SACHS BROS & CO. 

San Francigco Coast Agents 

We Manufacture all kinds of 

RUBBER GOODS 



When you purchase and want 

The Best Rubber Hose 




See that Our Name is on every length. 
FOR SAT.E BY AI.I. DEAIiERS. 



GOODYEAR RUBBER COMPANY 

573, 575, 577, 679 MARKET STREET 

R. H. PEASE, Vice-Pres. and Manager. 

SAN FRANCISCO. 



F. B. Silverwood's .best Hats are $3; regrular $5 qualities. 



THE MACMILLAN COMPANY'S NEW BOOKS 

NEW SUMMER NOVELS 
Richard Carvel 

By Winston Churchili,. Just Ready. Cloth, $1.50. (By the author of The 
Celebrity.) 8th Edition. Cloth, $1.50. 

A story of the gay cavalier colony of Maryland and of the London of that time. The strong, broad 
treatment of this plot is a far cry from the skilful lightness of The Celebrity, but the work is no less 
origrinal or absorbing. 

Tristram Lacy or The Individualist 

By W. H. Mallock, author of "Aristocracy and Evolution," *'Is Life Worth 

Living ? " * * The New Republic, ' ' etc. 

Cloth, Extra, Crown 8vo, $2.00. Just Ready. 

The Short Line War Jesus Delaney 

By Merwin Webster. 2d Edition. By Joseph Gordon Donnei^i^y. 

Just Ready. $1.50. Just Ready. $1.50. 

"One of the most readable of this season's Striking, clever characterizations of novel 

summer noyels."—Commetctal Advertiser^ types ; entertaining and absorbing. 

Hugh Qwyeth 

A Roundhead Cavalier. By Bedlah Marie Dix. $1.50. 
"A capital historical romance." — The Outlook. 

The Maternity of Harriott Wicken Men's Tragedies 

By Mrs. Henry DUDENEY. $1.50. By R. V. R1SI.EY. $1.50. 

" Ivittle short of being a masterpiece.' —Richard Realistic stories of crises in the lives of strong 

Henry Stoddard, Mail and Express men of high ideals. 

IMPORTANT BOOKS OF TRAVEL AND DESCRIPTION 
Letters from Japan 

By Mrs Hugh Fraser, author of ** Palladia," etc. Japanese cover design, 2 vols., 
8vo, $7 50. A record of modern life in the Island Empire. Superbly illus- 
trated from Japanese originals. 
"Every one of her letters is a valuable con- "Clear, bright ... a captivating book." — 

XxVavASon." —Literature. Evening Post, Chicago. 

THE BEST BOOKS ON THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 
The Philippine Islands and Their People 

a record of personal observation and experience with summary of the history of the Archipelago. 
By Dean C. Worcester, Member of the Philippine Commission, at present in the 

Islands. 6th Edition. Cloth, $4.C0. 
"Altogether it is a model book of its kind, exactly adapted for the everyday reader."— CArca^o Tribune. 

The Philippine Islands and Round About 

By Maj. G. J. Yodnghusband, F. R. G. S., Queen's Own Corps of Guides, etc., etc. 
An admirable complement to Professor Worcester's book, as it treats chiefly of 
events of the past year. Cloth, $2.50. 
<'01 striking and timely interest."— 7A<» New York Herald. 

The Trail of the Gold Seekers The flaking of Hawaii 

By HAMI.IN Gari^and, author of By Prof. Wii,r.iAM FremonT Black- 

"Main Traveled Roads," etc. man, Yale University. Cloth, 

Cloth, Crown 8vo, $1.50. Crown 8vo. 

The literary result of the author's experiences A comprehensive discussion of the forces de- 

going overland through British Columbia. veloping these islands. 

REMINISCENCES AND OBSERVATIONS 
Solitary Summer Elizabeth and her German Garden 

By the author of ** Elizabeth and her " a charming hoo)s.."— Literature. Cloth, $1.75. 
German Garden." Cloth, 12mo. 

Another volume of delicate and sympathetic WordsWOrth and the ColeridgeS 

observations of the life of an Englishwoman iu 

Germany. and Other Memories, Literary and 

Old Cambridge ^rX^lvc^^i''"^ ^*'^''*"" 

By Thomas Wentworth Higgin- 

QOM rirktVi i9mr. *i OK Mr Yarnall's memory carries him back to La- 

&UJN. *^ioin, J^mo, ;jf,l.2D. fayette's visit to Philadelphia in 1824, and covers 

The first of a series of National Studies in friendships with and visits to Wordsworth and 

American Letters, edited by George E.Woodberry. other men of letters. 

THE riACniLLAN COflPANY. PUBLISHERS, NEW YORK. 



When answering adveitisements, please mention that you " saw it in the Land of scnshinb/ 



When answering advertisements, please mention that you '• saw it in the t,ANO of Sunshine. 



OUR PREMIUM OFFER 



The Land of Sunshine 

AND 

Missi on Mem ories 

Through a special arrangement with the publishers, we are enabled to offer 
the Land of Sunshine for one year, postage paid to any address, and a copy 
of the "Mission Memories," containing 75 handsomely engraved full-page 
illustrations (6x4J4) of the 24 California Missions, printed on heavy enam- 
eled paper — with either yucca or embossed cover, tied with silk cord. 

The " Land of Sunshine " will not only be kept up to its usual high stand- 
ard, but has added many new features. 

The magazine numbers among its staff the leaders in literature of the West, 
in itself a guarantee of future increased merit. 

"Land of Sunshine" one year, and one yucca cover "Mission Memories" $1.75 

" paper " " " 1.50 

The Land of Sunshine Pubi^ishing Co., 

501-503 Stimson Block, Los Angeles, California. 



A Unique Library. 

The bound volumes of the Land of Sunshine make the most interesting and 
valuable library of the far West ever printed. The illustrations are lavish and hand- 
some, the text is of a high literary standard, and of recognized authority in its field. 
There is nothing else like this magazine. Among the thousands of publications in 
the United States, it is wholly unique. Every educated Californian and Westerner 
should have these charming volumes. They will not long be secured at the present 
rates, for back numbers are growing more and more scarce ; in fact the June num- 
ber, 1894, is already out of the market. 

Vols. 1 and 2— July '94 to May '95, inc., gen. half morocco, $3.90, plain leather, $3.30 
" 3 and 4— June '95 to May '96, " " " " 2.85, " " 2.25 

" 5 and 6— June '96 to May '97, " " " " 3.60, " " 3.00 

" 7 and 8— June '97 to May '98, " " " " 2.85, " " 2.25 

" 9 and 10— June '98, to May '99 " " " " 2.70, " " 2.10 

Land of Sunshine Pubi^ishing Co., 

501 Stimson Building, Los Angeles, Cal. 



P. B. Silver wood '8 best Hats are $3 ; reffular ^5 qualities. 



When answering advertisements, please mention that you *' saw it in the Land of Sun8HInk. 



SEE NEXT PAGE 



Life 
Income Investments 



BEARING 

CALIFORNIA ALMOND 

ORCHARDS 

In the South Antelope Valley, the Greatest Almond 
District in the World, on the 

Insurance* Annuity Plan 

Safest and Most Remunerative Proposition Ever Devised. Cash or Time 

Payments. No Interest. Perpetual Income Assured to Investor 

if He Lives, to His Family if He Dies. 

DEATH OF INVESTOR 

Cancels all unmatured payments, beneficiary secures bearing five-year-old almond orchard and 
income from same free and clear, also $250.00 to $1,200.00 a year in cash, and $1,000.00 to $5,000.00 
residence erected on the property, or one-half the cost of residence in cash. Death of in vestor with- 
out other estate or insurance leaves beneficiary amply provided for for life. Property deeded in trust 
at the outset to the 

STATE BANK AND TRUST COMPANY 

Of Lros Angeles, Paid-up Capital $500,000.00 

Cash Benefits Guaranteed by the TRAVELERS INSURANCE CO. 

Of Hartford, Conn., and other old line companies. 

TWO PLANS. 

Sale of Individual Orchards. Sale of Undivided Interest in the American 
Almond Grower's Association, 

Requiring no personal attention now or in the future. WiU'pay 60 per cent net profit 
per annum, based upon the last 

United States Census Report as reproduced herewith 



Nuts and 
Citrus Fruit 


Acre- 
age 


Yield 
per 
Acre 


Total 
Yield 


Selling 
Price 


Value 


Yield 
per 
Acre 


Land 
Value 

(b) (c) 


Almond 

Fig (a) 


6,098.00 
1,274.00 
3,834.00 
3,237.00 
13,096 50 


pounds 
2.501 

8,784 

3,600 

2,984 
boxes 

95 


pound.s 

15,251,078 

11,190,816 

13,802,400 

9,659,208 
boxes 
1,245,047 


per lb. 
0.1000 

0.0233 

0.0900 

0.0400 
per box 

1.8200 


1,525,109.80 
298,421.76 

1,242,216.00 
386,368.32 

2,271,616.30 


250.00 
204.66 
324.00 
119.36 
172.90 


95.00 
110.60 
111.43 

65.83 
186.00 


Madeira Nut.... 

Olive 

Orange 



112 page illustrated book, rate tables on 2% to 80 acres from age 25 to 65, association plan where 
$1.25 a month will receive same proportionate profit as larger investments, free on application. 

Alpine Springs Land and Water Company 

1115 Stock Exchange Building, 830 Henne Building, 

108 I^aSalle Street, Chicago. 3d St. near Spring, lios Angeles. 

Lnnds, Orchards and Town Sites at 
Tierra Bonita, Palmdale and Little Rock, Los Angeles Co., California. 

tlummel Bros. & Co., Emplovment Aoents, 300 W. Second St. Tel. Main 509 



When answering advertisements, please mention that you " saw it in the Land of Sunshine, 
SEE OPPOSITE PAGE 

Life Income Investments* 



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F. B. Silverwood sells Hats at $1, $1.50, $2, $2.50 and $3, fully guaranteed. 



Whea answering advertisements, please mention that you " saw it in the Land op Sunshinb." 




.0 



Our Gold Medal Wines commend themselves to those who 
require and appreciate Pure, Old Vintages. We are producers 
in every sense of the word, owning large Vineyards, Wineries 
and Distilleries, located in the San Gabriel Valley. For 
strength-giving qualities our wines have no equal. We SELL 
NO Wines under Five Years Old. 



SPECIAL OFFER • We will deliver to any R.R. station in the 
United States, freight free : 

2 cases Fine Assorted California Wines, XXX, for $9 00 

Including one bottle 1888 Brandy. 
2 cases Assorted California Wines, XXXX, for |11.00 

Including 2 bottles 1888 Brandy and 1 bottle Champagne. 

SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA WINE COMPANY 



Tel. M. 332 



220 W. FOURTH ST. Los Angeles, Cal. 




EVERYBODY GOES 1 

^»^T0 SANTA mONlCA j 

Via Los Angeles Pacific Electric Ry. | 

• 

It provides one of the most modem equipments and the * 

coolest and most scenic route in Southern California. S 

• • 

• For Santa Monica: Cars leave Fourth and Broadway, Los Angeles, via Hill and • 

• 16th streets, every hour from *6:30 a. m. to 11:30 p. m. Sundays, every half hour from 7:00 • 

• a. m. to 6:30 p. m., and hourly to 11:30 p. m. Saturdays, 5:00 p. m. and 6 p. m. • 

• Via Bellevue Ave., Colegrove and Sherman, every hour from *6:15 a. m. to 11:15 p. m. • 

• *5:45 p. m. and 11:45 p. m. to Sherman only. Cars leave Plaza lo minutes later. S 

• For lios Angeles : Cars leave Hill Street, Santa Monica, at *5:50, *6:40 a. m., and * 

• every hour from 7:40 a. m, to 10:40 p. m. Sundays, every half hour from 7:10 a. m. to • 

• 7:40 p. m., and hourly to 10:40 p. m. Saturdays, 6:10 p. m. and 7:10 p. m. Leave band stand, * 

• Ocean Ave., 5 minutes later. Trolly Parties a Specialty. • 
: *Except Sundays. Offices, Chamber of Commerce Bidg., 4th and Broadway, Los Angeles S 



For 



A home-like place 

A cool retreat 

A pleasant room 

Good thin£:s to eat 

Our Hotel Rates cannot be beat 



Morton House 

San Diego 
Cal -^ 




w. 



E. HADLEY 

Proprieto 



Reliable help promptly furnished. Hummel Bros. & Co. Tel. Main 509 



When answering advertisements, please mention that you " saw it in the Land of Sunshine.' 




Arlington Hotel and Annex 



Perpetual May Climate 
Ocean Bathing: Every Day 

^ ^ ^ 



SANTA BARBARA, CALIFORNIA 

E. P. DUNN 



REDLANDS— 



^^n Ranoheg, Residences and all 
kinds of Real K state in Redlands at reasonable 
rates. See Redlands before buying. Call upon 
or address JOHN P. FISK, 

Rooms I and 2 Union Bank Block. 

Redlands, Cat. 



We Sell the Earth' 



BASSETT & SMITH 

We deal in all kinds of Real Estate. 
Orchard and Resident Property. 
Write for descriptive pamphlet. 

Y. M. C. A. BUILDING 
LOS ANGELES, CAL. 



"Good food, 
open air ; 

Easy labor, 
little care." 

These, "The 
Ingredients 
of Health," 
are to be 
found at 




GflMP STURTEVflNT S3-i?'" - 

The place to live in summer is in the mountains. A tent is ideal shelter. Appliances for comfort 
at Camp Sturtevanl are complete ; the water is fine; the forest, beautiful. Day temperatures are 
from 10° to 15^ lower than in Los Angeles, and the evenings are warm and dry. The trip to Camp is 
delightful. Mr. and Mrs. Cilley are in charge. Hotel accommodations. $1 25 per day, $7.00 per week. 
Tent and complete outfit for camping, for two persons, $10 per month. Burro hire, $1.00 either way ; 
51.50 round trip, up one day and down the next. For illustrated circular address 

W. M. STURTEVANT, Sierra Madre, Cal. 



Underwear is a Specialty at 8ilverwoo<l'8. 



When answering advertisements, please mention that you " saw it in the Land of Sunshinb.'' 

LA JOLvLA BY THK SEA 

HOUIvD you visit San Diego, you 
will have missed one-half your 
life if you fail to take a trip to 
L i^^S^SS^ai^^^^ ^^ Jolla, the seventh wonder, with its 

[^ ^^j^^^^^^^^^^^^ I seven mammoth caves. "Ira Jolla, the 

^A ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^V Gem," is fittingly named. Nowhere on 

^^, _ .^^^I^^^^^^^^^^H ^^^ Pacific Coast can be found the varied 

^HM^^^^^^|^^^^^^^^^^^K'£,^ natural scenery which is had here. The 
^^^^^H|H|^^^plS^^^^^^^^^^B|@ seven famous caves, hollowed out by the 
^^^^^^^^H||H||||^^3||^^^^^^^H action of the mighty in the huge 

■^^^^^^HT^^^^'^^^^^m^^B cliffs, over one hundred feet high and 
^^^^^^^^V " ^^^H jutting into the ocean, '^an be explored 

^ „..„ ^^ ^^^ tide. There are also other weird 

and fantastic freaks of nature formed along the rocky shore, which must be seen to 
be appreciated, such as Cathedral Rock, Alligator Head, Goldfish Point, etc. Fish- 
ing and bathing here are unsurpassed. Shells and sea-mosses, tinted with rainbow 
colors, are found here in great abundance. Every hour spent, when not fishing, 
boating or bathing, or viewing nature's marvelous work, can be enjoyed in various 
ways. La Jolla is situated 14 miles from San Diego, on the ocean, and is reached 
only by the San Diego, Pacific Beach and La Jolla Ry. 
Three mail trains each way daily. 

For further information apply to GRAHA.M E. BABCOCK, 
San Diego, Cal. President and General Manager. 



AN FdUCATION 



is secured by traveling 

EAST.or West 



Via 

one of the 



T^f O J. ( SUNSET ROUTE 

1 hr££ IVOllt^S \ OGDEN ROUTE 
± lllCC IVUUtCD ^ SHASTA ROUTE 

of the 

Southern Pacific Company 



Through mountain gorge or across level plain within sight 
of many historic and wonderful beauties* 

PERSONALLY CONDUCTED TOURIST EXCURSIONS. 

G. W, LUCE, Ass't Gen. Frt. and Pass. Agt. 

LOS ANGELES TICKET OFFICE/ 261 S- SPRING ST. 



F. B. Silverwood makes a specialty of Shirts of all kinds. 



CAL'FORNiM AQUARIUMS 
CALIFORNIA REDWOODS 
AMONG THE YAQUIS 



vol. Al, J 

Lavishly 

Illustrated 



Sc^OSPAISES DtLSOL DILATAN EL ALMA 







THE jV^AGAZIHE Of 

CALirORNIA^H-THEWEST 




EDITED BY 

HAS.f.LUMMIS 



WITH A SYNDKATr<£it:i222^ 
OF WESTERN WRITERS ARACETLLERYCHANNIHti;, 





CENTS 

■ nnnv 



LAND OF SUNSHINE PUBLISHING CO, 

INCORPORATED 
cni_cno CTIUCnu Dllll nlMf! 



!ltl 



YE 



When answering advertisements, please mention that you " saw it in the I. and of Sunshimk. 




THE DOWNIE DOIBLE-ACTINO 
DEEP WELL PIMPS 



Directing, Acting Steam Tjpe 



No other Pump Can 
furnish the Same 
Amount of Water 

At a recent test this 
type, No. 33, with an 
8-inch cylinder, in a 
1 2-inch well, delivered 
414 gallons of water 
per minute without 
jar or injury. 
We can furnish them 
up to 90 M. I. capac- 
ity from a 14-in. well. 



THE Ml & El COi| AGENTS 

351-353 N. Main St. Los Angeles, Cal. 




^o 33, Power Head Type 



"California Babies" 

can find just what they need down at the **big 
store." Whitney's celebrated carriages — the 
latest go-carts. High chairs and little rockers. 
''American Home Furnishings'' free. 



\ 




A HBBBHP"! Niles Pease Furniture Co., 

^ r^BB^^IT " 439°441-443 S. Spring St., Los Angeles. 

^ *— ^^^^^^^^^^^» pj^g Floors. Reliable Goods. 




Flexible Rubber, 

When used as a base for artificial teeth, causes unequal pres- 
sure, absorption, sore gums, and, in time, a cracked or broken 
plate. Perhaps you know this from personal experience. I 
make the lightest, strongest, best fitting, permanently pleasing, 
vulcanized lubber plates money buys at any price. 



= f 



Let me ^ive you figures. 







Spinks 
Block, 
cor. 5th 
and Hill 
Sts. Tel. 
Brown 
1376 






F. B. Silverwood makes a specialty of Shirts of all kiuds. 



When answering advertisements, please mention that you " saw it in the Land of Sdnshinb." 



In the Heart of Los Angeles^^^^^^^^^^ 



^ The HoUenbeck, on Second 

(|^ and Spring Sts., is the most 

49 centrally located of all the 

49 Los Angeles Hotels. 

^ Electric cars pass its doors 

^ to all points of interest. 



49 



It is headquarters for Tal- 



^ ly-ho and Railway Excur- 

^ sions, commercial men and 

^ tourists. 

♦? 

♦J 

♦} Second and Spring Sts 



It is run on both Amer- 
ican and European plans. 

Has first-class Caf^ and 
rooms with bath and other 
conveniences. Rates are 
reasonable, its conveniences 
courteous. 




ample and its service prompt and 



HOLLENBECK HOTEL 

A. C. BILICKB & CO., Props. 

Los Angeles, Cai. 



2* 



An Exhibition of California Truits, ^fZu'!''''''''"'' 

■ ■''•^'^'■^""'""=^b^'no^^"i".Tu-"here: CALL AND SEE THE REAL THING 

We carry the largest and best selected line in Los Angeles. 

we Ship to All poinu. LUDWIQ & MATHEWS 

Mott Market. Tel. Main 550 



?5b_£ftl_. 



0. 



BOSTON «Sg^. STORE 

THE Ji W. ROBINSON COMPANY 

239 and 241 South Broadway, Opposite City HalL 

Our Departments are now complete, and we 
are showing the finest line of Dry Goods 
ever carried in Los Angeles ,^ ^ J> J' J' J> 

EXCLUSIVE STYLES 

In Silks, Dress Goods, ready made Suits, Waists; Skirts, Jackets 
Capes, and an immense variety of Trimmings, Wash Goods and 
Novelties make us 

^^HEADQUARTERS/' 

AGENTS FOR I SEND FOR 

BUTTERICK PATTERNS SAMPLES 



MAIL ORDER 
DEPARTMENT 



--c-r- 



^LES I b> 



All kinds of Outingr Shirts at Sllverwood's. 



when answering advertisements, please mention tnat you •• saw it in tne IvAnd of ounshinb. ■ 



,M.^.^i.^j^sa^ia,J^ia,j^ii^ja^ia,ja^ja,j^i 




t 



Many women can trace their ruined complexions to the use 
of injurious cosmetics which, at their best, simply COVER UP 
defects. They try one preparation after another, hoping to find 
one that will bring back what has been lost, but it will never re- 
turn. There is but one way and that is to SECURE A NEW 
SKIN. All physicians and dermatologists agree on one point, 
that, when the outer cuticle is stained with freckles, tan and other 
discolorations, or has a muddy, roughened appearance, there is 
but one wa}'^ to eradicate the defects, and that is by using a pre- 
paration which will -surely, but not too hurriedly, takefoff the 
outer skin and with it the blemishes. 

No truer words were ever said than that 

<^//^^ Grea/i} 

COAXES A NEW SKIN. It is the result of years of study 
and experimenting, and today stands alone as a time-tried remedy 
which cures. It passed the experimental stage nine years ago, 
and since then has been used by thousands of discriminating 
women who never fail to recommend it in words of praise and 
thankfulness. 

It does not contain a single ingredient that can possibly harm 
the most delicate skin, but it must be rembered that ANITA 
CREAM is not a cold cream, but a medicinal preparation which, 
if properly used, will accomplish a very different result from that 
obtained by the use of a simple bland or cold cream. It draws 
all impurities to the surface and removes the outer skin in small, 
scaly particles, thus eradicating all blemishes and at the same time 
promoting a growth of new skin as soft and clean as an infant's. 
It contains no vaseline or any other ingredient that will stimulate 
a growth of hair. 

FREE SAMPLE 



All druggists can supply Anita Cream, or 
you can send 50c. to us. For 10c. to pay 
postage and packing, we will send a free 
sample and a 9x16 lithographed art study suitable for framing ; no printing on picture. 



ANITA CREAH CO., 215 Franklin St., Los Angeles, Cal 



F. B. Silverwood for Mackintoshes and Umbrellas. 




The Land of Sunshine 



(incorporated) capital stock |so,ooo. 



The Magazine of California and the West 



EDITED BY CHAS. F. LUMMIS 



The Only Exclusively Western Magazine 



AMONG THE STOCKHOLDERS 

DAVID STARR JORDAN 

President of Stanford University. 

THEODORE H. HITTELL 

The Historian of California. 

MARY HALLOCK FOOTE 

Author of The Led-Horse Claim. ,^\.c. 

MARGARET COLLIER GRAHAM 
Author of Stories of the Foothills. 

GRACE ELLERY CHANNING 

Author of The Sister of a Saint, etc. 

ELLA HIGGINSON 

Author of A Forest Orchid, etc. 

JOHN VANCE CHENEY 

Author of Thistle Drift, etc. 

CHARLES WARREN STODDARD 
The Poet of the South Seas. 

INA COOLBRITH 

Author of Songs from the Golden Gate, etc. 

CHAS. EDWIN MARKHAM 

Contributor to Century, Scribner's. 
Atlantic, etc. 

CHAS. FREDERICK HOLDER 

Author of The Life of Agassiz, etc. 
GEO. HAMLIN FITCH 

Literary Editor S. F. Chronicle. 

CHARLOTTE PERKINS STETSON 

Author of In This Our World. 

ETC., 



AND CONTRIBUTORS ARE: 

JOAQUIN MILLER 

WILLIAM KEITH 

the greatest Western painter 

DR. WASHINGTON MATTHEWS 

Ex-Prest. American Folk-I^ore Society. 

GEO. PARKER WINSHIP 

The Historian of Coronado's Marches. 

FREDERICK WEBB HODGE 

of the Bureau of Ethnology. Washington. 

CHAS. HOWARD SHINN 

Author of The Story of the Mine, etc. 

T. S. VAN DYKE 

Author of Rod and Gun in California, etc. 

CHAS. A. KEELER 

A Director of the California Academy 
of Sciences. 

LOUISE M. KEELER 
ALEX. F. HARMER 

L. MAYNARD DIXON 

Illustrators. 

CHAS. DWIGHT WILLARD 

CONSTANCE GODDARD DU BOIS 

Author The Shield of the Fleur de Lis. 
BATTERMAN LINDSAY 
ETC. 



CONTENTS FOR JULY, 1899 : 

One Day at Pacheco's, drawn by Alex. F. Harmer Frontispiece 

A California Aquarium, illustrated, by Chas. Frederick Holder, LL. D 11 

Among the Yaqui Indians in Sonora, illustrated, by Verona Granville..... 84 

California Redwoods, illustrated, by Bertha M. Her rick 95 

One Day at Pacheco's illustrated, by Idah M. Strobridge 101 

Early California, the Viceroy's report in 1793 (continued) 105 

In the Lion's Den (editorial) 113 

That Which is Written (book reviews by the Editor) 117 

The Angle of Reflection (department), by Margaret Collier Graham 121 

The Landmarks Club 123 

The Land We Love, illustrated : 124 

California Babies, illustrated ^"^^ 

The State Normal School, Los Angeles 

Kntered at the Los Angeles Postoffice as second-class matter. 



Land of Stin»l:iine Ptibli^hiing Co. 

F. A. PATTEE, Bus. Mgr., 501 Stimson BIdg., Los Angeles, Cal. 

DiRKCTORS : — W. C. Patterson, Pres ; Chas. F. Ivummis, Vice-Pres.; F. A. Pattee, Sec.; H. 
meishman, Treas.; E. Pryce Mitchell, Auditor; Chas. Cassat Davis, Atty., Cyrus M. Davis. 

Other Stockholders :— Chas. Forman, D. Freeman, F, W. Braun, Jno F. Francis, E. W. Jone 
Geo. H. Bonebrake, F. K. Rule, Andrew Mullen, I, B. Newton, S. H. Mott, Alfred P. Griffit 
E. E. Bostwick, H. E. Brook, Kingsley-Bames & NeunerCo., I,. Replogle, Jno.C. Perry. F. A. Schne 
G. H. Paine, Louisa C. Bacon. 

WARNING. 

The L/\ND OF Sunshine Publishing Co has nothing to do with a concern whic 
has imitated its name as nearly as it dared. This magazine is not peddliug towi 
lots in the desert. It is a magazine, not a lottery. Chas. F. Lcmmis. 



IIJH'm'Irili-i. 
The Best Cough Syrup. 
Tastes Good. Use in time. 
Sold by Druggists. 



CONSUMPTION 




^T^pD^ji SVRIP Of PrINE 



V/e otfer yea a reaay-made 
medicine for Cougtis, Broncliitis, 
and oth.er diseases of the Throat 
and Lungs. Like oth.er so-called 
Patent Medicines, it is well ad- 
vertised, and, tiaving merit, it 
tias attained a -wide sale under 
tlie name of Piso's Cure for Con- 
sumption. 

Piso's Cure for Consumption is now a " Nos- 
trum," though at first it was compounded after a 
prescription by a regular physician, with no idea 
that it would ever go on the market as a proprie- 
tary medicine. But after compounding that pre- 
scription over a thousand times in one year, we 
named it " Piso's Cure for Consumption,'' and be- 
gan advertising it in a small way. A medicine 
known all over the world is the result. 

Prepared by 

THEPlSOCOMPANY,Warren,Pa. 




NATURE'S 

GENTLE 

LAXATIVE 

The only genuine fruit la 
ative on the market. 
If your druggist does n 
sell it send us his name ai 
address. 

25c. and 50c. a Bottle. 



California Prune Sy rup Cc 

LOS ANQELES, CAL. 
MEMBERS OF N. E. A. I 

CALL FOR { 

FREE SAMPLE ! 

Lilun ciiiHA imm 

Orange Blossom 

Carnation 

Violet 

True to name and odor of flowers. 
DELICATE — LASTING 

C. Laux Company, Druggists 

231 Soutli Broadway 

Opp. City Hall 



Engraved Visiting Cards 

GUARANTEED HIGHEST GRADE 

50 Cards and Plate - - $ .75 
100 Cards and Plate » - 1.00 

Sent Prepaid to any Address 
Weddings, Announcements, Receptions. 

ELITE STATIONERY CO., 

Box 305. Wiikes-Barre, Pa. 


" An Olive Orchard is a Gold Mine on the face 
the earlh."— Italian Proverb. 
A -iO-ACRE OLIVE GROVE in our " S 

erra Madre" Fruit Colonies in Southern Califc 
nia assures health, happiness and a large annu 
income for centuries. 

We sell, plant and bring the orchard into bea 
ing for you on our easy payment plan. We ha 
railways, churches, schools, a perfect *' all tl 
year " climate and beautiful homes. 

No Pioneering ; illustrated booklet free. 
ARTHUR BULL & CO., Owners, 

1202 Chamber of Commerce, Chicago, 


REDLANDS.— 

^^^ Banohes. Residences and all 
kinds of Real Estate in Redlands at reasonable 
rates. See Redlands before buying. Call upon 
or address JOHN P. FISK, 

Rooms I and 2 Union Bank Block 

Redlands, Cal. 


We Sell the Earth— 

^^ BASSETT & SMITH 

We deal in all kinds of Real Estate. 
Orchard and Resident Property. 
Write for descriptive pamphlet. 

Y. M. C. A. BUII.DIN 
I.OS ANGELES, CAL 



Write P. B. Sllverwood about Uu<lei*wear for Men, 



miM. 





COMMERCIAL BLUE BOOK 



LOS ANGELES, CALIFORNIA 




New residents in a city or persons moving from one section to another are usually forced to learn 
by experience the best places to patronize. Our object in publishing; a Commercial Blue Book is to 
point out to our readers a few of the leading stores, hotels, rooming houses, restaurents, schools, 
sanitariums, hospitals, etc.; also professional men, and the most satisfactory places in which to deal. 
As it is not our intention to publish a complete business directory, some firms equally as good as those 
we have listed may have been omited. Still, we believe that those who consult this guide will be satis- 
fied with the list submitted. The variety and class of goods handled, as well as the reputation of the 
merchant, has received careful attention in each selection made, with the Idea of saving our readers as 
much time, trouble and expense as possible. 



Architect Supplies 
Sanborn, Vail & Co., 133 S. Spring st. 

Any vo — Theatrical Cold Cream Make Up. 
Rouge Gras 

Viole & Lopizich, 427 N. Main st., dis- 
tributing agents. Tel. Main 895. 

Bakeries 

Ebinger's Bakery, cor. Spring and Third 
sts. Tel. 610. 

The Meek Baking Co. Factory and of- 
fice Sixth and San Pedro sts. Tel. 
main 322. Principal store 226 W. 
Fourth St. Tel. main 1011. 

Ahrens' Bakery, 425 S Broadway. 

Mrs. Angel's Bakery, 830 W. Seventh st. 

Bamhoo Goods 

S. Akita, 504 S. Broadway 

Baths 

Hammam, 210 S. Broadway. Turkish 
and all other baths and rubs, 25 cts. 
to$l. 

Beach Pebbles, Moonstones, Agnates, Sea 

Shells, etc., Dressed and Polished 

to Order 

J. A. Mcintosh & Co., L. A. Steam Shell 
Works, 1825 S. Main st. 

Bicycle Kiding Academy and 
Bicycle Dealers 

Central Park Cyclery, W. G. Williams, 
prop., 518 S.Hill St. Tel. Green 1211. 

Main Street Bicycle Academy, Harry 
Brown, prop., 547 S. Main st. 

Books, Stationery, etc. 

Stoll & Thayer Co., 252-254 S. Spring st. 
B. F. Gardner, 305 S. Spring st. 

Botanic Pharmacy 
Liscomb's Botanic Pharmacy, Main and 
Fifteenth sts. Tel. West 68. 



Business Universities. 

Metropolitan Business University, W. C. 

Buckman, Mgr., 438-440 S. Spring st. 
Carpenter Work, Jobbing, Mill Work 
Adams Mfg. Co., 742 S. Main st. Tel. 

Red 1048. 

Carpet Cleaning Works 

Pioneer Steam Carpet Cleaning Works, 
Robt. Jordan, Mgr., 641 S. Broadway. 
Tel. 217 Main. 

Chemical and Mill Testing Laboratory 
and Assay Office 

Union Mining and Milling Co., 332.W. 

Second st. (Stephens Reduction 

Process.) 

Clothing and Gent's Furnishings 
London Clothing Co., 1 17-125 N. Spring 

St., s. w. cor. Franklin. 
Mullen, Bluett & Co., n. w. cor. Spring 

and First sts. 

Confectionery, Ice Cr«'am, Sherbets, etc. 
Wholesale and Retail 

Merriam & Son, 127 S. Spring st. Tel. 

Main 475. 
M. Broszey & Co., 727 W. Sixth st. Tel. 
Red 2033. 
Coal Oil, Gasoline, W^ood, Coal, etc. 
Morris- Jones Oil and Fuel Co., 127 S. 
Broadway. Tel. Main 666. 
Curio Stores 
Wm. F. Winkler, 346 S. Broadway. 

Decorative Needle-work and Infants' 
Wear 

Beeman & Hendee, 310 S. Broadway. 

Delicacy Store 
Ahrens' Bakery, 425 S. Broadway. 

Dentists 
Drs. Adams Bros., 239^ S. Spring st. 
G. H. Kriechbaiim, 356 S. Broadway. 



Land of Sunshine Commercial Blue Book, Los Angeles, Cal. 



Door and Window Screens and House 
Repairing 

Adams Mfg Co., 742 S. Main st. Tel. 
Red 1048. 

Druggists 

Thomas Drug Co., cor. Spring and Tem- 
ple sts. Tel. Main 62. 

H. C. Worland, 2133 K- First st. Station B. 

H. B. Fasig, 531 Downey ave., cor. Tru- 
man St., East L. A. Tel. Alta 201. 

M. W. Brown, 1200 W. Washington st. 

Iviscomb's Pharmacy, cor. Main and Fif- 
teenth sts. Tel West 68. 

Catalina Pharmacy, M. Home, prop., 1501 
W. Seventh st. Tel. Green 772. 

Edmiston & Harrison, Vermont and Jef- 
ferson sts. Tel. Blue 4701. 
Dry Goods 

N. B. Blackstone Co., Spring and Third 

sts. 
Boston Dry Goods Store, 239 S. Broadway. 
J. M. Hale Co., 107-9-10 N. Spring st. 
Dye Worlts, Gleaning 

American Dye Works, J. A. Berg, prop. 

Office 21 0>^ S. Spring st. Tel. Main 

850. Works 613-615 W. Sixth st. Tel. 

Main 1016. 

Electricians 
Woodill & Hulse Electric Co., 108 W. 

Third St. Tel. Main 1125. 
Electric Supply and Fixture Co., 541 S. 

Broadway. Tel. Main 831. 
Fruit and Vegetables 
Marston & Co., 320 Temple st. Tel. 

Main 1622. (Shipping solicited.) 
Rivers Bros., Broadway and Temple st. 

Tel. Main 1426. (Shipping solicited.) 
Furnished Booms 
The Rossmore, Mrs. M. J. Knox, prop., 

416 W. Sixth St. Rate $1.50 to $5 

per week. 
The Smithsonian, 312 S. Hill st. Rate 

$2 to $4 per week. 
The Hafen, Mrs. M. J. Knox, prop., 344 

S. Hill St. Rate $\ .50 to $3 per week. 

Furniture, Carpets and Draperies 
Los Angeles Furniture Co., 225-229 S. 

Broadway. Tel. Main 13. 
Southern California Furniture Co., 312- 

314 S. Broadway. Tel. Main 1215. 
I. T. Martin, 531-3-5 S. Spring st. 
Grilles, Fretwork, "Wood Novelties, Etc. 
Los Angeles Grille Works, 610 South 

Broadway. 

Groceries 
Blue Ribbon Grocery, B. Wynns & Co., 

449 S. Spring st. Tel. Main 728. 
Despars & Son, cor. Main and Twenty- 
fifth sts. 
H. Jevne, 208-210 S. Spring st. 
C. A. Neil, 423 Downey ave , East L. A. 

Tel. Alta 202. 
Marston & Co., 320 Temple st. Tel. 

Main 1622 
Electric Grocery, 1603 S. Grand ave. Tel. 

Blue 2612. 



Groceries— Continued 

Geo. Williamson, 1436-38 S. Main st. 

Tel. White 2062. 
O. Willis, 690 Alvarado st. Tel. Main 

1382. 
J. C. Rockhill, 1573 W. First St., cor. 

Belmont ave. Tel. Main 789. 
T. L. Coblentz, 825 S. Grand ave. Tel. 

Brown 777. 
J. Lawrence, Cool Block, cor. Jefferson st. 

and Wesley ave. 
C. Ed. Chambers, 3202 Vermont ave. 

Tel. White 4702. 
Morrison Bros , 419 S. Broadway. Tel. 

Main 784. 
Rivers Bros, Broadway and Temple st. 

Tel. Main 1426. 
Smith & Anderson, cor. Pico and Olive 

sts. Tel. Blue 2401. 

Habedashers and Hatters. 
Bumiller & Marsh, 123 S. Spring st. 

Tel. Main 547. 

Hair Bazaar and Beauty Parlors 
The Imperial, Frank Neubauer, prop., 

224-226 W. Second st. Tel. Black 

1381. 

Hay, Grain, Coal and "Wood 
The P. J. Brannen Feed, Fuel & Storage 

Co., 806-810 S. Main St. Tel. Main 

419. 
William Dibble, cor. Sixth and Los An- 
geles sts. Tel. Green 1761. 
Grand Avenue Feed & Fuel Co., A. F. 

Cochems, 1514 Grand ave. Tel. 

West 227. 
J. H. White & Son, 2024-2028 E. First st. 

Tel. Boyle 4. 
A. E. Breuchaud, 841 S. Figueroa st. 

Tel. Main 923. 
Parker Seymour. 1528 W. 7th St., West 

Lake District. Tel. Main 647. 

Hospitals 

The California Hospital, 1414 S. Hope 

St. Tel. West 92. 
Dr. Stewart's Private Hospital, 315 West 

Pico St. Tel. West 14. 

Hotels 

Abbotsford Inn, cor, Eighth and Hope 
sts. Rate, $1.50 per day and up. 

Aldine Hotel, Hill st., bet. 3rd and 4th 
sts. American plan, |1.50 per day 
and up. European plan, $3.50 to 
$10.00 per week. 

Bellevue Terrace Hotel, cor. Sixth and 
Figueroa sts. Rate, $2 per day and up. 

Hollenbeck Hotel, American and Europ- 
ean plan, Second and Spring sts. 

Hotel Van Nuys, n. w. cor. Main and 
Fourth sts. American plan, |3 to 
$12 per day; European plan, $1 to 
$10 per day. 

Hotel Rosslyn, Main st. opp. postoffice. 
American plan, $2 per day and up ; 
European plan, $1 per day and up. 

Westminster Hotel, n. e. cor. Main and 
Fourth sts. American plan, $3 per 
day and up ; European plan, $1 per 
day and up. 



Land of Sunshine Commercial Blue Book, Los Angeles, Cal. 



Hotels— Continued 

Hotel Gray Gables, cor. Seventh and 

Hill sts. Rates $1 to $2 per day. 
Hotel UUie, 534 S. Hill st. Rate $8 to 

$15 per week. 
Hotel Locke, 139 S. Hill St., entrance on 

Second st. American plan. Rate 

18.00 to $12 per week. 
The Belmont, 425 Temple st. Rate $6.50 

per week and up. 
Hotel Grey, n. e. cor. Main and Third 

sts. European plan. Rate, $3 .00 to 

$12 per week. 
Hotel Rio Grande, 425 W. Second st. 

Rate, $1.50 per day and up. 
Jewelers and Watchmakers 
S. Conradi, 113 S. Spring st. Tel. Main 

1159. 
Liadies', Children's and Infants' "Wear 
I. Magnin & Co., 251 S. Broadway. 

Ladies Tailor 
S. Benioflf, 330 S. Broadway. 

liiquor Merchants 
H. J. Woollacott, 124-126 N. Spring st. 
Southern California Wine Co., 220 W. 

Fourth St. 
Edward Germain Wine Co., 397-399 S. 

Los Angeles st. Tel. Main 919. 

Liivery Stables and Tally-hos 

Tally-ho Stable & Carriage Co., W. R. 

Murphy (formerly at 109 N. Broad- 
way), 712 S. Broadway. Tel. Main 

51. 
Broadway Stables, Nowlin & Nowlin, 428 

S. Broadway. Tel. Main 806. 
Eagle Stables, Woodward & Cole, 122 S. 

Broadway. Tel. Main 248. 
Boyle Heights Livery Stable, J. H. White 

& Son, 2024-2028 E. First st. Tel. 

Boyie 4. 
Eureka Stables, 323 W. Fifth st. Tel. 

Main 71. 
Marblized Plaster Medallions, Busts, etc. 

vSarah B. Thatcher, successor to Alfred 

T. Nicoliette, 129 East Seventh st. 
Meat Markets 
Norma Market, M. T. Ryan, 1818 S. 

Main St. Tel. Westl7f. 
Crystal Market, Reed Bros., 2309 S. Union 

ave. Tel. Blue 3131. 
Model Market, R. A. Norries, 831 W. 

Sixth St. cor Pearl. Tel. 979 Main. 
Boston Cash Market, Jos. Oser, 1156 S. 

Olive St. Tel. West 126. 
Grand Avenue Market, J. A. Rydell, 

2218 S. Grand ave. Tel. White 3211. 
Philadelphia Market, S. S. Jackson, 3304 

S. Main st. Tel. White 2063 
Pioneer Meat Market, E. Rudolph, 514 

Downey ave., East L- A. Tel. Alta 

208. 
Chicago Market, J. WoUenshlager, 410 

S Main st. Tel. Main 779. 
Fair Market, Gillespie & Bush, 514 Tem- 
ple St. 



Meat Markets— Continued 



205 



Popular Market, J. J. Everharty, 

West Fourth st. Tel. Red 1289. 
Park Market, Chas Kestner, 329 West 

Fifth St. Tel. Red 925. 
Superior Market, J. G. Young, 717 W. 

Jefferson st. Tel. West 50. 
Eureka Market, Jay W. Hyland, cor. 7th 

st and Union ave. Tel. Main 1467. 
Oregon Market, Briggs & Read, 525 W. 

6th St. Tel. Red 2032. 

Merchant Tailors 
H. A. Getz, 229 W. Third st. 
O. C. Sens, 219 W Second St., opp. Hol- 

lenbeck Hotel. 
Benhard Gordan, 104 S. Spring st. Tel. 

Green 1692. 
Brauer & Krohn, 1 14>^ S. Main st. 
A. J. Partridge, 125 W. First st. Tel. 

Green 13. 

Millinery 
Maison Nouvelle, Miss A. Clarke, 222 W. 

3rd St. Tel. Main 1374. 
Mexican Hand- Carved Lieather Goods 
H. Ross & Sons, 352 S. Broadway, P. O. 

box 902. 

Notions, Fancy Goods, etc. 
Cheapside Bazaar, F. E. Verge, 2440 S. 

Main st. 

Opticians 

Adolph Frese, 126 S. Spring st. 

Boston Optical Co., Kyte & Granicher, 

235 S. Spring st. 
Fred Detmers, 354 S. Broadway. 

Pawn Brokers 

L. B. Cohn, 120-122 North Spring st. 

Ph oto graphers 
Townsend's, 340)4 S. Broadway. 

Photographic Material, Kodaks, et<s 
Dewey Bros., 109 W^ Second st. Tel. 
Green 1784. 

Pianos, Sheet Music and Musical 
Merchandise 

Southern California Music Co., 216-218 
W. Third st. Tel. 585. 

Fitzgerald Music & Piano Co., 113 S. 
Spring St. Tel. Main 1 159. 

Williamson Bros , 327 S Spring st. Tel. 
1315 Brown. 

Geo. T. Exton, 327 S. Spring st. Tel. 
1315 Brown. (Agent for Regal Man- 
dolins and Guitars. ) 

Picture Frames, Artists' Materials, Sou- 
venirs 

Sanborn, Vail & Co., 133 S. Spring st. 
Ita Williams, 354 S- Broadway and 311 

S. Main st. 

Pleating— Accordion and Knife 
Mrs. T. M. Clark, 340>^ S. Hillst. 

Restaurants 
Ebinger's Dining Parlors, cor. Spring 

and Third sts. Tel. 610. 
Levy's Oyster and Dining Parlors, 111- 

117 W. Third St. 



Land of Sunshine Commercial Blue Book, Los Angeles, Cal. 



Restaurant*— Continued 

Seymour Dining Parlors, 3'. 8 West Sec- 
ond St. 

The Rival Lunch Counter and Restaur- 
ant, 115 W. Second St. 
Rubber Stamps, Stencils and Seals 

Los Angeles Rubber Stamp Co., 224 W. 
First St Tel. Green 1945. 
Sanitariums 

Electric Vitapathic Institute, 534>^ S. 
Broadway, D. L Allen, Mgr., Dr. 
F. W. Bassett, Medical Director. 
Tel. Main 1363. 

Schools and Colleges. 

St. Vincent's College, Grand ave. 

Los Angeles Military Academy, west of 
Westlake Park. P. O. Box 193, City. 

Miss French's Classical School for Girls, 
512 S Alvarado st Tel. Brown 1652 
Sewing Machines and Bicycles 

Williamson Bros., 327 S Spring st. Tel. 
Brown 1315. 
Shirt and Shirt Waist Makers 

Machin Shirt Co., \\8}4 S. Spring st. 

Bumiller & Marsh, 123 S. Spring st. 
Tel. Main 547. 

Shoe Stores 

W. E. Cummings, Fourth and Broadway. 

Innes-Crippen Shoe Co., 258 S. Broad- 
way and 231 W. Third st. 

Waterman's Shoe Store, 122 S Spring st. 

F. E. Verge, 2440 S. Main st. 

Sporting Goods and Bicycles 

L. A. Cycle & Sporting Goods Co., 319 
S. Main st. 



Stenographers 

Mrs. E. L. Widney, 403 Bradbury Bldg. 

Surgical Instruments. Trusses, Elastic 
Hosiery 

W. W. Sweeney, 213 W. Fourth st. Tel. 
Green 1312. 

Taxidermist and Naturalist 
Wm. F. Winkler, 346 S. Broadway. 

Teas, Coffees and Spices 
Sunset Tea & Coffee Co., 229 W Fourth 

st Tel. Main 1214. 
J. D. Lee & Co., 130 W. Fifth st. 

Transfer Co. 

(See Van and Storage Co's.) 
Upholstering, Polishing, Cabinet TVork 
Broadway Furniture & Upholstering Co., 
521 S. Broadway. 

Van and Storage Companies 
Bekins Van and Storage Co. Office 436 
S. Spring st.; Tel. Main 19. Ware- 
house, Fourth and Alameda sts.; Tel. 
Black 1221. 
Wall Paper, Room Moulding, Decorating 

Los Angeles Wall Paper Co , 309 S. Main 

St. Tel. Green 314. 
New York Wall Paper Co., 452 S. Spring 
St. Tel. Main 207. 

Warehouse 

(See Van and Storage Co's.) 

Wood Mantels, Tiles, Grat«»s, Etc. 

Chas E. Marshall, 514 S. Spring st. 
Tel. Brown 1821. 




Knowledge That Pays 



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All kinds of Outing Shirts at J^ilverwood's. 



TH« LANDS OF THE SUN EXPAND THE SOUL. 



THE LAND OF 

SUNSHINE 



II 



Vol 1 1 No. 2. 



LOS ANGELES 



JULY, 1899. 



California Aquarium and 
Zoological Station. 



BY CHARLES FREDERICK HOLDER. 



OOLOGY is so universally taught in all schools at the 
present day that it is safe to say that hardly a teacher 
attending the convention held in Los Angeles in July, 
but is more or less- interested in the subject. 

The fauna of the Pacific ocean off Southern California is in 
many respects unique, and, especially in its fishes, differs from 
that of the Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico, or the waters of Europe. 

To anyone who has visited the zoological station at Naples 
the resemblance will be striking, as, especially at Santa Catalina 
and San Clemente islands, the animal life reminds the observer 
of Naples and its immediate waters. 

Avalon bay at Santa Catalina island is a miniature bay of 
Naples, and is one of the most interesting collecting grounds 
in America ; seemingly the neutral ground upon which many 
varied forms, semi-tropic and otherwise, exist. For years the 
writer has hoped to see an attempt made to place this interest- 
ing fauna within reach not only of the general public but of 
students and teachers, and as a result of some of his experi- 
ments made during the past six months, the Banning Com- 
pany has built a temporary building sixty feet by twenty on 
the water front at Avalon, and equipped it with forty or fifty 
tanks, in which will be exhibited this summer as many differ- 
ent forms as can be obtained, ranging from sponges and corals 
to the large fishes. This building and its equipment will con- 
stitute the nucleus of a fine zoological station and aquarium 
which will grow and be elaborated if the interest taken justi- 
fies it. Aquariums are luxuries, and even the smallest costs 
a large sum for construction and maintenance, and the Santa 
Catalina -aquarium is no exception. Yet as an educational 
feature it is one of the most important movements yet made in 
Southern California, will give a fresh impetus to scientific invest!- 

Copyright 1899 by Land of Supsbipe Pub. Co. 



LAND OF SUNSHINE. 



gation, and provide the student and teacher with a wide 
field for study and observation, and present an interesting ob- 
ject lesson, telling the graphic story of the marvels of animal 
life on our shores. 

The aquarium of the station will have one tank facing the 

sea sixty feet in 
length. This can be 
divided off into small 
tanks of any size by 
glass plates. A tank 
for large fishes will be 
twenty by six feet. In 
this it is hoped to ex- 
hibit sharks and a 
large black sea bass of 
at least loo pounds 
weight, the largest 
bony fish, with the 
exception of the tuna, 
in these waters. Be- 
sides this there will 
be a double row of 
tanks thirty feet long, 
and various independ- 
ent tanks with smaller 
ones ultimately, for 
purposes of study. 
Only a glance can be 
taken at the many 
interesting creatures 
that will be shown 
there in July. In the 
smaller tanks we shall 
find the noctiluca, one 
of the most brilliant of 
the Rhizopods ; the 
salpa and its chains, 
that sometimes so fill 
the water off Avalon 
1^ I that they can be dip- 

» «™™_^, ^" P^d up by the bucket- 

" ful. There will be 
shown the delicate Physophora hydrostatica^ one of the most 
beautiful of the jelly-like animals and one of the fastest swim- 
mers of the group. The writer has kept this radiant creature 
for days in the experimental tank, also velella and physalia. 
Another beautiful and delicate form is Carinaria, a moUusk 
(Heteropod) having a delicate shell; and Pterotrachea and 




A CALIFORNIA AOlUARIUM. 



79 




many others. In the 
sponge tank we shall 
see a rare and interest- 
ing glass sponge with 
glass-like spicules ex- 
tendingfromitinevery 
direction, sponges in 
deep red, yellow and 
brown tints. Corals 
are not common in 
California, but there 
are several specimens, 
one large branch — a 
foot across — covered 
with polyps, and an- 
other species is seen 
growing on the shell 
of a hermit crab, while 
delicate coral resembl- 
ing Polyzoan, like 
Retepora, are dredged 
from deep water along 
shore. 

The cousins of co- 
rals, the sea anemones, 
have a tank by them- 
selves. Some are four 
or five inches across. 
Many are a vivid 
green, others look 
like ripe strawberries 
so vivid are their hues 
— the animal flowers 
of the sea. The worms 
are attractive crea- 
tures. Some are in 
huge tubes, others 
form tunnels of sand, 
and show great skill 
in hiding. Many are 
brilliantly phosphor- 
escent, and one of the 
smallest produces a 
light that sometimes 
resembles that of a 
candle floating on the 
bay. In the crab tank 
we may see great spi- 



A California aquariums 



8i 



der crabs dec- 
orated with 
algae, a deep 
red-colored 
crab, and the 
sping lobster 
waving its 
whips like a 
fencer. Here 
are crabs of 
odd and beau- 
^ tiful shapes, 
w some from one 
^ thousand feet 
^ down ; her- 
Q mits dragging 
% huge shells 
a about, while 
g scores of 
^ young fill 
B every shell in 
S the tank. At 
^ the surface is 
jjj a crab (grap- 
g sus) that re- 
quires the air, 
and spends 
most of its 
time out of 
the water. 
Pink shrimps, 
i crabs of vivid 
? green that 
2 mimic the 
'. kelp in which 
g ^ they live, and 
many more 
make up this strange family, the study of whose growth and 
development is of the greatest interest. In the shell tank we 
find the great black velvet-colored key-hole limpet, the beautiful 
haliotis, and many more. Perhaps the most interesting creature 
here is the so-called (incorrectly) ship worm — teredo — which 
is shown eating into a pier, completing its work of destruction, 
that costs the government thousands of dollars annually (the 
life of a pile at Avalon being about three years). Among the 
interesting shells is 2.natica that builds a nest of sand (sea collar), 
and the delicate cowry that covers itself with a fleshy cloak. At 
times, though rarely, the paper nautilus will be seen here, and 




A CALIFORNIA AQUARIUM. 83 

in a tank by themselves are the members of the group without 
shells ; the octopods, or devil fishes, with their bird-like beaks 
and bags of ink. Large squids are found here, and the pen of 
one a foot long is shown in the accompanying illustration. 
The squids can be kept for a short time in the tanks. Among 
the interesting forms is the sea hare, Aplysia, that becomes so 
tame that it readily feeds from the hand, eating the green ulva 
so common here. The waters here are particularly rich in these 
peculiar moUusks. Some are vivid blue and yellow, others 
yellow, green and black, and one beautiful form is pure white. 
Many of them have deposited their eggs in the experimental 
tank, affording excellent opportunities for study. Here we 
shall also find the lamp shell, a shelled worm dredged in deep 
water off there, and known as Terebratdulina^ interesting as 
being closely related to fossil forms. 

The other forms, sea urchins and sea cucumbers are well 
represented. Some of the former are a foot across, and the lat- 
ter a foot long. The deep-sea forms are particularly interest- 
ing, rich in color and shape. 

The fishes, from their size and beauty, attract the greatest 
attention, and as the first exhibition in Southern California, 
they will be most conspicuous. 

One tank is a blaze of red gold, due to the golden angel fish, 
and in the same tank are its young, beautiful creatures spotted 
with blue — so far as appearances go, an entirely different fish. 
This point is to be carried out in the arrangement, the idea be- 
ing to make each tank, so far as possible, tell the story com- 
plete of the animal and its habits. 

Among the rare forms we shall find the hag (myxine) cov- 
ered with slime, sharks, and rays of various kinds, some with 
spines; and one of the most interesting is the Port Jackson 
shark, peculiar to the Pacific ocean. It is a member of the 
Cestracionidae, a near ally to many extinct genera that lived 
before the oolite. This shark is shown, with its peculiar 
twisted eggs of so much interest to the zoologist. One of the 
most interesting fishes found here is the Mydophum, or brill- 
iant lamp fish. The writer secured about twenty specimens 
this past winter. They have a light upon the head, and 
numerous phosphorescent spots along the ventral surface. They 
are dredged in water six hundred feet deep, but come in shore 
in winter and rise at night. 

It will be impossible to give a list of the many interesting 
and beautiful fishes which can be shown here, for a greater or 
less time depending upon their nature ; but the writer has ob- 
served the Regaleeus, or band fish: the opah, a large Anten- 
nainus ; the famous nest-building fish (see illustration), sun 
fishes, two species of sword fish, the hippocampus, or sea-horse, 
and many more which are not commonly seen. 



84 LAND OF SUNSHINE. 

One of the most interesting exhibits will be of the large 
California flying fish and the kelp fishes. One variety of the 
latter is a marvelous mimic standing upright in the tank, 
and in color and its dorsal fin resembling the sea-weed so ex- 
actly that it is dijBBcult to distinguish it. The flat fishes, 
flounders, sand dabs, etc., will afibrd an interesting study, as 
the eye changes from one side to the other during growth. 

The spotted moray, or eel will be shown^ — a veritable sea- 
snake — while other curious fishes are the gobies, some of 
which seem to require air part of the time, and invariably 
drown when forced under water for along period. Those col- 
lected were all found at low tide clinging to the under side of 
rocks ten or more feet from water. 

The many rich bass, perch, sheep's-head and white fish 
not only thrive well in the tanks but become very tame, perch 
and rock bass feeding from the hand. The sculpins and the 
large "kelp cod," a great "bull-head," are the grotesques of 
the collection, covered with barnacles and tangles, mimicing the 
bottom, and devouring everything within reach. 

An interesting fish is the surf fish which gives birth to its 
young alive. Several species are found here, all of which 
have the same habit. Among others that will be shown are 
the Remoras, the fish with a sucking disk, that follows sharks ; 
the Chimaera, or rat fish, which lays remarkable eggs ; the 
"pufi" shark," the sting-ray, angle fish, and many more that are 
rarely seen alive by either scientist or layman. 

The embryo zoological station will present, in its aquarium, 
a most interesting exhibit to the general public; one that will 
be unique, as never before have the marine fishes and other 
animals of this section been shown, and it is hoped that the 
movement will be of benefit to students everywhere, who will 
be given every facility to prosecute their studies. 

Pasadena, Cal. 



Among the Yaqui Indians in 

So NORA. 



BY VERONA GRANVILLE. 



HE most pleasant feature of my travel 
through the west-coast States of Mexico, 
last year, was a brief visit to the section oc- 
cupied by the Yaqui Indians, in Sonora. 

Our route lay directly over one of the old 
Apache trails, made famous by the numer- 
ous raids of renegades from Arizona and 
New Mexico in the days when Geronimo 
and ** Apache Kid" were a terror to two governments. The 
country, after leaving the railroad station of Ortiz, until the 



^-L0$ 


h 


im^m 


0^ 


4 V^^O^*™^^ 






z!^^ 







AMONG THE YAQXJl INDIANS IN SONORA. 



Ss 




L. A. Eng. Co 



Ai,ONG thb; yaqui river. 



Yaqui'f river is reached (with the exception of the Bacatete 
mountains) is almost as barren as the great Colorado Desert, 
of which it is really an extension. The vegetation is sparse, 
with here and there bunches of cactus, chaparral, greasewood 




L. A. Eng. Co. 



A YAQUI I<AUNDRESS. 



AMONG THE YAQUI INDIANS IN 'SONORA. 87 




L A Eng Co. 

A I2-YKAR-OLD MOTHER. 



and palo verde, and an occasional 

grassy mesa, dotted with fat cattle. 

Our riding animals were mules 

and the pack animals burros. The 

mozos in charge of the pack-train 

walked the entire distance, some- 
times passing with bare feet over 

sharp rocks and cacti, without 

apparent injury. The trail being 

good, the weather superb and no 

accidents befalling, we often 

covered thirty miles a day, start- 
ing at early morn, resting an hour 

at noon, and camping before dark. 

With commodious tents, camp 

beds and an excellent cook, there 

were few of the hardships we had 

expected. 

Our first stop was made at the 

hamlet of San Marcial, on the Rio Matape. It is a typical 

collection of adobe huts, with flat roofs, a tumble-down church 

and a general air of unthrift. 
Two days travel from San Marcial 
brought us into the Bacatete 
Mountains, an almost barren 
range of comparatively recent 
birth. These isolated mountains 
have for ages past been the ren- 
dezvous of renegade Indians, 
who have been at war with the 
Mexican government for the past 
three hundred years, until the 
treaty of peace, made a few 
months ago. The Indians have 
now abandoned their stronghold, 
and the country is safe for travel- 
ers and prospectors. 

Where water is abundant, the 
^_ . a^^^B canons are redolent with the odor 
"' mBM JH ^^ ^^^^ flowers, and an infinite 
^Hp ^^^^^B variety of ferns cling to every 
^^^ --'^^^^M rocky ledge. The streams cut- 
^^ ^^^^H ^^°^ through the mountains and 

forming almost impassable bar- 
rancas, are generally small except 
during the rainy season, when 
they are transformed into raging 
torrents. In several instances we 




L. A. Eng.C o. 

A YAQUI 



DUDE. 




o 

O 

a 

« g 

O *" 

> fl 

5H cd 

« S 
w "^ 

W 3 



AMONG THE YAQUI INDIANS IN SONORA. 89 

were forced to make detours of many miles around the head of 
a barranca. There are vast deposits of beautifully tinted gran- 
ite in these mountains that would be eagerly sought for build- 
ing material could it be transported ; and I was told that rare 
marble and onyx are found in abundance to the north. Wild 
turkeys, bear, deer and " lions" were frequently seen ; and not 
least among the delicacies of our daily menu were venison 
steaks and turkey breasts. There were no fish that pleased 
our effete palates, but many varieties highly pleasing to the 
mozos, who concocted divers savory dishes of fish, chile and 
wild garlic. Occasional ranches supplied us with milk, 




L. A. Eng Co. 



THE PET DEER. 



chickens, and eggs, and as a rule both natives and Indians 
refused to accept payment for any articles of food, though 
they were delighted to receive small presents of canned meats, 
bits of rope or nails. 

One evening as we approached a deep barranca where the 
mesquite and palo verde grow to the size of respectable trees, 
there arose a cry as of thousands of wild ducks. As they bore 
downward, with hoarse, deafening cries, the glint of crimson 
and green and gold dazzled the eye. It was a flock of parrots, 
thousands in number, and indescribably beautiful in the bright 
sunlight, as they circled round and round before alighting in 
the treetops. After dark, the mozos succeeded in trapping 



90 LAND OF SUNSHINE. 

three gorgeously-colored birds, which were carried with us in 
an ingenious cage of bamboo. 

The first view of the Yaqui river was from the crest of a hill 
about half way between San Jose and Cumuripa. It is a slug- 
gish stream here, easily forded in the dry season, but a rush- 
ing torrent after the first summer rains. The river is lined 
with Indian huts, a few of adobe, but the majority of brush 
and dry grass. A small space in front of the house is gener- 
ally enclosed by a rock wall, not so much to keep other ani- 
mals out as to keep those of the proprietor in ; for men, 
women, children and animals live together in sweet content 
along the Yaqui river. I was surprised to find the inhabitants 
of these humble homes so well dressed and so up-to-date in 
their cooking utensils, agricultural implements and weapons. 

A fine modern rifle stood in the corner of the first house I 
entered. All the family wore shoes, and the mother and three 
little girls wore neat, lace-trimmed calico dresses. They had 
just come from church, it being Sunday. Though we were 
invited to dine with the family, we declined, as our time was 
limited in the village. Many other huts were visited, and all 
were far cleaner and their occupants more intelligent than I had 
been led to expect from my reading about the the Yaquis. 
Both men and women are above the average Mexican in 
height. Many are extremely tall and all well proportioned. 
Their features are pleasing, their eyes large and piercing, their 
noses straight and their teeth white as ivory. The carriage of 
a Yaqui woman would fire the heart of a Delsartean with 
unquenchable envy, so tall, so straight, so well poised is the 
entire figure, especially when the oUa is placed on the head on 
returning trom the well or river. The constant carrying of 
burdens on the head preserves an erect position of the torso, 
and the act of walking is performed from the waist downward 
— a method employed by the Greeks for beautifying the human 
form divine. 

The Yaquis are the backbone of the population of Sonora. 
They are the best workmen in the Republic, commanding from 
ten to twenty per cent higher wages in many localities than 
Mexican or other Indian labor. There is not a lazy bone in 
the Yaqui body. They are a peaceable, law-abiding people 
when justly treated. From time immemorial they have been 
hunters, miners and tillers of the soil. They have the nomad 
instinct in less degree than almost any other Indian tribe. 
When oppressed they have simply risen to redress their 
wrongs. In their mountain fastness they could no more be 
conquered than the Scotsmen before the battle of Bannock- 
burn. The government at last recognized the futility of con- 
tinuing the struggle to conquer them, and at the invitation of 
President Diaz, the old chief of the Yaquis, Tetabiate, visited 



AMONG THE YAQUI INDIANS IN SONORA. 9i 

the City of Mexico, where the terms of a treaty of peace were 
agreed to. The signing of the treaty took place at Ortiz, a 
miUtary station near Guaymas. It was an impressive sight, 
with hundreds of Indians, all carrying white flags bearing the 
word paz (peace), surrounding the old chief and Colonel 
Peinado. Tetabiate gave his word that the life and property 
of all Mexicans and foreigners should be held sacred within 
his domain, and that he and his people would uphold and 
obey the laws of the Republic. Colonel Peinado promised on 
the part of the Government that certain lands claimed by the 
Indians should be theirs absolutely, to hold or to sell, and that 
they should be granted all the rights held by the Mexicans. 
The treaty has never been violated by Tetabiate, and he caused 
to be shot several Indians who killed an American prospector 
in the Sierra Madre near the Rio Aros. His word is law 



I 









LA. Enf . Co, 




A YAOUI HUT. 



among his people, and his decisions are accepted as infallible. 
He is said to be considerably influenced by the priests, who 
have dwelt among the Yaquis since the days of the Spanish 
conquest. All the Yaquis are Catholics. 

During the past two or three years the government has ex- 
pended large amounts upon irrigation canals. Much native 
and foreign capital is being expended in developing the 
country, sugar planting being considered especially re- 
munerative. 

The government has also sent among the Yaqui Indians, 
during the past month, two male and ten female teachers from 
the City of Mexico to establish primary schools for boys and 
girls in several of the larger native villages. Suitable build- 
ings have been erected and well equipped with text-books, 
maps, globes and other supplies, all of which, as elsewhere in 
the Republic, are free to the pupil. 



92 



LAND OF SUNSHINE. 




L. A. EDg. Co. 



YAOUI BEGGARS. 



There are many quaint, old 

churches throughout the 

Yaqui country, many of which 

have been wholly or partly 

decorated by the Indians, in a 

strikingly original and bizarre 

style. At one of the villages I 

saw copper bells, weighing 

almost a ton each, bearing the 

date of 1763. These bells 

were removed from the church 

during the late wars with the 

government troops and pre- 

» iM M 1^ sented to a church near Her- 

Vm 'li 9P9 mosillo, but on the demand of 

I M W ^ ^^^ chief they were returned, 

f \ 1 ^B ^^^ ^^^y ^^^^^ P^^^ sweetly for 

I 4 Mh ^ ^ morning and evening service, 

^J I'W'lB ■- i«3 jug^ as in the old days when 

Spain was mistress of the land 

of the Aztecs. 

At Tonochi I witnessed a 
marriage ceremony, which was conducted strictly after the 
ancient Yaqui plan. A handsome young Indian of about twenty 
was the groom, the bride a maiden of some thirteen summers. 
The legal marriage age for women in the tierra caliente is 
thirteen, although girls are frequently mothers at eleven or 
twelve. The parents of both were in favor of the marriage, 
but it is not Yaqui etiquette to appear anxious. Therelore, 
the young man was put on probation for a period of about ten 
days, during which time the men tried to induce him to drink 
and the women tempted him with smiles and flattering words. 
But Pancho deported himself with becoming decorum and came 
forth unscathed. Then there was a great pow-wow at the 
house of the oldest man in the village — a sort of local chief, 
elected by the people as judge and arbiter in disputes. He in- 
vited in four other old men of the tribe, and Pancho was ordered 
to appear. As he stood with bowed head before his judges, the 
eldest man rose and made a long harangue, in which he re- 
viewed the young man's history from his birth, expatiating at 
length on his faults, follies and poverty. Then the next eldest 
man rose and recited all he knew or had heard to the detriment 
of the poor fellow, and was followed in turn by the other old 
men, according to age, who accused him of every crime in the 
Yaqui decalogue. Then Pancho was commanded to speak and 
answer the charges, and relate any deeds of charity or bravery 
he may have performed, that they might mitigate the terrible 
reputation given him by his elders. Pancho threw back his 



AMONG THE YAQUI INDIANS IN SONORA. 



93 



head, planted his broad back against the wall, and answered his 
accusers. At the end of his defense the old men clapped their 
hands in approval, and a messenger was sent for the bride and 
her family. Not anticipating an unfavorable verdict, the 
bride was dressed for the ceremony and was waiting outside 
the hut with her parents and friends. The chief handed the 
groom a loaded gun, which the young man discharged into 
the air, after walking to the end of the stone corral surround- 
ing the hut. The bride then fired the gun and the ceremony 
of marriage was at an end. This was to signify that the 
wronged one was to have the privilege of killing the unfaithful 
consort, should either violate the marriage vow. This pagan 
ceremony was followed by festivities at the house of the 
bride's parents, which lasted till morning. There was dancing 
to the music of a sweet toned guitar ana a rude harp of native 




L. A. Eng Co 



YAOUIS AT HOME. 



manufacture, played with consummate skill by two stalwart 
Indians. The guitar was of cedar, with an armadillo shell 
back. The harp was uniquely carved with fishes, such 
as never existed save in the bizarre imagination of a Yaqui 
Indian. Many of the Indians are skilled performers on 
stringed instruments, and their voices are sweet and true, 
though not strong. 

The status of women among the Yaquis is higher than of any 
Indian race I have ever been among. They seem to be on a foot- 
ing of absolute equality with the men. A woman's word is 
law in her own house, and the father has practically no voice 
in the control of the children. 

Divorce is infrequent among the Indians, and the only cause 
therefor is unfaithfulness. The wronged party has the privi- 



94 LAND OF SUNSHINE. 

lege of killing the unfaithful one, and is not amenable to the 
law for the crime. This privilege, of course, holds good only 
in the districts bej'-ond the pale of the Mexican law, and re- 
mote from the immediate influence of Chief Tetabiate, who, 
since the treaty of peace, has made earnest effort to stamp out 
ancient superstitions among his people. 

That witchcraft and idol worship are not yet dead among 
the Yaquis I soon discovered while wandering among the peo- 
ple of the small villages along the river. At an Indian hut I 
was shown a " bruja," or witch doll, by an unusually intelli- 
gent Yaqui woman, the mother of seven children, whose hus- 
band had been put to death, she averred, on the accusation of 
having the "evil eye." The doll was ten inches long, made 
of black cloth and stuffed with wool. It was stuck full of the 
sharp thorns of the maguey plant, and it was believed that the 
enemies of the family suffered excrutiating pain so long as the 
thorns remained in the doll. The story that the mother told 
me was pathetic. She said, in excellent Spanish : ** My 
husband was a good man, a miner at the placer diggings on 
the Rio Aros. He was away from home most of the time, and 
came to see us only two or three times a year. I lived at the 
village with the little ones so that they could go to the padre 
to learn to read. It cost almost all my husband earned at the 
mines to buy us food and clothes and pay the padre. But there 
were those in the village who were jealous of me and the 
little ones because we had more than they, and the reason was 
that we drank no tequila, and they, our enemies, spent all 
their money for drink. One day when my husband came to 
see us and brought money, old Pedro and some of the other 
men came and asked him to join them at the cantina, where 
other miners were drinking and spending the money that 
should have gone to the wives and little ones. My Diego re- 
fused to go, and the men went out and one of them fell down 
on the ground and declared that he was hurt in his head, and 
that my Diego and I and all the little ones had the evil eye ; 
that we were all as the people that they used to burn as 
witches. And that night when Diego went to the corral after 
dark to look after the burros and cow, some men seized him 
and dragged him to the river, where they tied rocks to him 
and threw him into the river to drown. And when I and the 
little ones tried to save him, the men beat us and drove us back 
to the house. After that they made us leave our house in the 
village and come here, half a mile away. And then it was 
that I made the dru/a to protect us, and the people are now 
afraid of us and each one in the village gives us so much of 
his corn and frijoles not to name the bruja for him ; for when 
it is named for anyone and the thorns stuck in, the person 
suffers great pain and soon dies. They killed my Diego, and 



AMONG THE YAQUA INDIANS IN SONORA. 



95 



they must support his wife and little ones, so I scare them all 
the time with the witch doll." 

I wished to purchase the witch doll, but nothing would 
tempt her to part with it, as she said it would bring me bad 
luck. 

At Onovas we saw two Mayo Indians, with fair hair, red 
beards and very light blue eyes, very much resembling Swedes 
or Danes. As they looked so much like white men, I was 
amazed to hear our guide address them in a strange language ; 
and he afterward explained that they were descendants from 
the survivors of a Danish ship that was wrecked on the coast 
near the mouth of the Mayo river, between forty and fifty 
years ago. The survivors were kept in captivity and took 
native wives. The ordinary Mayo Indian resembles the Yaqui, 
though inferior in height, and considerably darker of skin. I 
have been told by the Yaquis themselves that their physical 
superiority is due to the ancient practice of putting to death at 
birth all weak or deformed children — a practice still adhered 
to in the mountains of the Sierra Madre, remote from the 
influence of the law, though strenuous effort is being made to 
abolish it, both by the native chief and the government. 

One can scarcely close an article of any description relating 
te Mexico, without paying a tribute to President Diaz, who, 
thirteen years ago, began his great reforms in a country preg- 
nant with brigandage, lawlessness and intrigue. To day the 
clear light of peace, progress and contentment is as notable 
in the isolated lands of the Yaquis as in the capital city itself. 
And so firmly founded are the great principles of the president 
that no intelligent observer will for a moment concede that ret- 
rogression will be possible, even when Diaz no longer guides 
the ship of State. 



Teniosochic, Mexico 



The California Redwoods. 

BY BERTHA F. HERRICK. 

EQUOIAS, or redwoods, are said to be not only the 
largest but the oldest trees in existence ; scien- 
tists stating the maximum age of living specimens 
to be about 2000 years and claiming them to be 
descendants of yet mightier forest giants. 

Their original habitat was the countries sur- 
rounding the Arctic Ocean, where their fossilized 
remains are still to be found ; but they were driven 
southward by advancing glaciers, finding a conge- 
caiifornia Cream Cup. nial climatc iu California, to which place they are 
now exclusively confined. 

There are two varieties in the State ; the coast redwood {Sequoia Sem- 
pervirens), which grows in irregular groves in the Coast Range from 
Monterey Bay to the Oregon line, and the famous ** Big Trees " {Sequoia 
Gigantea), natives of the western slope of the Sierra Nevada, at an ele- 
vation of from 5000 to 8000 feet. 




OF THB 

UNIVERSITY 



L. A Enf Co. 



lyOGGING IN THE REDWOODS. 



Photo, by Lowdon 




L. A. Eng Co. 



A SEQUOIA. 



THE CALIFORIA REDWOODS. 



99 



Among the exploring Franciscan friars, at Santa Cruz, in 1769, the 
former variety was known as the "Palo Colorado," or ** red tree ; " and 
the estate of Stanford University derives its name of Palo Alto, or ** tall 
tree," from a lofty redwood landmark, the last of its race in that vi- 
cinity. 

The Sierra species was formerly described by English botanists as the 
Wellingtouia gigantea and by Americans as the Washingtonia gigantea; 
but it is now generally called by its Indian name of Sequoia. 

The two kinds are closely allied, the main differences being in size 
and environment ; but they are never found growing together, though 
often mingling with other trees. 

Both have fine, rich foliage and rigid, tapering trunks, often branch- 
less to the height of 100 feet ; and the reddish, velvety bark, which is 
usually twisled spirally from apex to base of the great column, varies 
from six to eleven inches in thickness. 

The cones are borne in great numbers but seem remarkably small 
for such huge trees — those of the Sierra sequoias being not more than 
two and a half inches in length, while the cones of the coast redwood 
do not exceed an inch and a half or two inches. 

Gray squirrels are especially fond of the seeds and store away im- 
mense quantities for winter use ; but their haunts are often unceremo- 
niously invaded by the professional seed gatherer, who, taking advan- 
tage of their industry, supplies orders from foreign countries irom this 
source. 

Were it not for their phoenix-like powers of reproduction, the coast 
redwoods would be doomed to final extinction by the lumbermen ; but, 
unlike other timber trees, they are not destroyed by felling. No sooner 
is one of these primeval giants laid low, than from six to twenty vigor- 
ous young saplings spring up in a circle around the demolished stump, 
as though Nature were trying to hide the ugly scar ; and so rapidly do 
these herculean infants grow, that they are ready for the saw when up- 
wards of twenty years of age, at which time they are about two feet in 
diameter. 

Another peculiarity of redwoods is that of forming natural halls, or 
cathedrals, the pillars of which are rugged trunks and the domes arches 
of living green. 

The vitality of sequoias is simply astonishing, logs having been 
known to send out fresh shoots, after they have been cut for several 
years ; while hardy young trees have actually been found growing out of 
mossy trunks, that have fallen over mountain streams. 

An area of about twenty acres in the Coast Range is covered by the 
Santa Cruz Grove, which contains trees rivaling in size their famous 
cousins in the Sierras, some of the largest specimens being 300 feet in 
height and twenty feet or more in diameter. 

Many of these trees have historic names. The " General Fremont" 
is a hollow sequoia 275 feet high and 46 feet in circumference, in which 
the Pathfinder made his home for several months in 1847, the cavernous 
interior being 14x16 feet. 

The "President Harrison," the "General Sherman," and the "Daniel 
Webster " are all mammoth redwoods of magnificent bearing ; and the 
" Giant " once boasted the altitude of 375 feet, but was deprived of over 
50 feet of his lofty crest by a furious winter gale. 

"Jumbo " is so-called from its fancied resemblance to an elephant. 

Among clumps of trees in this grove are the " Robert IngersoU" 
group, the united girth of which is 95 feet ; the " Nine Muses," form- 
ing a cool arbor-like retreat ; the " Y. M. C. A." group, and the "Three 
Sisters " — a graceful trio 200 feet high, springing from the same root. 
As straight as masts are the colossal trunks, any one of which is capable 
of producing sufficient lumber to build a good-sized house. 

Not all at once do their proportions impress the visitor, but little by 



loo LAND OF SUNSHINE. 

little their grandeur grows, like the immensity of Mt. Shasta or the 
beauty of the Yosemite Falls. Gazing upward into their deep, green 
recesses, through which the wind roars with a sound like surf on a sea- 
beach, one is overpowered with a sense of one's own littlenCvSS. 

The Sierra groves of '* Big Trees " are about twenty in number and 
cover an area of nearly 200 miles. The Calaveras grove is 50 acres in 
extent and contains over ninety trees, twenty of which are over 25 feet 
in diameter. 

Some of the largest specimens are also named after prominent people 
—among them being ** General Grant" "Andrew Jackson," "Florence 
Nightingale," "Abraham Lincoln," "General Sherman," "Professor 
Grey " and " William CuUen Bryant." 

" The Pride of the Forest " reaches a height of 300 feet, and is twenty- 
three feet thick ; and " Hercules," which was blown down some thirty 
years ago, in a winter storm, measures 325 feet in height and 95 feet in 
circumference. 

Among other prostrate trees are "The Fallen Monarch," "The 
Miner's Cabin," and "The Father of the Forest," the height of which 
has been estimated at having once been 450 feet. It is 112 feet in girth ; 
and through its hollow interior riders are accustomed to pass on 
horseback. 

Near by is " The Mother of the Forest" — a noble tree, which has 
been wantonly stripped of its bark, to a considerable elevation, for ex- 
hibition at fairs. 

"The Pioneer's Cabin " has an opening cut through its massive 
trunk, enabling a four-horse stage-coach to drive through the growing 
tree. 

About seven miles from the "Mammoth Grove" is the "South 
Grove " — which is three and a half miles in length and contains over a 
thousand trees, including a number of pines and firs. 

Here are to be found " New York," the largest living tree, 104 feet in 
circumference, " Columbus," " Old Goliah " and other forest giants. 

In the Big Tree Grove at Mariposa are about four hundred sequoias 
ranging from 150 to 300 feet in height, among the most conspicuous 
being " Wawona " and the " Grizzly Giant." 

The various logging camps scattered along the coast are full of in- 
terest to the visitor. The trees are felled with axes and a huge saw, 
skillfully operated by two men, who stand upon a rough scaffolding, 
several feet from the ground. 

Their hazardous task accomplished, and the sylvan monarch having 
fallen crashing into the " bed " prepared to receive it, the branches and 
bark are stripped off, and the trunk which is sometimes eight or ten 
feet in diameter, is cut up into logs varying from twelve to twenty feet 
in length. 

If the forest is choked with boughs and dead brush they are set on 
fire to clear the way ; for as redwood contains neither pitch nor resin, it 
smoulders rather than bursts into a flame and there is little danger of 
conflagrations, although they are sometimes started in this way. 

In most of the larger mills, a locomotive and flat cars are used for 
hauling the logs from the woods to the mill or river, one huge log often 
occupying an entire car. 

But in many of the lumber camps, eight or ten yoke of oxen or a 
dozen pairs of horses or mules are employed — ten or fifteen sections of 
the great trunks being attached together with heavy chains, forming 
what is known as a " train." 

As a wide, smooth and even track is indispensable, a '* skid" road is 
made by placing logs, corduroy fashion, upon a cleared space and keep- 
ing them wet to reduce friction and to enable the train to glide along 
smoothly — the process being called " snaking out." 

Slowly the oxen plod along until they reach a declivity, when the 



ONE DAY AT PaCHECO'S. ioi 

teamster with snapping whip and not a little profanity, urges them into 
a mad gallop, which becomes a veritable race for life, the immense logs 
booming along behind them, till they reach the foot of the incline. 

In very steep places, the locomotive is usually removed and the 
mighty freight allowed a wild ride down the grade ; or if the terminus 
of the railroad is on a high bank above a stream, the logs are sent down 
a long chute, plunging into the water with a tremendous splash and 
sending up great showers of flying spray. 

When the logging camp is situated near a wide river, the logs are 
floated down the current to the mill in the form of enormous rafts ; or 
large cigar shaped cages of logs are towed by streamers to distant ports 
on the ocean. 

Being extremely durable and never swelling or shrinking, when once 
thoroughly seasoned, this wood is very valuable for telegraph poles, 
fence posts, shingles, and railroad ties, and is also much prized for the 
interior decorations of houses on account of the richness and variety of 
its grains and the high polish of which it is capable. 



One Day at Pacheco's 

BY IDAH MBACHAM STROBRIDCB. 

^^OU think because I don't grow enthusiastic over 

(^ this horserace today that I don't know what it is 

to enjoy seeing a good horse run, and a good rider 

keep his seat ? Why, my dear boy, I have seen riding 

and running that stirred a man's blood so that this 

sort of thing wasn't to be mentioned in the same day 

with it ! 

You men of a younger generation miss what we 
old fellows remember. 

Just sit down, sit down now, and let me tell 
you about one day at Pacheco's. 

The Major and I had been over to Antioch, 
and on our return accepted the Don's invitation 
to turn aside at his rancho and witness the sport 
of a Spanish gala day. Casa Pacheco was one of those big 
delightful old houses of the early Californians, standing on 
rising ground in the center of his domain, where fine oaks 
dotted the rancho as far as the eye could see. But no house 
of old Spaniard or newer Gringo was ever big enough to ac- 
commodate the crowd we found there that day in July. Men 
and women were thick as bees swarming about the place in 
the honey-sweet air. Tall, handsome caballeros, and pretty, 
plump sefioritas, nifios that were as happy and healthy as only 
children can be who breathe the salt air that comes in from 
Pacific seas ; old men and women with the fire of life still shin- 
ing in their bead-bright eyes, though their skin was withered 
and flesh shrunken ; young men and girls, laughing and gay, 
and in love. These and the Indians — scores upon scores of 
them — and the horses (such as you never see now on the 




I02 LAND OF SUNSHINE. 

rancho), these, I say, made up a mass of moving, glowing life 
that day at Pacheco's. 

In the corral were two or three hundred head of wild cattle ; 
steers, stags, and old bulls. Hot— untamed — restless — they 
surged back and forth in their narrow confines, while a per- 
petual cloud of light dust hung over them in the heat of the 
summer sun. 

There was movement, excitement, life everywhere ! The 
attitude of your race-track habitu6s here today would be called 
apathetic in comparison with what those flesh and blood beings 
— the old Spaniards — showed and felt. Ah, my boy, you 
missed a good deal not being born at least a quarter of a cen- 
tury earlier ! And I would have missed it all too, had I not 
sailed in through the Golden Gate in the 'Fifties. 

Well, the crowd at Pacheco's had flocked in at his bidding 
from the country for leagues and leagues around. From 
Ciprian's, and Moraga's, and Briones', and from San Ramon, 
and Alamo and Castro Valley. From lyivermore they came, 
and Romero Valley too, and Martinez ; from everywhere the 
people poured in that day to Pacheco's. 

Every vaquero rode a good horse. Why, men like Jos6 
Moraga and Martinez wouldn't have taken a hundred and 
fifty dollars a head for any one of their saddle horses, and they 
numbered them by the hundreds ! You never saw such horses, 
my boy, as we used to have in California in the old days. 
Great, big, fine animals, every one of them a picture. Made 
of muscle and bone, and, more than all, mettle. Those were 
the kind of horses they rode in the days when to be a Spaniard 
was to be a first-class vaquero. There were no "cowboys" 
then ; the word hadn't been invented. Why, sir, the horses 
these fellows use now would fall down under the weight of the 
old Spanish saddles — the kind we used to have in the 'Fifties. 
They were embroidered with silver and gold threads ; made 
heavy with such embroidery, and worked with silks in beauti- 
ful colors. The tapaderos almost touching the ground ; and 
the saddles made with great "macheers" that half covered a 
horse. All heavily mounted with silver. Conchas on the 
spurs that were big as saucers, and silver chains jangling from 
the bit to make silvery music. 

A horse in those days seemed to possess more intelligence 
than your horses of the present day do, and when he got fitted 
out with the fixings the old Spaniards used to put on, why, by 
George, sir, he carried himself like a king ! 

Every one used to ride in those days, just as no one rides 
now. What's that? Youf You ridef Nonsense! What 
do you know about riding, when the most that you ever do is 
to throw your leg over some pretty, prancing saddler for a 
canter out through the park and the presidio, or along the beach 



ONE DAY AT PACHECO'S. 103 

in the sunshine of a Sunday afternoon ? Get on a horse, a 
horse, sir, and ride in a storm, or at night, as we old chaps 
used to do, time and time again, forty years ago, and you'll 
wake up to some new sensations. 

I can remember riding at night with the wind shrieking in 
my ears, and the slap of sleet in my face as I rode neck and 
neck with the storm. Forked lightning flashing in my ej^es, 
and a flying road under my feet. Fording a river, finding my 
way through a caiion, climbing a hill, then descending into a 
gully — on, and on in the night ; riding, riding, riding ! Wet 
to the skin, but aglow with excitement and the electric current 
that made myself and my horse a part of the storm with the 
elements ! Ah, but it makes a man young again only to think 
of it! 

But you fellows who go for a gallop over a macadamized 
road on days when it is sunny and pleasant, and then come 
home and tell what you know about riding, you Oh, ! 

About that day at Pacheco's ? Why, that's what I'm telling 
you. The fellows there who were to ride (and there must have 
been a couple of hundred of them), had their horses trimmed 
up so that it was worth a day's journey just to look at them 
where they were standing, to say nothing of what it was 
when they were responding to the touch of hand and heel. 
That was as fine a sight as you could imagine, and such as 
you never have seen. 

The riders who were to take part in the contest, where 
each would try to excel in the display of fine horsemanship, 
sat in their saddles forming two lines on either side of the 
opening of the corral. I^ean, lithe fellows they were, wearing 
their clothes as only a Spaniard can wear them. Girt round 
the waist with silk sashes ; most of them a vivid crimson, but 
sometimes wearing blue ones. And every face was shaded 
with the stiff, broad-rimmed sombrero worn with a chin strap, 
and tilted on to the forehead. 

The horses pawed at the ground, tossing their heads and 
rolling their bits under their tongues. Quivering with excite- 
ment, and twitching with nervous expectancy they were as 
eager to be off as their masters. 

Then the bars are let down ! 

An old steer — big, broad-horned, his eyes red and ugly, and 
his mouth slavering — comes to the opening of the corral. He 
stops, motionless he stands, eyeing the multitude outside for a 
moment. Then he takes a step or two forward, shaking his 
head and lashing his tail. Again he stops, and, putting his 
nose down, smells of the ground. Smells and snorts, afraid 
to pass through. " Hoopa ! Hoopa !" The shouts startle 
him into action. " Hoopa ! Hoopa !" There is a rush for- 
ward, and he is out into the open ! It is a dash for liberty ; 



104 LAND OF SUNSHINE. 

and he makes straight away for the bottom, down where the 
oaks are the thickest. 

Then there is a shout from the people, and another, and 
another ; and out of the crowd of waiting vaqueros two — one 
from each side of the line — clap spurs into the flanks of their 
horses and are off after the steer, which is running with head 
up and tail stiffened at a pace which needs a good horse to 
keep up with. 

But one of the men is gaining — more and more — closer and 
closer — almost up to him — only a length behind — ^half a length 
— now he is there, close, running with the steer, side by side ! 
Then ! Then there is a quick movement of his arm as he 
bends low from the saddle and (just how it is done you cannot 
see), he has caught the animal's tail, and taken a turn around 
the horn of the saddle Spurring his horse, that leaps forward 
at the touch, he whirls the steer's hind-quarters around as he 
rushes past and, releasing his hold at that instant, the animal 
is tripped and thrown to the ground where it rolls over and 
over. 

There is a burst of cheers from the hilltop ; wild hurrahs 
for the victor. 

But the steer has bounded to its feet and is up and off again. 
Away go the pursuers after it. They have forgotten the 
danger, and only remember to be daring. If, at the moment 
of releasing the turns that have been taken, the long hair 
should catch on the horn and hold, it would hurl horse and 
rider down with the steer. 

The fellow acts quickly ; and is as cautious as he is quick. 

The supple figure leans from the saddle, there is a dextrous 
turn of the wrist, and the steer is down once more ; this time 
thrown by the other vaquero. 

Again the air is filled with the cheering. The Major and I 
are cheering too. 

Cuidado ! Look out there ! The steer is up again, maddened 
and eager to fight. Ready to make a quick rush and gore 
man or beast that may stand in his way. But he turns, and 
is off, and they after him ; and again he is thrown. He is 
getting bewildered and exhausted from the repeated quick 
falls. Sometimes he starts up the hillside instead of on down 
to the bottoms. He is dizzy and dazed, scarce knowing which 
way to go. Tired and panting, with tongue lolling, he has no 
strength left to run. So, at last, they let him trot off while 
they turn back to rest themselves and their horses, and then 
follow a fresh one. 

But ere the bridle reins are drawn across the necks of the 
blowing, sweating horses, another wild yell goes up to the 
heavens, and another steer is let out, followed by two fresh 
riders. The two coming up from the bottoms swing out — one 



EARLY CALIFORNIA, I05 

to the right, the other left — to give a free sweep to the others 
who are charging like a whirlwind after the steer that is run- 
ning straight for the lowland. Steer after steer is turned out- 
steers, stags and old toros. And each one is made to run a 
hard race for his freedom again down in the oak trees. 

There is yelling, and cheering, and laughter. And the 
vaqueros race down, and ride back, and rest, and eat water- 
melons. Those who fail in the throwing are good naturedly 
derided and jeered at by those who sit under the trees and eat 
watermelons, and smoke cigarettes, and laugh and are happy 
— these children of a summer land ! 

And the winners ? Their reward lies in dark eyes ; in soft, 
melting glances that bear to each victor a promise. A message 
that goes forth ere long lashes fall on cheeks where the blood 
blushes when two pairs of eyes meet. Each knight has his 
lady ! All day long in the warm summer sunshine — 

Eh ? What's that you are saying ? '* It's a go ! They're 
off ! " They have started ? Bless my vSoul, so they 
have ! There they go ! Ah, it's a fine thing to see a fine 
horse ; but the finest sight in the world is to see such a horse 
on a dead run ! 

How I wish, my dear sir, you could have seen them — that 
day at Pacheco's ! 

Humboldt, Nev. 

' Early California. 

UNPUBLISHED DOCUMENTS-THE VICEROY'S REPORT 
CONTINUED. 

CONTINUATION of the report of the Viceroy of Mexico, the 
Count of Revilla Gigedo, on the history of California from 
1768 to 1793, follows: 

Government of the Viceroy don Martin de May ore a. 

52. The events which I have related happened during the time in 
which the Viceroy don Martin de Mayorca governed New Spain, aid- 
ing with efficacious and prompt measures those taken by the Com- 
mander General of the Provinces of the Interior, Chevalier de Croix, in 
the peninsula of the Californias, and on the frontier of Sonora, both of 
which provinces are bounded by the river called Colorado. {22) 

THIRD EXPLORATION TO HIGHER LATITUDES. 

53. As I have said before, the Viceroy don Antonio Bucareli had de- 
cided upon a third exploration to be made up to latitude 70° North, and 
for this purpose the following vessels were detailed : the frigate "Prin- 
cesa" built in San Bias, and '* ha. Favorita " purchased in Peru, under 



(22) The Royal Audiencia governed from the death of Bucareli (April q, 1779) to the 
arrival of his successor, the president of the Audience of Guatemala, don Martin de 
Mayorca (August 23, 1779). The messenger who carried to the viceroy the news of his 
appointment, an Andalusian by the name of F. Vara, rode from the city of Mexico to 
that of Guatemala, a distance of more than 1200 miles in seven days f Don Martin de 
Mayorca governed from August 23, 1779, to April 28, 1783. 



io6 LAND OF SUNSHINE. 

the orders of the lieutenant of the first class, don Ignacio Arteaga and 
don Juan de la Bodega Cuadra, who had just been promoted to the same 
rank. 

54. These vessels sailed from San Bias on February 11, 1779, and 
stood in shore on May 18 to the Bucareli archipelago in 55° 17^ latitude 
North, anchoring in a well protected and ample (comodo) harbor, to 
which they gave the name of Santa Cruz. There they remained until 
June 12, for the object of resting from the hardships of the voyage, cur- 
ing their sick, and for minutely reconnoitering the bays, gulfs, islands, 
channels, coasts and immediate ports. 

55. Afterwards they sailed up to 61° latitude, taking possession in 60° 
13^ of the port of Santiago on Magdalena island, from where they dis- 
covered at a distance of ten leagues (30 miles) the great bay situated on 
the main land, and which the English captain Cook, in his voyage in 
1778, had named Prince William. 

56. After the pilots, don Jos6 Caniza and don Juan Pantoja, had re- 
connoitered the island, they could not find the strait (pass) towards the 
North, which appears on Russian charts in about this locality, and con- 
sequently abandoning the course to the north, they steered west and 
made another stop in the bay, called by them Our Lady of la Regla 
and situated in 59° 8^ latitude. 

57. With the customary formalities they took possession of this port. 
Under the pretext that the scurvy had broken out among the crew of 
" La Princesa," that '* La Favor ita" had strict orders to keep in com- 
pany, and that time was pressing for their return to San Bias, the com- 
mander Arteaga decided upon turning back immediately, finishing his 
voyage on Noveniber 25, and the frigate "Favorita" on the 21st of the 
same month. 

58. His Majesty was well pleased with the information imparted by 
the Viceroy, don Martin de Mayorca, about the outcome of the expe- 
dition and ability displayed therein, and the oflScers and pilots of both 
frigates were rethunerated with different favors and promotions. By an 
order of May 10, 1780, the King commanded that the voyages of ex- 
plorations to higher latitudes should cease, and that the lieutenants of 
the first class, don Juan de la Bodega and don Francisco Quiros should 
go to Habana and report for service in that department in the war which 
had been declared against England. (23) 

Report of the Department of San Bias. 

59. Far from thinking of new explorations, strict economies began 
to be practiced since the year 1780, by reducing the expenses of San 
Bias, which anew was restricted to its primitive objects of reconnoiter- 
ing and succoring the Californias. 

60 In consequence of this new state of affairs, the formulation of an- 
other set of rules for the economic government was commanded in re- 
peated royal orders issued from 1781 to 1786. This is the only matter 
having any bearing upon the present compilation which happened dur- 
ing the government of the Viceroy, don Martin de Mayorca ; his suc- 
cessor, don Martin de Galvez; the governing "Audiencia" ; and the 
Very Rev. Archbishop. (24) 

(23) England and France were at war, and the EngTsh under the pretext that ves- 
sels fiving the U. S. colors had been admitted in Spanish ports, insulted on diflferent 
occasions the flag of Spain. This together with the continued insistences of I^ouis XVI 
upon the treaty of Madrid in 1761, called 'the family oact", decided Charles III of Spain 
to declare war against England on May 18, 1779, which ended with the treaty of peace, 
made January 20, 1783 at Versailles. 

(24) Don Martias de Galvez, brother of the former inspector general and then actual 
Secretary of the Indies, don Jo«6 Galvez, governed from April 28, 1783, to November 3, 
1784, at which day he died at 8 p m., and on the 8th of the same month was buried in 
the church of San Fernando in the City of Mexico. 

The Royal Audience governed Jrom November 3, 1784 to Tune 17, 1785, date of the ar- 
rival of the new viceroy, don Bernardo de Galvez, son of the deceased, don Matias 



EARLY CALIFORNIA. 107 

Xew Riil«s for San Bias, pr<?pared l>y tbc! V^iceroy Count 

de Galvez. 

61. The necessary preliminary steps were taken for formulating the 
prescribed set of rules, which were finished in I786, reducing the salaries, 
pay and gratuities to the limited amounts in the ordinances of the South 
Sea. The Viceroy, Count de Galvez, commanded this " reglamento" to 
go into force without the previous assent of the Royal Treasury Com- 
mission. 

Government of the Viceroy Don Manuel Antonio Flores. 

62. In this state my predecessor, Don Manuel Antonio Flores, found 
the matters relating to San Bias and the Californias, but they again 
changed to what they were before, occasioning new expenses, cares and 
attentions (25). 

FOURTH EXPIiORATION. 

63. Through the Count de la Perouse, commander of the French 
frigate "Brujula" and " Astrolabio", information was obtained that the 
Russians had formed four establishments on the American continent, 
north of the Californias (26). In the royal order of January 25, 1787, re- 
peated on July 21st next, His Majesty commanded that two vessels, 
with the two best pilots of San Bias, should be detailed for the purpose 
of undertaking this fourth exploration. 

64 My predecessor did so, and nece.ssity compelled him to place the 
expedition in charge of the brevet ensign of the first class, Don Estevdn 
Jos^ Martinez, for the reason that no navy ofiicers were in the depart- 
ment, which was reduced to its quota of pilots, and therefore the Viceroy 
had no opportunity to choose a person in whom he could place more 
confidence. 

65. Martinez having been detailed to the command of the expedition 
in the frigate '* Princesa", and the pilot, Don Gonzalo Gabriel Lopez 
de Haro, to the despatch boat (paquebot) "San Cdrlos", they were 
handed full instructions, furnished with all the necessary supplies, and 
started on their voyage on March 8, 1788. 

66. Both vessels sailed north until reaching 61°. On May 16 they 
stood in shore toward Port Prince William, sailed down to Trinidad 
Island, and finally arrived at Onalaska. The ships had not kept com- 
pany, twice they became separated, joining again at the two last named 
localities. 

67. They remained in Onalaska until August 18, and the commander 
Martinez advised the pilot Haro, in case they should again become 
separated, to proceed with the dispatch boat under his command to the 
port of Monterey, as the advanced season did not permit reconnoitering 
the harbor of Nutka. 



Don Bernardo de Galvez had been governor of Loui.siana at the breaking out of the 
war with Hngland, Having recognized the independence of the American colonies on 
April 19, 1779, shortly after he marched at the head of his troops up the Mississippi, 
and after a siege of nine days took Iberville on September 7, and later on Natchez. On 
March 14, 1780, Mobile surrendered to him, and Pensacola in 1781, and Galvez took pos- 
session of Florida. He died in Mexico, November 30, 1786, at 4:20 in the morning, and 
is buried in San Fernando • -pposite the grave of his father. 

(25) Don Manuel Antonio Flores governed from August 17, 1787, until October 16, 
1789. 

(26) Captain Behring, who was sent oiTt in 1733 by the Flmpress Ann of Russia, dis- 
covered the mainland of North America in lat. 58° 28^ on July 18, 1741. Captain 
Tschirikow. his companion, being separated from him in a storm, sighted the same 
coast in lat. 56° on July 15, 1741 while Behring sailed up the coast di?covering many of 
the islands of the Aleutian Archipelago, some of which however he had seen during 
his previous voyage in 1728. The United State?* purchased Alaska from Russia on March 
30, 1867, and took formal possession thereof at half- past three in the afternoon of 
Octobtrr 18 1867. 



io8 LAND OF SUNSHINE. 

68. In fact, the ships did part company on the same day on which 
they left Onalaska, and finally terminated their voyage in San Bias, the 
dispatch boat on September 22 and the frigate on December 5, 1788. 

69 On account of the notorious discord between these two command- 
ers, this expedition might have ended disastrously ; but at least it verified 
the notices about the Russian establishments, although differing some- 
what from those contained in the general report of the Count de la 
Perouse. 

70 According to the information acquired by Martinez and Haro, 
the Russians counted twenty years since establishing themselves on their 
island of Onalaska, which is the capital or headquarters, recognized as 
such for military and political purposes, collection of the tribute from 
the Indians, commerce and its consequent advantages, by their other 
small establishments situated on the mainland, the adjoining islands 
and on Cook river. 

71 It is believed that, including Onalaska, the mentioned establish- 
ments do not exceed six, with a population of about five hundred 
Russians, whose settlements, on account of the trade with the Indians 
along the extensive coasts of the continent, are scattered from the 
harbor of Nutka in 49"" 36^ to Port Prince William in latitude 61° north. 
They are also masters of the islands extending from that of Onalaska in 
61° to Montagu Island in 54°. 

72 Saicof Potasf Cosmichi, who was the chief or commander of 
said establishment, assured our oflS.cers that the Knglish captain, Cook, 
had not made an exact reconnoisance of the river bearing his name, 
and, that after the expedition effected by the Russians, Behring and 
Tschirikow in the year 1741 in 55° latitude north, no subject whatso- 
ever of that power had passed to the east of Cape Saint Elias. He also 
stated that they awaited two frigates from Kamts-Kaska for the purpose 
of settling Nutka, and to impede the trade and settlement of the En- 
glish who claim it by right of the discovery made by Captain Cook, as 
he, the commander, had been informed by an Englishman, Grec, cap- 
tain of a vessel, which, on its return with a cargo of furs from Nutka 
to Canton, had stopped at Onalaska. 

73 This, and different other information of small importance is 
contained in the reports and diaries of don Estevan Jos4 Martinez and 
the pilot Haro. These two officers in the course of their explorations 
took possession as customary of the following localities ; Two on the 
western shore of the island of Montagu, one of them opposite Prince 
William strait, of a bay they named Flores (in honor of the viceroy) in 
59° 49^; of Trinidad Island in 60° 7^; of Kodiac Island, to which they 
gave the name of Florida Blanca, in 56° 44^; of the eastern extremity of 
the Onalaska Island in the same latitude ; and of a port situated on the 
said island in 53^ which they called Port of the Princess of Asturias. (27 j 

Occupation of the Port of Xutka. 

74. My predecessor, don Antonio Flores, reported upon all these 
matters in the letters of November 4 and December 23, numbers 672 
and 702, accompanying maps, diaries and other documents; in same he 
expressed his sound opinions, and ended by stating the causes which 
compelled him promptly to occupy Nutka. (28) 



(27) Humboldt speaking of this expedition says, that in the viceroyal archives in the 
City of Mexico he found a thick MSS. entitled " Recognoisance of the four Russian 
establishments to the north of the Californias, made in 1788," and adds: " this his- 
torical compendium contains very little in reference to the Russian Colonies in 
America, None of Martinez's people understood Russian and none of the Moscovites 
Spanish ; their conversation, if so it may be called, was carried on by signs." 

(28) The port of Santa Cruz de Nootka, Noutka, Nutka, called San I,orenzo by its 
discoverer Perez, and King George's Sound or rather Friendly Cove by Cook, was 
known to the natives under the name of Yucuatl. The origin of the word Nutka is 
unknown, as the language of the Indians has only one word resembling it : "Nouchi" 



EARLY CALIFORNIA. 109 

75. Therein, as also in former and later communications, he pre- 
sented just and founded reasons for placing at the head of the depart- 
ment of San Bias a captain of the second class (capitan de fragata) who 
should command and govern it assisted by some other officers of the 
royal navy, good pilots, surgeons, chaplains and other necessary per- 
sons, to whom competent salaries should be assigned. He also recom- 
mended an increase of vessels and that the required artillery should be 
brought from Peru ; all this in case, as seemed necessary, that the ex- 
plorations or voyages to higher latitudes should be continued. 

76. The occupation of Nutka was undertaken immediately and con- 
fided to the commander of the fourth exploration, don Estevan Jose 
Martinez, because there was no one in San Bias to relieve him, nor any 
other vessels ready than the frigate "Princesa" and the dispatch boat 
"SanCdrlos." 

77. Therefore, these two ships left in charge of Martinez Gonzalo 
and the pilot, don Gabriel Lopez de Haro, on February 19, 1789. The 
frigate entered Nutka on May 5th and the dispatch boat on the 12th of 
the same month. 

78. Although they found within the harbor, the frigate "Columbia" 
and the bilander (balandra) *' Washington " belonging to the American 
colonies, and a Portuguese dispatch bort "LaEfigenia nuviana," sol- 
emn possession was taken and the post fortified with a battery of ten 
guns, which was established at its mouth or entrance. 

, 79. Martinez inspected the passports of the American vessels and 
finding no just motives which might compel him to detain the ships, he 
notified their captains, that they should not return to the seas and coasts 
of the Spanish dominions, without the permit of our sovereign. 

Seizure of £ng:lish Vessels. 

80. The same he intended to do with the dispatch boat, * *La Efigenia, ' ' 
which sailed under the Portuguese flag, with a passport of the governor 
of Macao, and with instructions, written in Portuguese, from Juan Cara- 
ballo as owner of the vessel ; but as it seemed to Martinez that these 
documents were not in good form, and that they contained hard (duras) 
and insulting phrases, he made the captain a prisoner. 

81. Afterwards Martinez became aware of the difficulties of trans- 
ferring his prisoner to San Bias, for he could spare none of his people, 
as he required all for the defense of the establishment at Nutka. There- 
fore he permitted the dispatch boat to return to Nutka, stipulating first 
with its captain and master, who signed the corresponding obliga- 
tion, to pay the value of his small vessel and insignificant cargo when- 
ever it should be claimed as a fair price. 

82. Finally, the dispatch boat "Efigenia" was far from experiencing 
any damages, its officers and crew provided themselves with fresh pro- 
visions of which they were greatly in need, and sailed away in liberty, 
having been generously helped with everything they required. 

83. The same did not happen with the English vessels : the dispatch 
boat "Argonauta" and the bilander "Princess Royal." They, like "La 
Efigenia," had come under the command of James Colnet to take pos- 
session of Nutka to fortify it and establish a trading post (factoria) and 
settlement, bringing for this purpose everything necessary, and twenty- 
nine "sangleyes" [the name of "sangley" was given to those Chinese 
who went to the Philippine Islands for the purpose of trading], skilled 
in different mechanical arts. 

84. Colnet intended to begin work at once on those establishments, 
claiming that he derived his right from the supposed reason that said 



which siguihes mountain. The port is situated on the eastern coast of an island, 
having length of 20 nautical miles, and is separated by the Tasis Chant el from Cuadra 
and Vancouver islands. 



no LAND OF SUNSHINE. 

country had been discovered by Captain Cook ; and still further be- 
cause the Portuguese had ceded to the Free;Trade Company of London 
(compatiia del comercio libre de Londres), (29) the right of first discov- 
ery, insisting that same had been made by the admiral Fonte (30); but 
the commander of our expedition demonstrated to the English com- 
mander how erroneous and unfounded his ideas were. 

85. Colnet, pertinaciously adhering to the J^ame, refused fo show the 
patents which authorized him, and the instructions by which he was 
governed, giving always very proudly his explanations, but consider- 
ing that he could not sustain the position taken by him, he decided to 
leave Nutka and sail away. 

86. For this purpose he asked for a boat to help him raise anchor ; 
and then Martinez fearing that the English captain might occupy some 
other port on the coast from where it might be difficult to dislodge 
him, again asked for his passport, patent and instructions. 

87. Colnet continued in his stubborn resistance, making matters 
worse by his insulting language and actions. Therefore, the small 
stock of Martinez's patience being exhausted, he detained the dispatch 
boat "Argonaut" as also the bilander ' 'Princess Royal" and Immediately 
sent both vessels, with pilots and crews of his own, to San Bias. (31 ) 

Arrival of the English vcsse's at San Bias, and meas- 
ures taken by the Viceroy. 

88. The dispatch boat left Nutka July 14, and the bilander July 27. 
The first arrived in San Bias August 15, and the second August 27. 
Having been informed of these events, the viceroy, don Manuel An- 
tonio FJores, decided that the cargo of both vessels should be discharged 
in the presence and with the intervention of their captains, James Col- 
net and Thomas Hudson ; that both should sign the formal inventories, 
and that the corresponding authorized copies thereof should be delivered 
unto them for their security and guaranty at all times, whether the ves- 
sels should be declared legitimate prizes or not. 

89. He also ordered that those goods and provisions liable to be 
spoiled, damaged or lost should be sold for their just price, and the re- 
mainder deposited separately and safely in the royal storehouses. 

90. Furthermore, he commanded that after the dispatch boat and bi- 
lander had been unloaded, they should, pending an estimate of the 
costs, undergo the necessary careening ; that a strict account, accom- 
panied by vouchers, should be kept; and that all this should be done 
with the acquiescence, intervention and knowledge of said English 
captains. 

91. Finally he ordered and insisted thereon specially, that the cap- 
tains and their crews should be left in a "discreet" liberty; that they 
should be well treated and lodged ; and that each should receive the 
pay or salary corresponding to his rank or emolument, in accordance 
with the rules then governing in San Bias. 



129) Tu 17^5.1 company was formed in London called "King George's Sound Com- 
pany" for the purpose of establishing a colony at Nutka and monopolizing the fur 
trade. 

(30) As fabulous as the voyages of Lorenzo Ferer Maldonado in 1588 and Juau Fuca 
m 1592 is the one of Fonte. The Admiral Bartolom^ de Fonte, or Fuentes, was sup- 
posed to have left Callao (Peru) April 3, 1640 and to have sailed along the coast of New 
Spain and the Californias up to 77° lat. North, discovering the island of Conibasei, 
many inlets and sounds, the lake i?^//o on the south shore of which was located the de- 
licious town of Canoset, besides many other paradisiacal localities. The expeditions of 
the XVIII century proved the absolute falsehood of all this fable. 

(31) This procedure gave rise to mutual exaggerated recriminations, and as Hum- 
boldt says : "A few huts built on the beach, a miserable battery of swivel guns and a 
few cabbages planted within a stockade, came very near causing a sanguinary war 
between Spain and England." 



EARLY CALIFORNIA. m 

Royal Orders of His Majesty approving these measures, 
and commanding- what should be done. 

92. These orders were carried out with utmost exactness, purity and 
generosity. The sovereign commands of the King, issued April 14, 
1789, and January 26, approved, with the concurrence of the Supreme 
Commission of State, the steps taken by my predecessor, don Manuel 
Antonio Flores, for the purpose of exploring the Russian establish- 
ments and occupying the port of Nutka, as also everything in relation 
to the English vessels detained in that port by don Estevan Jose Mart- 
inez and transferred to the harbor of San Bias. 

93. The first royal order empowered the Viceroy to make the expendi- 
tures required by these matters without the necessity of providing for 
same in a meeting of the Superior Treasury Commission, and to proceed 
at his discretion with the due caution to which my predecessor had re- 
ferred in his letter, number 745, of January 12, 1789. 

94. The same royal order contained the notification that the captain 
of the first-class, don Juan Francisco de la Bodega y Cuadra had been 
appointed commander of the department of San Bias and of his 
proximate arrival at these kingdoms with six other officers of the royal 
navy and four surgeons ; that it had been decided to build the neces- 
sary vessels in Realejo ; that orders had been issued for forwarding a 
sufficient number of guns from Peru ; Jand, finally, this order contained 
the complaint (reconvencion) which His Majesty had lodged with Rus- 
sia, stating therein in general terms that the subjects of that power 
should not found establishments on our northern coasts of the Califor- 
nias. 

95. The second royal order, of January 26, 1790, referred exclusively 
to the matter of the restitution of the English vessels ; commanded the 
maintenance of the port of Nutka, the arrangement of the department 
of San Bias, and informed about the complaints laid before the Court of 
St. James by our ambassador, the Marquis del Campo. 

Government of the Present Viceroy, the Count of 
Kevilla Gigedo. 

96. After I had taken possession, on October 18- 1789, of the com- 
mand of these dominions, I received and informed myself of all the 
sovereign decisions of His Majesty ; and so as to be able to comply fully 
with them, I applied myself to those matters requiring prompt atten- 
tion. 

Steps Taken by Him to Occupy Again the Port of 
Nutka which had been Abandoned. 

97. The most important point was to secure our establishment at Nutka, 
and as I was aware that don Estevdn Jos6 Martinez had peremptory 
orders from my predecessor to abandon the port and return to San Bias, 
I provided for the immediate fitting out of three vessels to relieve those 
in charge of Martinez ; but this officer returned ahead of time, anchor- 
ing in San Bias on the following 6th of December. (32) 

98. In my letter. No. 194, of December 27, I communicated this 
bad news, and enclosed the captain's diary, which contained nothing 
new or of special interest. In another letter of mine, No. 195, under 
the same date, I reported upon the executive action taken by me for the 
purpose of occupymg again promptly the abandoned port of Nutka. 



32. Martinez having dismantled the fortifications and made a present of the build- 
ings to Macuina tays or chief of the Indians, left Nutka Oct. 31. Before retiring from 
that port, he had reported to the viceroy, that the pilot Narvaez had again discovered 
the straits of Fuca, the existence whereof had until then been denied by the navigators 
those coasts. 



112 LAND OF SUNSHINE. 

Sailing- of the Expedition by Order of Revilla Gigrcdo. 

99. In fact on the 3d day of February, 1790, the frigate "Concepcion", 
the dispatch boat "San Carlos" and the bilander "Princesa Real" sailed 
from San Bias, under the command of the lieutenant of the first-class 
(teniente de navio), don Francisco Eliza, and arrived at their destina- 
tion April 4 following. (33.) 

1 00. These three vessels, well manned, and reinforced with the first 
company of volunteers, left provided with artillery, arms, ammunition, 
war material, medicines and provisions for one year. 

101. The commander, Eliza, carried with him the corresponding^ in- 
structions for fortifying the port, and for constructing unpiretentious 
buildings required for storehouses, quarters and arsenal. 

102. He was ordered to procure the friendship of the Indians by 
treating them with discretion, love and prudence ; to defend our estab- 
lishments against the aggressions of these natives or the vassals of what- 
soever foreign power ; not to insist on registering too scrupulously for- 
eign vessels, neither to annoy nor make them prisoners ; also not to in- 
sist upon disloging (without previous and peremptory orders of His 
Majesty) the Russians from their existing establishments, and finally, 
his special attention was called to detailing, at the proper time, the ves- 
sels of his expedition for minutely reconnoitering the coasts, islands and 
harbors up to 60° latitude, as also Cook river and Juan de Fuca straits. 

103. In accordance with these orders, the port of Nutka was fortified; 
a suitable town, as comfortable and pleasant as possible, was built ; the 
good will of the Indians was obtained through the medium of trade and 
barter, and by a few small presents ; and the explorations, as I will re- 
late in its proper place, were also carried out. 

104. Although several English and American vessels frequented the 
immediate coasts and harbors, some entering Nutka, nothing happened 
which might have occasioned troubles or difficulties, and the foreign 
ships always respected our new establishment, which was kept supplied 
with everything necessary by the other vessels from San Bias, which at 
the same time carried the required funds, merchandise and provisions 
to the "presidios" and missions of the Californias. 

Ifew Rules for San Bias. 

105. Not less urgent was the matter of reorganizing the department 
of San Bias ; first because such were the King's commands, and second 
because nothing useful could be accomplished with any degree of suc- 
cess, unless the department was placed on a footing enabling it to ren- 
der efficacious service, and therefore I issued my first orders for this 
object. 

106. Its commander, the captain of the first-class, don Juan Fran- 
cisco de la Bodega, and the six officers of the royal navy, appointed by 
His Majesty, had already taken charge of their offices. In Vera Cruz, the 
required number of officers, soldiers and sailors, who enlisted volun- 
tarily, had been gathered, and they were now on the road to the depots 
(depositos). In Guadalajara all necessary preparations were made for 
transferring the first company of volunteers to man the vessels, de- 
tailed for the occupation of Nutka. Now it was necessary to assign to 
all the salaries, pay, rations and reward which they should enjoy. 

107. The quota specified in the rules, made for the sole object of 
carrying the necessary funds and supplies to the Californias, and which 
the Viceroy, Count de Galves, had ordered to be enforced, were now in- 
adequate. It became indispensable and just to augment these quotas 
owing to the rank of the officers, the increase of their work and ex- 
penses in a dear and unhealthy country. 

33. The other two officers in command were, don Salvador Fidalgc of the "San 
Carlos" and don Manuel Quimperof the "Princesa Real." 

[to b^ continued.] 




IN THE 

LION'S DEN 



Under a despotism, it is treason to think, 
treason is not to think. 



Under a •republic the worst 



To some people patriotism means love of country. To some it means 
blind obedience to the politicians. 

The National Educational Association is welcome to California. Here 
is a country in which even the most hardened teacher should be able to 
learn something. 

A good many well-meaning citizens make the mistake of lest 
thinking that the government of this country is the politi- we 

cians — a blunder which the politicians do their best to en- forget. 

courage. If everyone would remember the fact that in the United 
States we are the government, there would be no more of this curdled 
imbecility of its being " treason " for the people to dare meddle with 
the Office Holders. 



Doubtless it is unavailing to talk of skies to them that never 
saw any, or ( what is much the same thing) to describe the 
California heavens to such as know only the second-hand tin 
firmament of the humid East. But it is just as well to jog those be- 
nighted souls now and then, lest they forget how they have swindled 
themselves. For the •* Far West" (how quaint that timid provincialism 
sounds, now, to us who have graduated from the Remoteness \) is the Land 
of the Sky. Not the malarial Middle West, girthed by the quinine belt. 
But from where the lands of Uncle Sam begin to slope toward heaven 
(not in scattered warts of peaks but in continental uplift) ; from where 
earth and air alike begin to wring out their muddy garments and put on 
the dry, sweet robes of altitude — from there on to where they stoop at 
last to meet an unreeking sea, and linger there, undrenched and unde- 
filed and dry, why that is the sky country. 

We cannot wholly expect the Far East, cuddled ungiiessingly under 
its junkshop welkin, to study the reasons of this our advantage. It can 
be learned in science why a sky sweating over the wash-boiler of the Gulf- 
Stream, water-logged and smoke-logged, pricked with some sample 
stars and haunted by a sun to which it acts as burning-glass — why such 
a sky is different from a clean dry one ; but study is work. There are 
doubtless some Easterners who have made the empiric discovery that 
the kitchen on clothes-boiling day is not so amiable as a dry-heated 
room. But it is also an effort to carry this logic along to a bigger case. 
So the simplest way is to come and see. 

The arid skies are the skies to live under — for many and all reasons. 
They are more inspiring, more uplifting, more sane, more healthful. 
They are the heart of a climate as much nobler and tenderer than that 
of the humid skies as an angel is above a sandbagger. They fill our 
eyes with glory and our lungs with power. They mature flowers beyond 
the wildest delirium of the East, and turn the multiplication-table loose 
among the stars. They double the reach of the eye and give it ten times 
as much that is worth seeing. They kindle to the rising and the setting 



THE LAND 

OF THE 



SKY 



114 LAND OF SUNSHINE. 

suu ; and between times bask in his ray tempered by its very directness — 
for there is no focusing glass in the air. They are no "canopy," but a 
sapphire space that one can call "The Heavens" without conscientious 
scruples. 

Under such stellar spaces we all ought to be saints. And doubtless we 
would be — but alas! California cannot digest the men of humid skies 
quite so fast as she has to swallow them. 

HYPHENS A great deal of neurotic nonsense is being printed in abuse of 

AND " German Americans" and other "hyphenated citizens." Now 

HYSTERICS, a hyphen is of just about the right calibre to scare a peanut 
mind. "German-American" is simply a handy way of saying " An 
American of German origin." The newspapers made the term, and 
are mostly responsible for its abuse. It has been abused — but it was 
nevermore insolent or more un-American a phrase than our usual" Anglo- 
Saxon " which, as used, would indicate that all Americans who amount 
to a whoop derive from England, and that no one else has any business 
here. Only a clotted mind would wish any American to be ashamed of 
his birthplace or deny his mother. Every true American prefers this 
country to all others, no matter where he was born. A man shall leave 
his father and his mother and cleave unto his wife. But it does not 
follow that he shall spit upon his mother or let any vagabond do so. 
No bad son was ever yet a good husband. 

A LARGE The University of California is in order of promotion and con_ 

HtAD ON gratulation. It has just clapped upon its broad (but long un. 

WIDE SHOULDFRS. scqueled) shoulders a head as is a head. The which is Ben 
jamin Ide Wheeler, of Cornell ; not only a gentleman and a scholar* 
but an educator of national repute and a leader of men. There is 
reason to believe that he will succeed in giving the University— despite 
our politicians — the thing it most needs and has never had In other 
words, that Berkeley is to have, as Stanford has, a first class modern 
college president — which is a very different matter from the old type. 
California and President Wheeler can do one another good. We need 
him and we know it. He may not know that he needs California ; but 
in a few years he will have learned. He may possibly not love all Cali- 
fornians ; but when the State which shines alike on the just and the 
unjust gets into his blood, he will have new ideas about the redness of 
life. Meantime he has back of him a huge student- body of good tissue, 
a sound corps of lieutenants, and the warm godspeed of every fit Cali- 
fornian. 

In the election for this presidency the only vote for a " home man " 
was for Prof. Wm. Carey Jones It was a merited tribute to a quiet 
man who has long been a very large part of the backbone of Berkeley. 

PRESIDENT The reason why we all love Teddy Roosevelt is that he is a 

TEDDY? man, not a graphophone cylinder. The reason that we can all 

respect him is thf.t he is unconsciously better than he wishes 
the nation to be. He does not practice what he preaches, except collect- 
ivelv. He wants the nation to fight — end he fighis with it and for it 
like a Greek demi-god. But &s to seeking tbe "strenuous life" and 
avoiding " base inaction " for himself Teddy does not perambulate the 
streets in quest of a nose to pull. He does not swat people on the side- 
walk nor have a rough and tumble in the club. In a word, he is too 
much a man to fight as a personal affair. He doesn't reed to. Teddy's 
eye is enough to keep the other fellow ficm wishing a muss. 

Well, so it is with nations — and Teddj' will know so, some day. 

Meantime, it grows more inevitable that he shall be a f guie in the 
next presidential campaign. And the Lion hopes he will be. Unlets 
as good an American and a little older comes forward, the Lien hoj-es 
Teddy may "get there." Not from admiration for his war notions; 



IN THE LION'S DEN. X15 

but because he seems the likeliest way for us to get a president who 
knows his own mind and has a mind to know. 

The latest victim who didn't know it was loaded is the irre- looked 
pressible Prof. Harry Thurston Peck, editor of the Bookman. down the 

In the June Cosmopolitan Prof. Peck looked into the muzzle wrong gun. 

of Charlotte Perkins Stetson's Woman and Economics, and made faces, 
after the clever fashion for which he is famous. In the July Cosmopoli- 
tan the gun went off ; and it is a poor bush in the surrounding landscape 
which does not sport a scrap of Prof. Peck's ear or scalp. His article 
was bright, lordly, somewhat brutal, considerably illogical and rather 
"cocky." Mrs. Stetson's rejoinder is cool, rather contemptuous and 
generally crushing. Prof. Peck is not a sensitive man. He will not be 
tamed by this logical flaying. But he can never learn too soon that he 
doesn't carry club enough to meet the Stetson rapier. Whether or not 
one believes in *' Woman's Progress," only the unintellectual can fail 
to find tremendous mental stimulus in Mrs. Stetson's startling insight. 

Several officials who either did not tell the truth before or do unexpected 
not tell it now, assure us at last that Gen. Alger is the greatest, lackeys. 

noblest and most efficient Secretary of War this country ever 
had. Maybe. Maybe, also, confluent idiocy is upon the nation. The 
American people, regardless of party, believe that this man is neither 
honest nor competent. He was officially branded as a coward in our 
big war of 30 years ago. Now we look upon him as worse. But we 
may be in error. Carlyle, I believe, spoke of England as "a nation of 
twenty million people — mostly fools." This may be a nation of seventy 
million people, all fools — except the cabinet and the gentlemen right 
under the plum-tree. 

Ninety per cent, of Funston's brilliant regiment wish to be more 
mustered out. Are these "dudes" or "mugwumps" or of those 

"traitors?" The Lion would like to see the administration • "traitors." 

organ that dared call them so. Yet their choice, though within soldierly 
bounds, is the loudest, sharpest protest against the war. They are not 
failures as soldiers. They know that the amanuensis of the " Hand of 
God " wants them to stay in the field. But they " want out." Do you 
fancy for an instant that you could drag 90% of Funston's boys away, 
if they were fighting for the Union ? 

For years the best brains and conscience of the United States a blow 
have been working for Civil Service Reform — which means at good 

nothing in the world but honest and business-like government. government. 

The opposition to it means nothing in the world but rascality and spoils. 
President Cleveland enormously extended the Civil Service. President 
McKinley was elected on a solemn pledge to take no steps backward in 
the cause of honest government. He has just broken that pledge by 
taking ten thousand positions away from the Civil Service and giving 
them to the spoilsmen. 

If any American administration ever did a childish thing, the 
it is this censorship in the Philippines. In a little time now ostrich 

our volunteers will be at home ; and then all this government game. 

concealment of the truth will be brought to naught. The truth will 
become notorious — for our volunteers are American boys, not liars nor 
serfs. They know the truth, and will not be bullied out of telling it. 
And as Americans are not fools, they will be angrier than if the truth 
had been told in the first place. 

Imperialist papers would hardly be quoting the little Filipino as we 
Tory, Ramon Reyes Lala, as "an authority on the Philip- might 

pines," if they had time to read. This young gentleman, who expect. 

wishes his country to lose its independence, has as little conscience in 



ii6 LAND OF SUNSHINE. 

literature as patriotism in fact. His imperialistic book is a cold-blooded 
steal from John Foreman. That is, the brains and learning are borrowed 
from Foreman's weighty book ; the toryism is Lala's own. 

A VERY " Freedom of the Press " of course means only the freedom of some fellow 

g.,,Y to print a daily newspaper full of rapes, prize-fights and charlatans. It 

does not entitle a scholar to print a sober book or pamphlet. So, news- 
THREAT. papers that would crack the welkin if warned to print no more ravish- 

ments, are gleeful over the suppression of Atkinson. Of course his little pamphlets 
are merely cold, dry statistics. They are not " sensational," and they are true. What 
business has a man to print figures, in a republic ? And the Administration mumbles 
terrible but indefinite threats (which it dare not carry out) of its intention to punish 
other " treasonable " Americans if they dare print facts. If the Administration could 
change all minds as easily as it changes its own, this would be not a democracy but a 
sheepfold. 

THE A flaxseed poultice is useful on a boil, but a poor substitute for brains. It 

ABUSE OF seems, however, to satisfy the needs of the people just now engaged in 

yelping "Treason" at every American who stops to think. As everyone 

WORDS. knows whose head is lined with an5^hing sounder than mush and milk, the 

Constitution of the United States precisely defines what treason is. It isn't free 

thought or free speech ; and in this republic it never will be. It is not treason even 

when a newspaper— with a pocket for a conscience, a mustard plaster in place of a 

brain, and a party collar for a moral code — blasphemes the memory of Washington 

and Lincoln. It is simply venal idiocy. 

People whose world is horizoned by their one provincial paper are likeliest to think 
that Imperialism is "the American policy." Those who read a little more broadly 
know better. Many of the ablest newspapers in the United States are against the "ex- 
pansion " craze ; and so are all the leading weeklies and monthlies. In fact, if you 
know the standing of a periodical, for brains, you know pretty well on which side of 
the fence you will find it. 

It is a fat joke when "an old Boston crank's" mail is stopped. It is so funny that 
many of the unthinking fail to remember that the United States has never been used 
to seeing anyone's mail meddled with. Such things have been left to France, Russia 
and other lamentable countries of the spy-system. The trouble is that the next Ad- 
ministration might happen to think that you were a crank. 

As to "encouraging the Filipinos" will they be more likely to desire our "good gov- 
ernment" when they learn that we have just flung io,ooo Civil Service pearls before the 
Spoils swine ? President McKinley should have thought twice. Atkinson never did 
anything half so likely to make a patriotic foreigner fight against being ruled by us. 

You have noticed, very likely, that the newspapers which today account it High 
Treason to deny, ever so respectfully, the infallibility of their Pope in Washington are 
the same newspapers which, when the United States had another president, daily 
blackguarded him, and still pursue him in private life with vulgar gibes. 

This is the first time in our history that the nation has ever waged war upon a coun- 
try against which Congress has not declared war. It may be necessary to inform those 
who never heard of the Constitution of the United States that Congress is the only 
power in this country that can legally declare war. 

It is particularly meet that the country's teachers should be holding their annual con- 
vention in this State. As some of them are aware, California taught the Union fully 
half the geography it knows— and a still larger share of its financial arithmetic. 

All initials and tailpieces used in this magazine are Californian. A new and very at- 
tractive series, now beginning in these pages, is of California wildflowers ; and is 
drawn by I^eonard I^ester, whose work in this line has never been surpassed. 



There are men in the United States who would not fight if they were in the Filipinos 
shoes. But luckily there are not many. Fvery American knows that, if he ever stops 
to think what he would do if ISngland tried to civilize us. 



A Los Angeles court has just found a "sport" guilty of cruelty for chasing jackrab- 
bits with greyhounds for an admission fee. And our "rabbit drives" in the Philippines? 

O Liberty! How many Benevolent Assimilations are committed in thy name ! 

A man is known by the company he keeps. The Administration keeps Alger. 

"Destiny" is the excuse of cowards. Brave men make their destiny. 

ChAS. F. lyUMMIS. 




117 




THAT 

WHICH IS 
WRITTEH 



Perhaps one reason why so many review- 
ers of the day are so optimistic is that they 
do not read through (if they really read at all) 
the books they " review." It is hard to conceive of any 
mind so resilient that it could return instantly to benevo- 
lence from such a test. On the other hand, these critics who can so 
easily acquit them of a duty probably know nothing of the keen com- 
fort their more slavish fellow finds in a sound book amid the weary 
wilderness. It is a very cheap critic who is afraid to find fault ; it is a 
very miserable one who likes to. 

Wha — wha — what ? Is things what they seem, or is visions another 
about? Here for years we have gone hungry for a California California 

novel big enough to make a mouthful ; and of a sudden the novel. 

whole table falls on us, a comestible avalanche. In thirteen years there 
have not been as many California novels of serious consideration as al- 
ready punctuate this year of grace and odd numbers — The Procession 
of Life^ A Soul in Bronze — and now McTeague^ a Story of San Fran- 
cisco. Evidently civilization is not a total failure, nor the Caucasian ir- 
remediably played out. For here are three books that California can and 
will add to its slim fiction shelf with pride. And the best of it is, per- 
haps, that all three are growth in the unforeseen. It would not be half 
so promising if Bret Harte got back a flash of his old fire. 

Precisely like Mr. Vachell and Miss DuBois, Mr. Frank Norris has 
emerged into open type before, and with credit. But precisely like them, 
again, he bursts upon us now with every quality of a surprise. All three 
have just turned out their masterpieces — to date. There could be no 
sounder fulcrum for the hope that all three will astonish us again — and 
we shall not again be so easy. 

McTeague is a hideous story. It deals wholly with humans so unin- 
formed of humanity at their best, so sodden at their worst with the 
thing we flatter ourselves to call brutality (meaning something so base 
that no brute but man ever dreamed of it), as to be haunting. In the 
whole 450 pages there is not a rift in the sullen horizon. It is a depress- 
ing story to the humanist ; and as to California it is about as characteris- 
tic as any Peter Funk shop on Kearney street. 

But it is a story. "McTeague," the giant quack dentist, "Trina" 
his sordid doll of a wife, "Marcus Schouler" the man whose brains as 
well as his heart are in his mouth — they are genuine characters. 
"Schouler" doubtless is more a caricature than a character ; yet at times 
he is the one thing needful. The ancient lovers are also a Dickensesque 
exaggeration, but a tolerable one. And the story as a story is literally 
strong. Above all, it is character drawing of a high order. A simple 
but consistent plot, a firm hand in its development, and generally ad- 
mirable restraint in the tragedy— these are part of Mr. Norris' s endow- 
ment. Far less than either of the stories ranked with it, is McTeague 
of California. But quite as much as they, it is a human document, a fine 
and a powerful piece of work, an honor to its smith and a matter of 
pride to those of us who love literature, love California and respect 
honest craft. The Doubleday & McClure Co., N. Y. $1.50. 



ii8 LAND OF SUNSHNIE. 

AFTER Charles A. Keeler could afford to wait for justice to his remark- 

MANY able book on The Evolution of Colors in North American 

DAYS. Birds. At the time a veteran closet-naturalist named Allen 

abused his authority to discourage the young man who dared to think 
ahead of him. Now the highest authority in the United States points 
out that the California stripling knew more in 1 893 than the arm-chair 
Goliath knew then or has learned since. For it is Dr. Elliott Coues to 
the rescue — a scientist who is also a man, and free from the mean little 
cowardices which mark too many library explorers. He vindicates 
Keeler and leaves Dr. Allen in the pillory, after a fashion to delight 
every lover of truth and fair play. The April Osprey (Washington) is 
the scene of this handsome and just adjudication. 

A BOOK A most extraordinary book, a book which will never be dropped 

AMONG out of the reckoning so long as its problem is a problem, an 

A THOUSAND. enduring meteor in its sky, a flaming sword which wise ene- 
mies will shrink from (and now and then a wise friend be nicked with- 
al), is Charlotte Perkins Stetson's Women and Economics. Mrs. Stet- 
son has long been known for brilliancy almost beyond her kind ; as 
easily the satirist of her day ; and as a strenuous crusader in several 
causes not yet popular. Her poems are sui generis — and a mighty good 
genus, though against the established order, we may sometimes fear, she 
doth protest too much. But this grave, deep, high-thinking and far- 
thinking book, Women and Economics^ is a revelation. Those who 
have sometimes wished that her brilliancy might be better coordinated, 
may dismiss their fears, in face of this great work. The Nation — 
severest and most expert critic in America — justly rates it "the most 
significant utterance on the subject since Mill's Subjection of Women 
reached a class of thinkers never before touched by any views later than 
those of Noah." And there have been a good many people writing about 
it, since John Stuart Mill. 

Mrs. Stetson's argument is not unvaryingly sound. There are flaws — 
and some rather funny ones. But her main and essential contention is 
as scientific as it is high-minded. It is a book which will be egregiously 
abused by cheap space-writers and little sewing-circle people ; a book 
which every serious brain will value and respect, whether accepting its 
doctrine or not. Small, Maynard & Co., Boston. $1.50. 

FROM With Mrs. Stetson's book should be read Laura Marholm's 

ANOTHER studies in the Psychology of Woman, which is also an unusual 

VIEW-POINT. and brilliant work, and from an absolutely different point of 
view. Frau Marholm's serious studies, translated by Georgia A. Etchi- 
son, are revised and edited by Grace Ellery Channing ; and thus is the 
curious coincidence that the two most important books in a decade on 
"The Woman Question " come from members of the Sunshine staff. 
The two works are properly mates — one might almost say antidotes, for 
one another, the attraction of unlikes. The German woman has the 
German brain, the German evenness ; and her pages are not to be neg- 
lected by those who care to entertain thought. H.S.Stone and Co., 
Chicago. $1.50. 

THE Probably the handsomest, and certainly one of the very best 

ISLAND books on that inexhaustibly interesting land, is Mrs. Hugh 

EMPIRE. ^ 'Bt&sgt^b Letters from fapan. Two sumptuous volumes, pro- 
fusely illustrated in an unconventional fashion, these are incidentally an 
ornament to any shelf. But the vital part is that their contents is good 
furniture for any mind. Mrs. Fraser is a sister of F. Marion Crawford ; 
her literary gift has been proved by her successful novels ; she knows 
her ground far more intimately than most, and writes from an experi- 
ence of as many years as some authors have given months. As wife of 
the British Minister to Japan, she had every chance to know the country; 



THAT WHICH IS WRITTEN. "9 

and above all she saw it through clear eyes. The highest value of this 
genuinely charming work is her human attitude toward the Japanese ; 
for without that attitude, without the appreciative comprehension which 
it enables, even the greatest genius has never yet been competent to arrive 
at the deepest scientific truth about any country. Mrs. Fraser's is to be 
commended as almost a model among books of travel. The Macmillan 
Co.. N. Y. 2 vols. $7.50. Los Angeles, for sale by C. C. Parker. 

The industrious J. V. Brower has published privately, but coronado 
sumptuously, two large monographs on Quivira and Harahey and 

respectively, in identification of the localities sought and found quivira. 

by Coronado in 1541, at the end of his unprecedented exploration. 
Bandelier's exhaustive documentary and field research, following out and 
establishing Gen. Simpson's early inspiration, and accepted now by all 
serious scholars, settled the general lines of Coronado's march, and even, 
within close limits, its Eastern terminus. Mr. Brower has gone into 
tireless neighborhood exploration there, and in groups of ancient village 
sites has identified, beyond reasonable doubt, the exact locus of the 
ancient "Kingdoms" of Quivira and Harahey. Lavish illustrations of 
sites and of the artifects found there, and a bibliographic list on Quivira, 
add much to the value of these volumes. The most scientific — and by 
far the best written — portion of the work is F. W. Hodge's elaborate 
historical sketch, in the second volume, of "Coronado's March to 
Quivira." His identification of the Quiviras as Wichita Indians, and 
the Haraheys as Pawnees, dwelling in 1541 in the valley of the Kansas 
river, in the region about Manhattan and Junction City, seems complete. 
He also shrivels up F. S. Dellenbaugh (whose astonishingly ignorant 
and immodest " True Route of Coronado" was criticised in these pages 
some months ago) with something of that thoroughness with which he 
finished Prof. Libbey. 

Nine powerful stories, each a study as well, make up R. V. the 
Risley's uncommonly strong book, Men's Tragedies. Told tragedy 

with insight and restraint, colored little with violence, but "man." 

tinged deep in the greater tragedies that are played within the soul, 
these stories take a strong grip on the reader. Their interest is intrin- 
sic, not adventitious. "The Man Who Loved," "The Man Who 
Hated," " The Man Who Fell," "The Man Who Sneered," and all the 
other men who were unhappy — they are, despite an occasional over- 
morbidness, full of stress and meaning. 

" For the play was the tragedy ' Man,' 
And its hero the conqueror Worm." 

The Macmillan Co., N. Y. $1.50. Los Angeles, C. C. Parker. 

A suflBciently breathless number in the " Blue Cloth Books" is love 
Ann Devoore's Oliver Iverson. It is, in fine, a sort of glorified and 

dime novel. But we all like the motion of dime novels if they gore. 

had some style. This has style as well as motion ; and for all its " blug- 
giness" is a pleasant companion for an idle hour. H. S. Stone & Co., 
Chicago. 75 cents. 

Still another strong book by a Californian. This time it is The human 
Taming of the Jungle, by Dr. C. W. Doyle, of Santa Cruz, stories of 

who recently won the Argonaut's short story competition — a india. 

new man, but, by this volume, a promising one. There is visible color- 
ing of Kipling in title and narrative ; but more of Dr. Doyle. The 
author lived a dozen years among the jungle-folk of the Terai as many 
have done ; and learned something, as most did not. His cumulative 
chapters — of which each is really a story, wherein Ram Deen grows 
taller and more vital and steps a little forward to his goal — are all good 
reading ; adventurous, human, and with a great deal of power in the 
telling. J. B. Lippincott & Co., Phila. 



I20 LAND OF SUNSHINE. 

A GOOD George Horton, who wrote a year or two ago a quiet and esti' 

MAN GONE mable story of life in Greece, seems to have changed his stand" 

GUNTERiNG, ards, and not for the better. A Fair Brigand^ now from his 
hand, is much more exciting, but also much less sound. Mr. Horton 
knows his Greece apparently (he was our Consul at Athens) ; but in the 
desire to make a more popular book he has rather patterned after the 
cheap melodrama. His character-drawing, which would be effective 
with more restraint, is carried into sheer farce ; the pedantic professor, 
the inflated consul, the newspaper Creelman, all are carried beyond the 
limits of reasonable judgment, and become burlesque. The plot is 
better done. H. S. Stone & Co., Chicago. $1.25. 

A STRONG Whatsoever reviewer knows his Mexico, picks up with great misgiving any 

DA<5H nF °^^ story of Mexico ; for he has learned in sorrow that not one in forty of 

them has the faintest resemblance to truth. Yet that fascinating country is 
CHILE. ready to furnish forth a thousand splendid novels whenever our writers 
learn the common sense or conscience to get the straight of it. Joseph Gordon Don- 
nelly (who was our Consul General in Mexico some years ago) has prepared a pungent 
surprise for us in his Jesus JJelaney, a novel as striking as its title. The hero is a 
Mexican wHh an Irish father (his name of course is the Spanish Hay-stjse), and a stir- 
ing character he is. The story is framed with the Protestant missionarjdng of Mexico 
—afield so suggestive that it is a wonder no one has exploited it before— and with a plot 
astonishingly true to life in that queer world there runs a satire which will penetrate 
many skins. The book has faults, and is often willful, but is eminently readable ; and 
its sharp drawing of the "Consul I^eeches" and the "Rev. I<ambs" is remarkably 
truthful. The Macmillan Co., N. Y. $1.50. IvOS Angeles, C. C. Parker. 

CAMBRIDGE Old Cambridge is the first volume of a well-planned series of "National 

f^K,^ Studies in American Letters," edited by Prof. G. E). Woodberry. It will at 

once occur to the elect that the man to write that book would be Thomas 
LETTERS. Wentworth Higginson ; and he is the very one who has done it The Cam- 
bridge of 50 years ago, and this side, was one of the focal points of American literature 
when we reall3' began to have such a thing. It was much more potent than any other 
town of its size in the country. Of its associations and influence, of Holmes, IvOng- 
fellow and lyO well and their circle Mr. Higginson has made not only an entertaining 
but an illuminating book. The Macmillan Co., N. Y. $1.25. 

MORE Fifleen short stories of the West, by F. W. Calkins, are bound up in an at- 

yy£g-y£fjM tractive volume, opened and given name by " The Cougar Tamer." Rang- 

ing from Arizona to Manitoba, of the average Youth's Companion stature (or 
TALES. rather above it), pretty" steep" in places but generally well taken and 

told without affectation, the stories have, with some faults, a certain real westemness. 
Those of New Mexico and Arizona are least in verisimilitude. Mr. Calkins appears 
not to know that environment except by reading. The illustration is not satisfactory ; 
and the frontispiece is worse than misleading — as a glance at its corresponding story 
shows. H. S. Stone & Co., Chicago. $1.60. 

AT EIGHTY The Short-Line IVar, by Merwin- Webster (two young men collaborating) 

l^lLg^g is a " rattling good " railroad story— and a through train at that. No 

reader will get oflF these cars while they are in motion. The characteristic 
AN HOUR, methods of "absorbing" a railroad, in their crescendo of stock-scheming, 
pocket courts, armed gangs, train-wrecking and stealing the books, are drawn rapidly , 
sharply and from near the " inside." " Jim Weeks," the General Manager, is a good 
deal of a character, as campaigner and as man ; and the love-story of his private secre- 
tary and the daughter of the enemy gives zest to the " war." The Macmillan Co., N. 
Y. $1.50. Los Angeles, C. C. Parker. 

AS WELL Kate Chopin, whose Bayou Folks made a favorable impression, is out with 

HAVE ^ longer, more ambitious story. The Awakening. It has the same rather 

flexible wrist and attentive eye, and its atmosphere is equally Louisianian. 
&LEPT. But it is not so healthful. The " Awakening" is of the animal in a Ken- 

tucky woman, n6e decent, married to a New Orleans Creole, and very cheaply kindled 
by almost any other male person. It does not seem wise to put skill to the telling of 
this sort of story. The book is handsome — naturally, being published by its publish- 
ers. H S.Stone & Co., Chicago. $1.50. 

GOOD There are few more agreeable writers and few so excellent preachers as 

GOSPEL. Rev. Henry Van Dyke, of " the Brick Church," in New York city. His 

Gospel for a World of Sin is an uncommon book of sane and fine theology, 

high thought and graphic expression. The Macmillan Co., N. Y. $1.25. Los 

Angeles, C. C. Parker. 

Charlotte Perkins Stetson's grim and powerful story, The Yellow Wall-Paper, is 
issued in a very handsome little volume by Small, Maynard & Co., Boston. 60 cents. 

The Tenth Report of the Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, is workmanlike and 
vaBluble 

ChaS. F. lyDMMIS. 



ANGLE 




RCriKTION 



BY MAROARET COLLIER GRAHAM. 



Society hungers and thirsts after originality that it 
may have something to imitate. The cunning few 
who ' ' set the fashions' ' know the value of invention — and 
obscurity. The mob, rushing like sheep after some new 
abomination in dress or furnishing, would turn about as sheep- 
ishly if confronted by the real originator and his artless greed. 

To dress or to furnish one's house " out of the fashion" to- 
day is expensive. Taste is not always accompanied by ability 
to invent or construct, nor does it always find time to hunt for 
specialists. The men and women in the shops are listless when 
you seek their aid, and tell you this, that and the other is *'all 
the rage." The dress-makers, the tailors and the milliners 
whom you ask to clothe you show you countless pictures of 
other people, none of whom resemble you in the least, and 
studiously ignore so much of your personality as is not re- 
ducible to inches. 



ALL WE 

L!Kt SHEEP" 



The mechanic receives your instructions with skepti- 
cal incomprehension, and mentally resolves to save you 
from yourself by a rigid adherence to precedents. The man 
or woman who tries to have the simplest article made after his 
own design loses heart and patience, and if he is not a per- 
manent candidate for office will frankly acknowledge that 
American workmen are generally a stupid lot. 

In the scramble of the rich for expensiveness and the 
poor for cheapness, good taste has been trodden under 
foot. Our millionaires collect quantities of metal and jewels 
which must be kept in safe-deposit vaults, since they are most 
desired by burglars. Our poor squander their small substance 
on gilded imitations of the vulgar belongings of the rich, so 
that one may go from palace to cottage without respite from 
our national devotion to ugliness. Nor is this, as many think, 
a superficial matter. Taste lies at the root of thrift. It is the 
knowledge of, and the consequent love of good things. It is 
a large, if not the largest, factor of content. Artists are pro- 
verbially a happy people. Nowhere do we find so much mer- 



AND SO 

THEY ARE. 



OUR UGLY 

FETICH. 



122 LAND OF SUNSHINE. 

riment on so little money as in Bohemia. An appreciation of 
beauty is a safeguard against squalor. 

A LONGER The craftsman who stays at home and makes a good 

HERO. thing well may in the end do more for true national 

expansion than the hero who goes forth to make way for civil- 
ization by mowing down " fluttered folk and wild." Popular 
energy need not seek an outlet abroad while so much work re- 
mains undone or ill done at home. There may be men every- 
where looking for work, but there is vastly more work looking 
for men. Work that was badly done last year at two dollars 
per day and must be repaired this year at the same price. 
Work that cannot hold conventions or pass resolutions or form 
unions ; inarticulate unorganized work which can only remain 
undone because there is no one to do it well. Not lack of work 
but inability to find it constitutes the real labor problem ; lack 
of invention, of adaptability, of insight and of conscience ; a 
lack, in short, of moral and mechanical good taste. Peering 
into the history of languishing industries one often comes face 
to face with facts which are entirely useless for campaign pur- 
poses and yet of national import. 

THE FINISHED ^e arc told that machinery and division of labor have 

PRODUCT. destroyed personal responsibility and taken the con- 
science out of the crafts ; that no one man must answer for 
the finished product. But was not labor always divided ? Did 
not one man make a shoe and another a coat, and is not a good 
eyelet or a good buttonhole a finished product in the sight of 
conscience ? 

CHILDHOOD fjie great enterprises of life all originate in daily 

AND MATURITY, jjumau wauts. Bridges are built, ships are sailed, 
wars are fought that you and I may have the food, clothing 
and shelter we most desire. It is sometimes easier to subdue 
savages than to face the problems of every-day life. Bloodshed 
and destruction are easy and primitive, and belong to the 
cruelty and crudity of national childhood. The full-grown 
among the peoples of the earth will learn by-and-by to fight 
error with truth, and to extend civilization by advancing it. 
Bullets are not the seed from which grow the good things of 
life, however necessary they may be at times to protect the 
crop ; and ethics will ere long learn from science that blood- 
letting is not a sovereign remedy. 

Meanwhile, let him who honestly believes that a distasteful 
duty has been forced upon us as a nation, remember the sullen 
fealty that owes its origin to force, and write his belief in 
small type and modestly, knowing that the world will need no 
proof that ours is the "home of the brave" so long as we 
keep it the "land of the free." 

Soatb Pastidena. 




TO CONSERVE THE MISSIONS 
AND OTHER HISTORIC 
LANDMARKS OF SOUTHERN 
CALIFORNIA. 

DiRKCTORS : 

OFFICERSi Frank A. Gibson. 

President, Chas. F. Lnmmis. Henry W O'Melveny. 

Vice-President, Margaret Collier Graham. Rev. J. Adam. 

Secretary, Arthur B, Benton, 114 N. Spring St. Sumner P. Hunt. 

Treasurer, Frank A. Gibson, Ca.shiei 1st Nat. Ba k^. Arthur B Benton. 

Corresponding Secretary Mrs. M E. Stilson. Margaret Collier Graham. 

812 Ken&ington Ro.id Lub Ai.geles. Chas. F. Lummis. 

HoNOKART Life Members : R Egan, Tessa I EelM) 

Life Members : Jas B Lankershim, J Downey Harvey, Edward E. Ayer, John F. Francis, Mrs. John F. 
FranciM, Mrs Alfred Solano, Martaret Collier Grahnm, Miss ('oilipr, Andrew WcNally, Rt Rev. Geo. 'Wontponiery, 
MissM F Wills, B. F. Porter, Prof Chas. C. Bragdon. Mis. Jas. W Soott, Mrs Phoehe A. Hearst, Mrs. Annie D. 
Apperson, Miss Agnes Lane. Mrs M. W. Kincaid. C->l H. G Otis. H. Jevne, J R. Newberry Pr W Jarvis Earlow, 
Marion Brooks Barlow, Geo W. Marston, Chas. L. Hutchinson, U. S Grant, jr , I&abel M. R. Severance. 

ADVISORY BOARD: Jessie Benton Fremont, Col. H. G. Otis, R Egan, W C Patterson, Adeline 
Stearns Wing, Geo. U. Bouebrake, Tessa L Kelso, Don Marcos Forster, Chas Cassat Davis, Miss M. F Wills, 
C. D. Willard, John F. Francis Frank J. PoUey Rev. Hugl' K. Walker, Elmer Wachtel, Maj. H. T. Lee, 
Rt. Rev. Joseph H Johnson, Bishop of Los Angeles. 

Chairman Membership Committee, Mrs. J. G. Mossiri. 

The Landmarks Club, which is engaged in preserving the old Mis- 
sions and Other historic^monuments of Southern California from decay, 
has begun work at San Diego, the Mother Mission (founded 1769), and 
will prosecute it as long as the funds hold out. This should not be 
soon ; but it will be, unless former members of the Club are a little 
more thoughtful about paying up their annual dues. 

The Club is not a close corporation. Any man or woman, anywhere, 
who cares a dollar's worth for history and romance is welcome to mem- 
bership. The dues are $1 a year and there is no initiation fee. The 
money goes net to the preservation of the noblest antiquities in the 
United States. 

The attempt to erect a monument to Olive Mann Isbell, the first 
American teacher in California, thus far seriously lags. It is not flatter- 
ing to the present school teachers of California that thus far not a sin- 
gle one of them has cared to contribute a dollar to do honor to their 
pioneer. It may be simply carelessness ; but it is not a creditable care- 
lessness. If among the thousands of California teachers there aren't 
enough with soul enough to put a memorial stone above the first and 
bravest of their tribe, why, California schools are in pretty poor hands. 

The general work of the Club is progressing steadily if slowly. Con- 
tributions already acknowledged in these pages amount to |3661.96. 
Mrs. Frederick Fogg, St. Paul, Minn., has since contributed'$10. New 
contributions of $1 each have been received from Dr. T. Mitchell 
Prudden, College Physicians and Surgeons, New York ; Miss C. M. Sey- 
mour, Miss J. D. Gibbs, Los Angeles ; Miss Anna Park Barstow, San 
Rafael, Cal. $5 from Mrs. J. E. Meeker, Miss A. L. Meeker and Miss J. 
A. Meeker, Pasadena. 



124 



1*1 

1*1 



CALIFORNIA BABIES 



If 




L. A. Eng Co. 



A I,OS ANGEI^KS BKI^IyK. 



Photo, by Marceau. 





K M 




Eng. Co. Photo, by Westervelt. 

SIX MONTHS AND THREE YEARS. 




{ARE) nil f^T^y,©[p- WHY }^ Yi II % 




SAN tUIS REY MISSION. 
(Founded June 13, 1798. Had in its prime 2869 Indian neophytes.) 




C. M. n-vis Eug. Co, 



THE GIANT GRAPE-VINE. 




C.M.Davis Eng.Co. 



DONA I^UISA DOMINGUEZ. 




C. M. Davis Eng. Co. 



WINTER IN THE OJAI. Photo, by Mrs. Agnes D. Brown. 




CM. Davis Eng. Co. ^jjj^ GROWTH OF A HOME IN SIX YEARS. 
(Residence F. J. Ganahl, Los Angeles.) 



131 



California Homes 



o 
S » 

n < 
2. « 

'* w 
o - 

32 





CM. Davis Eng. Co. RESIDENCE OF J. MESMER, I.OS ANGKI^ES. Hhoto. by Putnam 




THE CHILDS PI.ACE, LOS ANGHlvES. 




SANTA MONICA RESIDENCE OF SENATOR JONES. 



134 



The State Normal School at Los 
Angeles. 



BY MELVILLE DOZIER. 



Y^^ROBABLY but few of our citizens fully appreciate the growth 
1®? and the importance of this institution, situated among us, 
X, and quietly working out to the best of its ability the great 

problems of education — the problems which lie at the very foundation 
of our civilization. Organized in 1882 with a corps of three teachers 
and about fifty pupils, it has grown into a school in which the annual 
enrollment is about six hundred students under the instruction of a 
faculty of twenty-five teachers. During the seventeen years of its 
history, upward of a thousand graduates h? ve gone out from its walls, 
nearly all of whom are actively engaged ix^ the school- room, diffusing 
the influence of the school, and causing \i^ principles for which the 
institution stands to be felt in thousands of homes in the land. 

Situated in the very heart of the city af\d upon a commanding site, 
it combines all the elements of business!, convenience without noise 
and bustle ; the advantages of quiet and ^^ ivacy without the usual ac- 
companiment of distance and seclusion. ; 

Its elevation, crowned as it is with a n6 pile of masonry, makes it 
an object of distinguished beauty and at|! ctiveness from many parts 
of the city, while, at the same time, it aff<^ is to those whose duties re- 
quire their attendance there a series of vi^ws of the city which are of 
surpassing loveliness. 

It will never be known to what extent these scenes of perpetual 
beauty have contributed to the unfolding of the recognition of that 
kinship of the soul with all that is beautiful in art and nature, which 
is so essential to the character of the true teacher. All that is best and 
purest in the heart of man seems to be stirred and energized on looking 
out upon the broad vista of streets and houses and plains and mount- 
ains and ocean, as viewed from almost any standpoint in or about the 
building. While not too much elevated for ready and easy approach, 
it is sufficiently so to afford, in every direction but the north, views 
limited only by the horizon, and to catch the full benefit of the sea- 
breeze in its gentle and inspiring sweep from the ocean to the mount- 
ains. 

But, as charming as are the material surroundings of the Normal 
School, that which is of far greatest import, the work it is doing and 
the ideals for which it stands, is none the less pleasing to contemplate. 

From the beginning, the work and management of the school have 
been characterized by a degree of harmony, energy, and foresight quite 
remarkable in an institution of such proportions and embodying so 
many diversified elements. 

The growth of the institution was steady and marked from the be- 
ginning, and in 1893 the Legislature made liberal provision for its en- 
largement, to meet the rapidly increasing demands. At the same time 
a change of headship went into effect ; Prof. Ira More, who was identi- 
fied with the earlier history and policy of the school, giving place to 
Prof. Edward T. Pierce, late of the State Normal School at Chico, Cal. 

This change of administration, however, was not accompanied by 
any change in the teaching force, except by way of increase, made 
necessary by the greatly enlarged structure and the addition of fully- 
equipped departments of work, some of which had been carried on 
under embarassing limitations and others added outright. 

Among these may be mentioned greatly increased facilities for the 
study of chemistry, physics, botany, zoology, drawing and geography, 
and the organization of the departments of pedagogy, sloyd, and the 
kindergarten. The changes and expansions at once placed the institu- 



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136 LAND OF SUNSHINE- 

tion in the first rank among the normal schools of the nation, and 
caused its reputation to spread far and wide. During the five years that 
have passed since the occupancy of the enlarged building there has been 
no cessation to the growth and strengthening of the school in each and 
all of its departments of work, and at the same time an eye has been 
had to the material aspect of the grounds which has resulted iu making 
of them a model of beauty and convenience. 

In all these changes a careful regard has been had to both the mental 
and physical well-being of the students, contributing as far as possible 
to the simultaneous and uniform development of mind and body, and 
under circumstances calculated to quicken and strengthen the esthetic 
nature as well. 

The library has kept pace with the growing needs of the school and 
has become a most potent factor in its work. Notwithstanding all this 
development, however, another period of marked change and progress 
is in the near future. 

At its last session the Legislature again responded to the demands for 
a more complete education, and made provision for such an increase of 
space as' will permit of the organization of a department of domestic 
science and greatly increased facilities for work in art. 

Through the thoughtful regard of Gov. Gage for the welfare of the 
State's treasury, this appropriation does not become available until 
January 1st, 1900, when the treasury will have been strengthened by the 
payment of the fall taxes, and, for this reason, the contemplated im- 
provements cannot be executed until next year. The changes will con- 
sist chiefly in the removal of the gymnasium some fifty feet farther 
away from the main building, its elevation to a level with the second 
floor, with which it will be connected by a covered way, enclosed with 
movable windows, and the construction of two floors beneath the 
gymnasium floor, one of which will be devoted to an enlargement of 
the art department, including sloyd, and to the department of domestic 
science, then to be newly organized, while the other floor will be fitted 
up for the work of the training school. An increased capacity for 
training school work has been made necessary by the change in policy, 
touching the requirements of the senior class in this department. 
Thereafter students, instead of being required to teach for a period every 
day in various classes, will be put in charge of a class of some 
grade, and be held responsible for the entire management and instruc- 
tion for a given number of weeks, thus securing for the student teacher 
all the varied experience that can arise in his work when in charge of a 
school of his own. 

In connection with the proposed department of domestic science, 
where cooking, sewing and other housework will be taught, it is ex- 
pected that a large and comfortable lunch-room can be maintained for 
the accommodation of both teachers and students, thus supplying a 
long- felt want, and at the same time aff'ording useful exercise to classes 
along the line of their study. 

When these changes and additions shall have been realized, it may 
confidently be stated that Los Angeles is the seat of a normal school 
which for completeness of course and thoroughness of execution, is the 
peer of any on the American continent. 




Dormitory 



Main School Building. 



' Los Angeles Academy: 



the 
not 



A CLASSICAL AND ENGLISH MILITARY BOARDING SCHOOL. 

DUCATION is something more than building in a young brain. 
It is bringing out whatever may be in a boy or girl, and guiding 
to its highest potentiality the quality brought out. Naturally 
'hopper" system which is necessary in education by mass, does 
secure the best individual results in the 
attempt to draw out. It is a law so universal 
and so clear that no one nowadays wpuld think of 
denying it, that the ideal education is! that in 
which the personal ability and needs have the 
fullest consideration. 

Among the most hopeful signs amid the spread 
of the best new educational methods in California, 
is the inception and sturdy growth of special pre- 
paratory schools based on that fine old model of 
the Boston Latin School — and conducted by men 
who have the full right of succession. Such in- 
stitutions are not only feeders for our colleges ; 
above all, they are builders of character. They 
take a boy as young as they can and proceed 
at once to begin making a man of him. They 
go at him not as if he were merely a walk- 
ing memory which could be stuffed with so many 
terms of fact. They accept him as a human be- Business Mgr. Walter r. 
ing, with brain, heart and body, and develop him on all three 

lines. The military drill is not just a 
matter of brass buttons and " guide left." 
It teaches a boy how to stand, how to = 
walk, how to hold himself steady in 
mind and body. It is the discipline 
parents ought to give — and that most of 





Photo, by Maude. 



MII.ITARY AND FOOT-BAI,I. EXERCISE. 



C. M.DarisEng. Co. 



them do not. It teaches the self- 
restraint which every boy and man 
ought to have — and that most of 
them never learn. 

Ivos Angeles Military Academy is 
so situated as to bring the best of 
nature to its aid ; so officered as to 
promise each student the best that 
trained and conscientious care can 
give. It brings to bear upon the 
education of our boys a plan of evi- 
dent utility, and carries out that 
plan with fine sincerity and com- 
petence. It has alrea'dy become, in 
this community, a force to be 
reckoned with, and 
it promises to have 
a growing influence. 
By a recent re- 
organization of the 
school, its founder 
and manager, Mr. 
Walter R. Wheat, 
has associated with 
himself two promi- 
nent educators from 
the East, Messrs. 
Sanford A. Hooper 
and Edward t,. Har- 
dy. Mr. Hooper, 
head master of the 
Academy, has been 
principal of the Mil- 
waukee South Side 
High School for the 
past six years. 

Mr. Hardy, associ- 
ate master, has been 
head of the Depart- 
ment of History in 
the same school for 
five years, the last of 
which was spent, on 
leave of absence, 
in studying the boys' 
schools of France 
and Germany, as 
well as many of 
the best preparatory 
schools in Amarica. Under the di- 
rection of these gentlemen, together 
with Grenville C Emery, principal 
of the Academy for the past two 
years, and formerly master in the 
Boston Latin School, Los Angeles 
Academy will rank with the best 
preparatory schools for boys in the 
West. 

A visit to this institution can but 
impress one with its beautiful and 
healthful location, its facilities both 
ior study and play, and the ordrely 
bearing of its intelligent, happy- 
faced boys. 






' A Modern Advance. 

SOUTHERN CAIvIFORNIA is not a backwoods community with a 
good climate. It is not a country whose skies alone are precious 
to the cultured traveler and home-seeker, but its people to be 
shunned. On the contrary, it is probably the most refined community 
in the United States. The tourist of today is not the first discoverer of 
its advantages. For more than a decade it has been attracting the well- 
to-do, the educated and the refined. The result is that its population is 
of a higher average of intelligence, as well as of financial independence, 
than any other numerically equal population in the country. The average 
is high ; and among the residents are many of national reputation as 




BI,A.NCHARD MUSIC AND ART BOUNDING. 



A MODERN ADVANCE. 

artists, musicians, and authors. Los Angeles, the chief city of this 
extraordinary territory, keeps fully abreast with the best Eastern cities 
in all that makes for progress and refinement. One typical proof 
of this is the opening of Blanchard Hall, designed to be the home of 
music and art in this city. Competent judges, of wide comparison, de- 
clare it one of the most perfectly appointed halls for its purpose to be 
found anywhere. And in connection with this hall may be mentioned 
another token of the advancement of Los Angeles along the best mod- 
ern lines. 

The violin is acknowledged king of musical instruments because it 




BLANCHARD HAI,I«, USED BY CUMNOCK SCHOOI, FOR RKCITAI.S AND 
PHYSICAL CULTURE. 

can be made to approach nearer than any other to the quality of the 
human voice. Because it is the noblest, it is also the most difl&cult of 
mastery. Anyone can strum on a banjo ; but to play the violin requires 
patience and work. And fortunately for our ears, people are aware that 
they cannot play the violin by guesswork. 

The one nobler medium of expression, the human voice, has no such 
general respect. It is an instrument we are born with and cannot evade, 
it has commonplace uses as well as high ones, it will serve many purposes 
even when it scrapes and squeaks ; and the natural result is that care- 
lessness, thoughtlessness and habit have left it sadly neglected. A fine 



LAND OF SUNSHINE. 

voice for singing is pretty sure, indeed, to receive training— because that 
gives it a market value. But nine out of every ten people, in conversa- 
tion or in public speech, use an instrument they have never learned to 
play — not even "by ear." To trained perceptions the average voice is 
pitiful ; that even to the thoughtless it is unconsciously disappointing is 
proved by the quickness with which all are warmed by a voice used as 
it should be. 

Intelligent training in the fit use of this potentially magnificent in- 
strument should be universal. To certain professions it is an absolute 




RECEPTION ROOM, CUMNOCK SCHOOL, OF ORATORY. 

necessity ; but there is no use so commonplace that an educated voice 
is not of distinct service in it. 

A finely effective school for the study and mastery of vocal expression 
and interpretation, a school not of mimetics or rantings, but basing its 
training upon the deeper and larger principles, has been built up in 
this city within five years by Addie Murphy Grigg and the faculty she 
has drawn to her. It is called the Cumnock School of Oratory, after 
the forceful director of the Northwestern University School of Oratory, 
at Evanston, 111., whose first assistant Mrs. Grigg was for three years. 
Its success has been significant. Its numerical growth has compelled 
four enlargements of quarters ; and the standard of its work has come 



A MODERN ADVANCE. 

to be widely respected. It is now very handsomely housed in the 
Blanchard Hall, and has 70 students in the school proper, besides 303 
more in special classes and private schools. Its course covers two 
years, and there are post-graduate courses. It recognizes, of course, 
that mere voice is only a small part of expression, and that vocal ex- 
pression itself is but a means to an end, just as music and poetry are. 
Back of all these must be something worthy of the best expression — 
that is, thought ; and it studies to store the mind, to cultivate the emo- 
tions, to develop bodily grace. Physical culture, vocal culture, 




A RECITATION AND CLASS ROOM, CUMNOCK SCHOOL OF ORATORY. 

rhetoric, English history and literature, on broad and expert lines, are 
among its machineries, and indicate the catholicity of its ideals and 
standards. Its most serious work is bent to true interpretation of the 
best literature. It looks upon the voice not as something which may 
be taught to trick and tickle shallow ears — vox et praeterea nihil — but as 
the organ whose trained harmonies may translate the greater mind be- 
hind the expression. With this wise and high standard it builds its 
foundations deep in the greatest literature, and its major work is in the 
interpretation of that literature. This is sufficient to show how radi- 
cally it differs from the ordinary catchpenny "schools of vocal culture," 
and indicates one of the several reasons why the Cumnock School is en- 
titled to be ranked as a modern advance. 



When answering adverUsements, please menUon that you *' saw it in the Land of Suxshiwb." 



• Occidental College. 

LOS ANGELES, CAL. 

Occidental College was founded in 1887. A commodious building was erected 
in 1888 near the Los Angeles city limits, east of Boyle Heights. This building was 
destroyed by fire in 1896. The present location is in East Los Angeles, on the elec- 
tric line to Pasadena. The campus commands a fine view of the Sierra Madre 
mountains, and has an elevation two hundred and fifty feet higher than the center 
of Los Angeles. The main building is devoted to class rooms, music rooms, library 
and chapel. The Chemical Laboratory is in a building at the rear. 

On the campus are two double tennis courts, a football field and a bicycle track. 

The College does not claim to be a university, but aims to do first-class under- 
graduate work. 

There are three courses : the Classical, the Literary and the Scientific, leading 
respectively to the degrees of B. A., B. L-, and B. S. 

The College allows a limited choice of election in the Junior and Senior years, 
but holds to the theory that for the best results, in the long run, the undergraduate 
should follow a prescribed course, thus securing a good general education, on the 
basis of which he may specialize after graduation with a much greater prospect of 
ultimate success. 




LAHOKATdK'l 



L A. Eng Co. 

The Classical Course is modeled after that of the 
best Eastern colleges, including Latin, Greek, 
Mathematics, Natural Science, History, Economics, 
Psychology, Ethics, etc. 
The Literary Course substitutes a modern lan- 
guage for Greek, and contains, as a unique feature, a course in general literature, 
in which representative authors of Greece, Rome, Italy, France and Germany are 
studied in the best English translations. 

The Scientific Course is a general one, laying a broad foundation for subsequent 
specialization. 

Occidental College admits both young men and young women on an equal 
footing. 

In connection with the College is a thorough preparatory department, into 
which students can enter who have completed the eighth grade in the public schools. 
The Preparatory Course requires four years, and a consultation of the catalogue will 
show that the standard of this department is high. 

Students are offered the best advantages in vocal and instrumental music, elocu- 
tion and art 

The College has no dormitory system. The students board with families in the 
neighborhood who are recommended by the faculty, aud a lady principal has a 
general oversight of the young ladies. 

It is proposed after the fall rains to plant a lawn and beautify the grounds with 
flowers, trees and shrubbery, and thus make the surroundings in keeping with the 
Grecian architecture of the main building. 



When answering advertisements, please mention that you " saw it in the Land of Sunshink. 



A Classical School for Girls. 

The Classical School for Girls, Pasadena, was established in 1890 by Miss Anna 
B. Orton, daughter of the late Prof. James Orton of Vassar College. Its standing as 
a College Preparatory is best shown by the work of its graduates in the respective 
colleges which they have entered. Some of these students upon entrance have 
passed into the Sophomore and Junior classes in certain subjects. While in college 
one received a scholarship prize, another developed a marked talent for writing, 
while a third distinguished herself with a little research work in science, the result 




RECITATION HALL AND GYMNASIUM. 

of which was published, together with her illustrations, in a German scientific 
journal. One is an assistant instructor in a University, another who graduates this 
year with honor in science has already received the offer of several positions to 
teach. The attainment of scholarship is not more the aim of the school than is the 
physical development of the pupil. The healthfulness of Pasadena climate is a well 
established fact. This added to a largely out of door life, sunny rooms, and a well 
conducted gymnasium, make it possible for even a delicate girl to prepare for an 
Eastern College without being physically taxed. The number of boarding pupils 
is limited that they may enjoy the privileges of home-life where true culture is 
fostered and the little things of life which make up the great are not forgotten. 

Hummel Bros. & Co., Largest Employment Agency. 300 W. Second St. Tel. Main 509 



A 



^^ 



Thk Ideal Home. 

#^«^HE ideal home is a composite product, the factors of which 
^^1 are of both internal and external origin ; but it is surely 
not too much to say that its location and surroundings 
must have in them the elements of beauty, attractive- 
ness and harmony. Healthfulness may be considered by 
some a mere utilitarian contribution to the 
making of a true home spot, but its import- 
ance cannot, of course, be overestimated 
from any point of view. In all essential 
particulars there are locations in the vicinity 
of Los Angeles and Pasadena whose advan- 
tages as home sites it would be diflScult to 
overmatch. Such a one is made the subject of 
illustration on this page. 
San Rafael Heights is a portion of the beautiful 
San Rafael ranch, immediately opposite the central section of Pasa- 
dena, and but a stone's throw from some of this famous residence city's 
most elegant homes. The Heights comprises a ridge extending paral- 
lel with the Arroyo Seco and high above this stream's wooded course, 
which may be seen in its winding way from the mountains miles south- 
west. Not only is the outlook one which takes in a wide scope of coun- 
try north and south, but the view includes the entire San Gabriel Valley 
eastward, bounded by the towering Sierra Madre range, and dotted 
thickly with orchards, grain fields and clustering groups of villas and 
cottages. Immediately in the foreground Pasadena itself lies spread out 
in view, with which city the Heights is connected by two convenient 
bridges. 





A BIT OF THE LAKK ON SAN RAFAEI. RANCH. 



These are the surroundings that appeal to the eye and impress the 
mind with a sense of being in the midst of an inspiring environment. 
At closer range San Rafael Heights meets all expectations from the 
standpoint of the seeker for an ideal home spot. The soil is rich ; the 
water supply is of the best ; the sizes of the building tracts (from three 
to twelve acres each) are such as to afford room for ample grounds for 
orchards and gardens ; and there are congenial neighbors to relieve any 
sense of isolation. 

Nothing more charming for suburban residences may be found in all 
California. The photographs from which the accompanying illustra- 
tions were made were taken on the San Rafael ranch in the immediate 
vicinity of the Heights, and give glimpses of characteristic scenery. 
The owners of all this property are gentlemen who have proved their 
love for it by building fine homes upon it, and in the matter of either 
small or large tracts they have enough left to afford a considerable range 
of choice as to location, size and price. There is nothing of a specula- 
tive character in the sale of either lots or acreage from the San Rafael 
ranch, but the owners can spare some of their holdings and are willing 
to do so upon a reasonable basis. Their own residence, as well as one 
near by lately completed, furnishes the proof that these building loca- 
tions leave nothing to be desired, while their nearness to Pasadena on 
one side and to thejelectric cars at Garvanza on the other, place them 
barely without the pale of city conveniences. 

Those desiring further information regarding the properties named 
may obtain it by addressing the San Rafael Ranch Co., Box 84, Gar- 




WINERY AND I^AKE, SAN RAFAEL RANCH. 



ATIUJA 







§PLEHDIDJ=JuriTING 

AMD"["^pUTp5niNQ 

a,(iOT(lOM' 




LlVEf^.r\lDnEY,5F\iqHT5 
DI)EA5£,J\HEUI1AT15ri^l\ll1 
DISEASE pERMAnEriTLY 

])uBUCjCLEPHOri^EF^V!CE 






POLLEYSkBuH^^lC^PPfORS 



(KOI en 




When answering advertisements, please mention that you "saw it in the I^and of Sunshinb." 



MARSHUTZ PATENT" 

AUROCONE 



(TRADE MARK) 



SPECTACLES 




The Aurocone Spectacles are the only 
practical comfort-giving Spectacles on 
the market. They positively cannot 
hurt or bind the ears ; make no marks 
on the bridge of the nose ; having no 
ear-embracing wires, cannot bend or 
break. Absolutely the latest, simplest 
and best Once adjusted they are always 
adjusted. If your dealer does not carry 
Aurocone goods, send us $1.50 for Auro- 
cone frames, steel nickeled, or 75c. for 
one pair nickeled Temples ; $2 75 for 
best quality gold -filled frames ; $6.50 for 
best quality solid gold frames; $1.25 for 
best quality gold-filled temples; $2.50 
for best quality solid gold temples. 

PACIFIC OPTICAL CO., 

SOLE AGENTS 

245 S» Spring SU, Los Angeles^ CaL 




W 



ILL develop or reduce 
any part of the body 



A Perfect Complexion Beautifier 
and 

Remover of Wrinkles 

Dr.John Wilson Gibbs' 

THE ONLY 

Electric IVIassage Roller 

(Patented United States, Europe, 
Canada.) 
" Kb work is not confined to the 
face alone, but will do good to any 
Trade-Mark Registered part of the body to which it is ap- 
plied, developing or reducing as desired. It is a very pretty 
addition to the toilet-table."— Chicago Tribune. 

"This delicate Electric Beautifier removes all facial blemishes. 
It is the only positive remover of wrinkles and crow's-feet. It 
never fails to perform all that is expected." — Chicago Times- 
Herald. 

"The Electric Roller is certainly productive of good results. 
I believe it the best of any appliances It is safe and effective ." 
— Habbiet Hubbabd Atib, New York World. 

For Massage and Curative Purposes 

An Electric Roller in all the term implies. The invention of a. 
physician and electrician known throughout this country and 
Europe. A most perfect complexion beautifier Will remove 
wrinkles, "crow's-feet" ipremature or from age), and all facial 
blemishes— POSITIVE Whenever electricity is to be used for 
massaging or curative purposes, it has no equal. No charging. 
Will last forever Always ready for use on ALL PARTS OF THE 
BODY, for all diseases. For Rheumatism, Sciatica, Neuralgia, 
Nervous and Circulatory Diseases, a specific The professional 
standing of the inventor (you are referred to the public press 
for the past fifteen years), with the approval of this country 
and Europe, is a perfect guarantee. PRICE : Gold, $4 00 ; 
Silver, f3 00. By mail, or at office of Gibbs'Company, 1370 
Bboadwat, New Yobk. Circular free. 

The Only Electric Roller. 
All others so called are Fraudulent Imitations. 




CHAS. E. MARSHALL 

'"^'— Wood Mantels 

TII.ES AND GRATES 

Tel. Brown 1821 Correspondence Solicited 

514 S. Spring St., Los Angeles, Cal. 



Copyright. Copyright. 

"Can take a pound a day off a patient, or put it on." — New 
York Sun, Aug. 30, 1891. Send for lecture on "Great Subject of 
Fat." NO DIETING. NO HARD WORK. 

Dr. John Wilson Gibbs' Obesity Cure 

For the Permanent Reduction and Cure of Obesity 

Purely Vegetable. Harmless and Positive. NO FAILURE. Your 
reduction is assured — reduced to stay. One month's treatment 
$5.00. Mail, or office, 1370 Broadway, New York "On obesity, 
Dr. Gibbs is a recognized authority. — N. Y. Press, 1899." 

REDUCTION GUARANTEED 

"The cure is based on Nature's laws."— New York Herald, 
July 9, 1893. 



^a/^ ^a/^ ^a/^ ta/^ ^a/^ Ca/^ Ca^ ta^ ^a^ ^a^ ^a^ ^aA Ca/^ 

N. E. A. Souvenirs... ^ 




OPALS 

DRAWN WORK 
INDIAN BASKETS 
BLANKETS 
AND 

MEXICAN HAND- 
CARVED 
LEATHER GOODS 



Largest 
riuseum and 
Curio Store 
in the West 



Campbell's Curio Store... 

SPRING ST. LOS ANGELES, CAL. 
_^ >^ vvi y^ y^ y^ y^ >^ y^ y^ y«^ y^ yv^ 

jM jM jM jM jM jM jM j^h jm jM jm jM j^ 



^^^^s^^^^^s^^^s^^^^^ 



fA 

i 

i 
i 
i 
i 



BRANCHES TAUGHT: 



Bookkeeping 

Arithmetic 

Grammar 

Common Law 

Banking 

Business Practice 
Shorthand 
Typewriting 
Telegraphy 
Assaying 
Penmanship 
Commission 



Higher Mathematics 
Rapid Calculations 
Merchandising 
Correspondence / 
Reading / 

Spelling 



THE 
OLDEST 










-^ 



■I' 




THE 
LARGEST 



THE 

LEADER 

n all that is Modern, 
Practical and Progressive 
in the Business 
Educational Line. 



i 



Full Information and Illustrated Cata- 
logue on Application. 



i 



Educational 

Department, 




Pomona CoUeKe, 



CLAREMONT 
CAL. 



POMONA COLLEGE 

Courses leading to degrees of B.A., B.S.. and 
BX. Its degrees are recognized by University 
of California. Stanford University, and all 
the Kastern Universities. 

Also preparatory School, 6tting for all Col- 
leges, and a School of Music of high grade. 
Address, FRANK T.. FBRGUSON. 

President. 



Occidental College 

LOS ANGELES, CAL. 

Three Courses: classical, Literary, 

Scientific, leading to degrees of B. A., B. L., and 
B. S. Thorough Preparatory Department. 

Winter term began January 3, 1899. 

Address the President, 

Kev. Guy 'W. "Wadswortli. 




GIRLS' COLLEGIATE SCHOOL 

1918-2»-24-26 

South Orand Avenue 
liOg Angeles 

A LICK K. PAK80N8, B. A., 
fBANNB W. DBMNBN, 

I*rincipals. 



CHAFFEY COLLEGE, ontan., cai. 

Well endowed. Most healthful location. 

Enter from 8th grade. 

Opens Sept. 29. $250.00 per year. 
Elm Hail, for young ladies, under charge of 

cultured lady teachers. Highest standards. 
West Hall, for boys, home of family of Dean, 

and gentlemen teachers. 

Pasadena. 

WISS OI^TON'S 
Boarding and Day School for Qirls 

Certificate admits to Eastern Colleges 

124 S. Kuclld Ave. 

LOS ANGELES ACADEMY 

A Classical and English Military Boarding School. 

Sanford H. Hooper, Head Master. 
t.L.n'JlDV, I Associate Masters. 

Walter R. Wheat, Business Manager, 

P. O Box 193, Los Angeles, Cal. 



lASELL SEMINARY FOR YOUNG WOMEN 

AUBURNOALE, MASS. 

"In your walking and sitting so much more 
erect ; in your general health ; in your conversa' 
tion ; in your way of meeting people, and in in- 
numerable ways, I could see the benefit you are 
receiving from your training and associations at 
Lasell. All this you must know is very gratifying 
to me." 

So a father wrote to his daughter after her 
Christmas vacation at home. It is unsolicited 
testimony as to Lasell's success in some im- 
portant lines. 

Those who think the time of their daughters 
is worth more than money, and in the quality of 
the conditions which are about them during 
school-life desire the very best that the East can 
offer, will do well to send for the illustrated cat- 
alogue. C. C. BRAGDON, Principal. 



N. G. Felker 

President 
John W. Hood 

Vice-President 
John W. Lackey 

Secretary 







226 S. Sprins: St., Los Angeles, Cal. 



An all around Commercial School for both sexes. School in session the entire year 
any day. Write or call tor catalogue. 



Phone Green 1848 

Pupils can enter 



F. B. Silverwood's gruarantee g-oes with every article he sells. 






n >i ■^ r^ n 

B" 5 3 P» 

„. <i* "^ C 

O ^ Si rt rt c/- 







To Mariposa Big Trees. 

The I^argest 34 feet in Diameter. The Tallest 378 feet. 




Mausard-OoUier Eng. to. 



Photo, by Maude. 



On the Yosemite Stage and Turnpike Company's Route to the Yosemite. 



To Yoscmitc Valley 

Education— Rest— strength— Pleasure. 




YOSEMITE FALLS -254^ FKET. 

Parties desiring to make this 
famous trip should make up their 
itinerary as soon as possible, notify- 
ing Yosemite Passenger Agent, 261 
South Spring street, I^os Angeles, 
the day they are desirous of start- 
ing, so that stage seats can be 
assigned to them. Rates given be- 
low are for parties of not less than 
ten. Cost of this trip, Berenda to 
Yosemite and return, four days' trip, 
$41.50 ; five days' trip,|43 00. Tickets 
will be good from Berenda, the 
junction point on the main line of 
the Southern Pacific Company, to 
the Yosemite and return, covering 
the entire expense of trip, including 
railroad fare, meals and lodging en 
route ; carriage drives to Mirror 
Ivake and Cascade Drive, returning 
via Bridal Veil Falls for the beautiful 
rainbow efi"ects in the evening ; sad- 
dle horse and guide to the Vernal 
and Nevada Falls and Glacier Point, 
and the side trip to Mariposa Big 
Trees in coach from Wawona. 

These tickets are first-class in 
every particular at all eating houses 
and hotels. 



Thousands of People from the oid 

World travel thousands of miles for 
the sole purpose of visiting Yosem- 
ite. Now that you can visit it at 
one- tenth the effort, will you do so ? 

Kalph TTaldo Emergen: It is the 

only spot I have ever found that 
came up to the brag. 

Rev. J. O. Peck: The Yosemite 
surpasses all description and even 
anticipation. 

C. W. Kyle : Well, Yosemite is a 
strange spot. It contravenes, chal- 
lenges, defies and overshadows all 
other works of Nature. 

Horace Greeley : Of the grand 
sights I have enj oyed— Rome from 
the dome of St. Peters, the Alps from 
the valley of I,ake Como, Mont Blanc 
and her glaciers from Chamouni, 
Niagara— and the Yosemite— I judge 
the last named the most unique and 
stupendous. 



GLACIER POINT— 3200 FEET 



For the shortest and quickest route to the Yosemite, call on or address 

THE YOSEMITE STAGE AND TURNPIKE CO., 

A. H. Washburn, E. N. Baxter, 

613 Market St., San Francisco. 261 S. Spring St., Los Angeles. 



When answering advertisements, please mention that you " saw it in the I^and of Sunshine, 



South Pasadena Ostpich Tarm 




The L.arge8t in America. One Hundred Birds of all ages. Ostrich nests, chicks, yearlings, 
and old pairs in their breeding pens. An immense assortment of Feather Boaf), Capes, Tips and 
Plumes in all styles, the finest grades at reasonable prices. Goods sent C. CD., with privilege of 
examination. Send for price list. KDWIN CAWSTOIV & CO., Owners. 

"One of the strangest sights in America." — JV. V. Journal, Christmas number. 

TURKISH '"grm, "BA THS 



25 cents to $1.00 

Open Day and Night 

Telephone Green 427 



210 



SOUTH 
BROADWAY 





Satin Cerate 



Cleanses and beautifies the 
skin anrl creates a lovely 
complexion. Sold by the 
Boston Dry Goods Store and 
all druggists in Los Angeles 
and Southern California 
towns. 



PREPARED BY 



Mrs, Weaver-Jackson 

Manufacturer ot 

Toilet Luxuries and Specialties; 

318 S. SPRING ST. 

Wig Making. Hair Store. Toilet Parlors. 



Send for Booklet "Comfort and Beauty." 



When answeringr advertisements, please mention that you •' saw it in the I^and of Sunshine. ' 



g^1,( gi^l(V<.-e:' 




i^ii^^'i^^^i^^^i^^^^^^i^^^^^^^ii^^^^^^k. 



SOMETHING NICE 
IN BEDS.... 



We can meet the wants of anyone in bed- 2} 

room furniture, from Trundle Beds to the IJil 

swellest Wood Sets. Summer Bedsteads i^ 

cool, airy and clean, in iron and brass, are J 

now just the thing. Our Carpets, Furn- J! 

iTURE, Curtains, Rugs, Ktc , will impress m 

you with their lateness of styles, elegance JJ 

of construction and low eastern prices. ^^ 



■^-'ir^n.2>v>*,<r.\ If you cannot call, write us for particulars. 



312-314 S. BROADWAY, LOS ANGELES !f! 
TELEPHONE MAIN 1215 £ 



Sulphur Mt. springs ~r:".;ri 

S nia's beauty spots. Accommodations for ^ 
^ campers. Illustrated circulars may be had r 
) from Hugh B. Rice, agent for "Cook's ) 
( Tours," 230 S. Spring St , Los Angeles ; ( 
^ FisKB & Johnston, 707 State St., Santa Bar- ? 
bara, or by writing to c 

HAWI.EY & RICHARDS, Props , ) 

' ,Cal. < 



L 



Santa Paula, Ventura Co. 






We 3Iauufacture all kinds of 



RUBBER GOODS 



When you purchase and want 

The Best Rubber Hose 




See that Our Name is on every leng^th. 
FOR SAIi£ BY AT.Ii DEAI^BRS. 



GOODYEAR RUBBER COMPANY 

573, 675, 577, 679 MARKET STREET 

R. H. PEASE, Vice-Pres. and Manager. 

SAN FRANCISCO. 



HARDWOOD FLOORING .... 

Parquet— strip— Wood Carpet— T. & G. Oak 
and Maple Flooring. Oak floors laid and 
polished, $1 25 per yard. 
Rinald Bros. Porcelain Enamel Paint for bath tubs, 
walls or wainscoting, in all colors. 

EXCEI.SIOR FLOOR POI.TSHING CO., 

Marshall & Jenkins 
Tel. Green 1611. 430 S. Broadway, Los Angeles. 




m BITHIi «T 



Is superior to any on the 
Pacific Coast. This ideal 
resort is superb in all its 
appointments, and is 
reached only by the 

LOSANGEUSMMINAL 
RJlim 
me PiGiuresmie line — otslinii, long beach, 

ALIMIM BEACH AND M PEDRO 

All delightful Ocean Resorts within a short ride 
of South Pasadena. 

EXCURSION RATES EVERY DAY 

For detailed information call on Terminal Agent. 

S. B. Hynbs, Gen'l Manager. 
T. C. PECK, Gen'l Pass. Agent. 



When answering advertisements, please mention that you "saw it in the Land of Sunshine.' 



By a great majority 

Los Angeles 

Elects the Remington Typewriter 

In the 22 leading office buildings of 
Los Angeles there are in service 

Remingtons, 253 aii others, - - i44 

53 % Remington 

There is no answer to facts like these. 



Wyckoff, Seamans & Benedict, 

147 South Broadway, Los Angeles, Cal. 
211 Montgomery St., San Francisco. 



Electric Supply and Fixture Co, 

GAS AND ELECTRIC FIXTURES 



THOS. FOUIvKES 
A W. ERODE 



ELECTRIC 
CONTRACTORS 



Dynamos, Motors, Telephones, Electric and Gas Supplies. 
Residences wired at moderate cost. 



Telephone Main 83 J Rowan & Kellam Block, 54 J S. Broadway 




Concert Pftonograpb 

Mr. Bdison has perfected the Pbonoffrapb. 
This is the instrument. 



It perfectly reproduces the human voice 
—JUST AS LOUD— just as clear— just as 
sweet. 

It duplicates instrumental music with 
pure-toned brilliance and satisfying in- 
tensity. Used with Edison Concert Re- 
cords, its reproduction is free from all 
mechanical noises. Only the music or the 
voice is heard. It is strong and vibrant 
enough to fill the largest auditorium. It 
is smooth and broad enough for the parlor. 

The highest type of talking machine 
ever before produced bears no comparison 
with the Edison Concert Phonograph. 
The price is S1S5. Full particulars can 
be obtained from all dealers in Phono- 
graphs, or by addressing The National 
Phonograph Co., New York, asking for 
Concert Catalogue No. 109. 

Six other styles of Phonographs, in- 
cluding the Sdison Gem, price $7.50. 
PETER BACIGAI^UPI, 933 Market St., 
San Francisco, Cal., Pacific Coast 
Agency for National Phonograph Co., 
New York. 

NONE GENUINE WITHOUT THIS 



TRADC 




i^ovu* 



When answering advertisements, please mention that you " saw it in the Land of Sunshinb.' 



LOS ANGELES FURNITURE CO. 

CARPETS, RUGS, CURTAINS 

225-227.229 S. BROADWAY Opposite City Hall 
LOS ANQELES, CAL. 



A COMFORT m HEALTH OR SICKNESS 

Our adjustable bedside table for use over bed-lounge or chair, is the most 
convenient all-around 
piece of furniture ever in- 
vented — ideal for the sick 
room and as a reading 
table with which to hold 
a book. The leaf can be 
extended, raised or low- 
ered, or tilted to any 
angle. Neat folding book 
holders attached to each 
side of leaf. It is neat, 
simple and durable. 

This Adjustable Table with black enameled base, 

leaf, at $5.25. 





nickel standard and oak • 



*^^i'*^U» li^u»^^^ » ■^^^U'U* ■#^t»li^U» fc^U»¥^^fc» ii^U»U*^^ »^»trMFfc^ ■ A*;i m^^^UJi^u" »^U^ 



a 



SNaps." 




Two dollar gold crowns, and five dollar sets of teeth, like j 
two dollar watches, and five dollar suits of clothes, prove 5 
to be real "snappers" to those who bite at such bait, i 
Ever been snapped ? Then you know the meaning of the « 
word folly. | 

Painless dentistry — Moderate charges — Warranted work, t 




• m^%^n^^%^^^m.m»^9^*^*^^^^^^^^^'^^^^ii^^^ji^^^if^^'j^'^^it^^^^A^n.ifn.t^^%jmjtm^^^n.^».^*^^^m.^Hi^n,i^Aiim^m^*^n^%^%i^^Kdn.^n^^ 



There is more Catarrh in this section of the 
country than all other diseases put together, and 
until the last few years was supposed to be in- 
curable For a great many yeais doctors pro- 
nounced it a local disease, and prescribed local 
remedies, and by constantly failing to cure with 
local treatment, pronounced it incurable. Sci- 
ence has proven catarrh to be a constitutional 
disease and, therefore, requires constitutional 
treatment. Hall's Catarrh Cure, manufactured 
by F. J. Cheney & Co., Toledo, Ohio, is the only 
constitutional cure on the market. It is taken 
internally in doses from 10 drops to a teaspoon- 
ful. It acts directly on the blood and mucous 
surfaces of the system. They oflFer one hundred 
dollars for any case it fails to cure. Send tor 
circulars and testimonials. Address, 

F. J. CHENRY & CO., Toledo, O. 
AST'Sold by Druggists 75c. 



TYPEWRITERS.... 

Sold on monthly payments. Shipped any- 
where, C. O. D., with privilege of examina- 
tion. All kinds of Typewriting Machines 
Bought, Sold, Rented and Exchanged. Rib- 
bons, Carbon, Stationery. 

Typewriter Exchange, 319 Wilcox Bldg, 

Tel. Black 1608. Los Angeles. Cal. 



[ClJUlIilt^J 



Fortunes In STOC&S. 
Shares S$1.00 a month. 
Safe as a Bank. Send 4c 
for Guide. A. H. wiLfOX & CO. 
529 Broadway, New Yor^ 




A Restful 
Vacation 



cannot be had without 
isolation from business 
cares and the demands 
of fashionable society. 



Bear Valley Resort 

lies out of sight and hearing of the usual haunts 
of men, among the" peaks of the Sierra Madre, 
6,000 feet above the sea. Its quietude brings 
peace to the mind, its park like forest and 
mountain scenery expands the soul, while its 
dry, temperate air, mineral springs, hunting, 
fishing and outdoor sports invigorate and build 
up the body. 

HOW TO GET THERE : The 8 a. m. Santa F6 train from Los Angeles con- 
nects with the Redlands and Bear Valley stage at Mentane at 10:30 a. m. each Tuesday 
Thursday and Saturday, which arrives at Bear Valley at 6 p. m. Returning from 
Bear Valley, the stage arrives at Redlands each Monday, Wednesday and Friday at 
noon, connecting with the Santa F6 for Los Angeles. 

ACCOMMODATIONS: At Gns Knight's Resort, Bear Valley, consist of fur- 
nished single and double new log cabins and hotel apartments, or tenting privileges ; 
a music hall, store, postofl5ce, bath house with hot and cold water, and first-class dining 
room service, with fresh meat, game, fish, milk, cream and butter, and all the veg- 
etables and fruits of the season. Provisions are also sold lo campers, and saddle 
horses, vehicles, guns, rods and tackle rented. The resort is provided with one of the 
best golf links in Southern California and other outdoor amusements. 

KATES : Round trip tickets can be purchased for $5 GO, or one way for $3 00, at 
132 S Spring st., Los Angeles, or from the Santa P€ ticket agent at Pasadena or Red- 
lands. Toll for private conveyances is more reasonable than on any similar mountain 
road. Board and lodging at Gus Knight's Resort is $2.00 a day or |10.00 a week. Ex- 
cursion ticket, good for round trip from Mentone and one week's board, is $13.'00. 

It is an ideal place for families, over-worked 
business men, or the lovers of rod and gun. 
Address 

GUS KNIGHT, Jr., 

Pine Lake P. O. Bear Valley, California. 



Whtn answering advertisements, please mention that you " saw it in the Land of Sttmshinb.* 



ILjJEVNE 



WHOLESALE AND RETAIL GROCER 

Extends a cordial invitation to all new comers to visit 

^ The Largest and Host Elegant 5 



iff 

mi 

Hif 

iXi 
iif 
nil 



Hit 

ill 
208-210 South Spring Street ^^''tt^s V*^ 



Grocery in the West 

You will be interested in our display of 

Crystallzed Fruits, Select Raisins, Nuts, Olives, Wines, 
Olive Oil, Confectionery, Etc. 

Just the things to send to your friends or take back East as a souvenir of this section. 



XJ^y YOU ARE ALWAYS SAFE at JEVNE'S 



I.OS ANGEr.ES 



■ g^> ig j g - ^' ^ - gj ^ ' ^ ' ^j^ 






)essertf 

For '■ 
)airity 
>cople 



40 ODOIX^ 
^0 TAS^Tfi- 




with w»il 



orderJ. 



or for 



n 



atdmp 



70 RAsr^ 






^*' Taint nun too much cos it's Knoxes.' 

IT'S NOT LIKE PIE 

IT'S HEAI.THY. 

ndorsed by all users. That " invaluable little 
eipt book " sent free for 2c. stamp. Knox's 
irkling, and Knox's Acidulated Gela- 
« at your grocers, or pint sample, postpaid, 5c. 
ik Gelatine with every package. 
C. B. KNOX, Johnstown, N. Y. 



To Cure a Cold in One Day- 
Take Laxative Bromo Quinine Tablets. All drug- 
gists refund the money if it fails to cure. 25c. 
The genuine has L. B. Q. on each tablet. 




FOR MEATS^ FISH. GRAVIES. 
SOUPS/(fcC.. THIS SAUCE 
HAS NO EQUAL 
Manufactured and Bottled only by 

GEORGE WILLIAMS CO.. 

LOS Angeles^ Cal. 

If this sauce is not satisfactory, return it to your 
grocer and he will refund your money. 

GioBOB Williams Co. 



TM 



c- s iV'a»fe^g%^^-^^»4^e^s^8^&C'afe^fr^^»^^ 



THE PLACE TO LIVE.... 

AIvHAMBRA 

Where is it ? At the head of the San 
Gabriel Valley, eight miles east of Los 
Angeles and three miles sotfth of Pasa- | 
dena. Call at the office of 

GAIL BORDEN 

Room 433 Stimson Bldg^ Los Angeles, 
CaL, and he will tell yotj all abotrt the 
Garden Spot of the County. 



mmm\ Bros. & Co., furnish best help. 300 W. Second St. Tel. Main 509. 



When answering advertisements, please mention that you " saw it in the I,and of Sunshinb.' 



HOT WEATHER CLOTHES 

We are prepared to fill orders for every good quality and 
style of thin clothing. Mail orders as carefully attended to as 
if you were here in person. Waist measure, chest measure, 
and inside seam measure of pants all that is necessary. 

NOTE PRICES 

Men's Crash Suits, 34 to 38 in., in brown, gray and mottled 

effects, also white, at $4.00, $5.00 and $6 00 per suit. , 
Men's CreoIvE Linen Suits at $8.00 suit. 

(silk and linen) suits, called Linenett, $8.00 suit. 
" Silkaline striped suits, $8.00 suit. 

Wool. Crash Suits, mixed colors, @ $10.00. 
" D. B. Serge Coats, silk faced (skeleton), $4.00, $5.00, 
$6 00, $8.00 each. 
Men's S. B. Serge Coats, blue and black (skeleton), $3.50, 

$4.00, $4.50, $5.00, $6.00. 
Men 's BI.UE AND BI.ACK Serge Suits, $10.00, $12.00, $15.00, 

$18.00 per suit. 
Men's Mohair Dusters at $3.00, $3.50, and $4.50. Linen at 
$3.00 and $3.50. 

Men's White Duck Pants at $1.25, $1.50, $1.75 and $2.00 pair. 
" " FIvAnnei. Suits, $12.00. White Fi^annei. Pants, $3.50. 

MULLEN, BLUETT & CO,, °^sto^'^' 

N* W« Cor* First and Spring Sts», Los Angeles, CaL 





Our Gold Medal Wines commend themselves to those who 
require and appreciate Pure, Old Vintages. We are producers 
in every sense of the word, {owning large Vineyards, Wineries 
and Distilleries, located in the San Gabriel Valley. For 
strength-giving qualities our wines have no equal. Wk SELL 
NO Wines under Five Years Old. 



SPECIAL. OFFER • We will deliver to any R.R. station in the 
United States, freight free : 

2 cases Fine Assorted California Wines, XXX, for $9.00 

Including one bottle 1888 Brandy. 
2 cases Assorted California Wines, XXXX, for $11.00 

Including 2 bottles 1888 Brandy and 1 bottle Champagne. 

SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA WINE COMPANY 



Tel. M. 332 



220 W. FOURTH ST. Los Angeles, Cal. 



Reliable help promptly furnished, nummel Bros. & Co. Tel. Main 509 



When answering advertisements, please mention that you " saw it in the I, and of Sunshink.' 



OI.DB8T AND LAROBST BANK IN SOrXHERN 
CALIFORNIA. 

Farmers and Merchants Bank 

OP LOS ANOBLBS, CAL. 

Capital (paid up) ■ - $500,000.00 
Surplus and Reserve' - 925,000.00 

Total - - $1,425,000.00 

0FFICBR8 : 

I. W. Hbxxman President 

H. W. Hbllman Vice-President 

EtemiT J. Flbishman Cashier 

O. A. J. Hbimann Assilstant Cashier 

DIRSCTORS : 

W. H. Pbrry, C. B. Thom, J. F. Francis 

O.W. CHIX.DS, I.W.HELLMAN.Jr., I. N. VanNuTS 
A.. GI.A88BI.I., H. W. Hbllman, I. W. Hbllman. 
Special Collection Department. Correspond- 
ence Invited. Safety Deposit Boxes for rent. 



W. C. Patterson President 

W. GiLLBLEN Vice-President 

W. D. Wool WINE Cashier 

E. W. CoE Asst. Cashier 




Cor. First and Spring Sts. 

Capital.. $600,000 

Surplus and Undivided Profits 60,000 

This bank has the best location of any bank in 
Los Angeles. It has the largest capital of any 
National Bank in Southern California, and is the 
only United States Depositary in Southern Cali- 
fornia. 



First National Bank 

OF L.OS ANOBIiSS. 

Largest National Bank in Sauthern 
California. 



Capital Stock $400,000 

Surplus and Undivided Profits over 260,000 

J. M. Elliott, Prest., W.G. Kerckhoff, V.Pres. 

Frank A, Gibson, Cashier. 

W. T. 8. Hammond, Assistant Cashier. 



directors: 



J. M. ElUott, 
;. D. Bicknell. 



J. D. Hooker, 
W. G. KerckhoflF, 



F. Q. Story, 
H. Jevne, 
J. C. Drake. 
All Departments of a Modem Banking Business 
Conducted. 

TO^ t^-t^i^^yc, yt^<^t^vy LO T- 




Mi 



CORNER MAIN AND SECOND STREETS 



Officers and Directors. 

H. W. Hellman, J. A. Graves, M. L. 
Fleming, F. O. Johnson, H. J. Fleishman, 
J. H. Shankland, C. A. Shaw, W. L,. <g 
Graves. J 

J. F. Sartori, President <§ 

Maurice S. Hellman, Vice-Pres. 

W. D. lyONGYBAR, Cashier A 
Interest Paid on Ordinary and Term Deposits ] 



fCp^SS Investors... * 



6 



% 






^ 



/y 



You can find nothing better. $ 

Our 6 per cent. "Coupon Bonds" W 

and 7 per cent. " Paid-up Income Stock" are <* 

Safe, Profitable, Standard Investments. ^ 

** Safe as Government Bonds." $ 



i 



The Coupon Bonds run for five years on a 6 per cent 
basis. The coupons are payable six months apart. 

The Paid-up Income Stock runs for one or three years 
on a basis of 7 per cent. 

The above investments are secured by 

First Mortgage (held in escrow by trustee), Fire Insurance (upon improvements), 
Life Insurance (upon the borrower's life). 



$ 



I The Protective Savings Mutual Building and Loan Association $ 

^ N. W. cor. First and Broadway, Los Angeles, Cat. ^ 



$ 



Title Insurance and Trust Co., Trustee. ^ 



Pedigreed Belgian Hares 



n 



If 



A profitable and pleasurable business and one easily conducted by old or 
young is assured by the Belgian Hare. A ready market can always be found 
among those desirous of establishing choice herds, while its flesh is in 
great demand. A trio of Belgian Hares is as good as a gold mine, and the 
investment multiplies itself faster than a like amount invested in any other 
way. Call on or write to 

A. SCHNELL, 424 N. Beaudry Ave., Los Angeles, Cal. \ 



F. B, 3i|verwood carries tiie largest stoclc of Neckwear in Los Angeles. 



WbeB answering advertisements, please mention that you '* saw it in the I.Ain> op StnfSHiHB.' 





41 




M 


■^^iyy^Hg- ' ''y^'*''y<B*^|«jiit>«»i<.^i ii||-iiiii Liiiiii^ 


i^q 



WHEN YOU VISIT ' 

SAN DIEGO 

REMEMBER . . .! 



♦ TH] 




ROOMS 

11.00 Par Day 

AND UP 



American and European Plan. Centrally 
located, ^levators and fire escapes. Baths, 
hot and cold water in all suites. Modem 
conveniences. Fine large sample rooms for 
commercial travelers. 
Cafe and Grille Room open all hours. 

J. E. O'BRIEN. Prop. 



^^^5 


TF— 




i 


1 


^^^ 


J 


1 


^Bh 



OLD MEXICO AND RETURN IN A DAY 

Through Grange and I,emon Groves, 
reached only by the 

National City and Otay Railway 

lycaving foot 6th st., San Diego, at 9:30 a m. 

ROUND TRIP 50c. 

Grand Mexican Fiesta week at Tia 
Juana, July 17th to 23rd. Mexican games, 
races and spoits, wierd dances and games 
by native Indians, bronco riding by noted 
vaqueros, Mexican meals and other at- 
tractions peculiar to the country. 

Fine Mexican Bands in Attend- 
ance. Rare opportunities aflforded ama- 
teur photographers to add to their collec- 
tions views of the old and new Custom 
House, the old Spanish Chapel, groups of 
Indians and natives in fiesta attire, the 
Boundary Monument marking the line between the United States and Mexico, and other points of 
interest. Beautiful onyx, quaint Mexican curios and cigars can be purchased there at reasonable 
prices. To Americans a novel and interesting custom is to write a postal card to friends in the United 
States, and have their handkerchief stamped by an official as a souvenir of the republic. Ample facilities 
and writing material for all. A representative of the President of the Republic, vdth other prominent 
government and educational officials will be present. 

SPECIAI. NATIONAIi EDUCATION Ali ASSOCIATION DAYS— July 17, 18 and 19— 

during which time the new school house will be dedicated and a typical Mexican school conducted, in 

itself an attraction and nov- 
eltv to American teachers. 

Fare Round Trip on 
all trains of 17, 18 and 19, 
from San Diego to Tia Juana 
(American side, but short 
walk to Mexican line), 50c. 

Frequent and ample- train 
service. Special rates, in- 
cluding free 'bus, on other 
days. 

For further informa- 
tion apply at Teachers' 
Headquarters, all hotel and 
railway offices in San Diego, 
or at Station, foot 6th St 




E. 



A. HORNBECK. 

Superintendent 



F. B. Silverwood's bigr store is at 124 South Spring St. 



When answering: advertisements, please mention that you "saw It In the Land of Sunssikb/* 

A Different California 

Some of your ideas of California may be wrong. Especially you may not know that in Fresno 
and Kmgs Counties may be found some of the best land in the State on Laguna de Tache grant 
lately put on the market in len-acre tracts, or larger, at $35.00 per acre, including perpetual water 
right, at 62>^ cents per acre annual rental, the clieapest water in California. Send your name 
and address and receive the local newspaper free for two months, that will give you reliable iniorma- 

**°'*- Address : NARES & SAUNDERS, 

1840 Mariposa Street, Fresno, Cal. 

A MOUNTAIN RESOR T"^*^"^*^^^^^^*^\ 

«t STRAWBERRY VALLEY m 

j^ Thp K^PPn Hnil^P ^^® *^^ reputation of a most excellent and courteous ser- j» 

5 * **^ I'v^wii iivfu^^ vice. Its customers always come again. It is under the L 

Jf same excellent management as it has been for the past seven seasons. Its first-class « 

2 table, good beds, home comforts and pure mountain water are most welcome adiuncts to « 

yj vigorous mountain climbing, healthful ozone and grand forest and mountain scenery. j^ 

"iH I fx^a-Hrx-t It li^s in the heart of the mountains, half a day's journey by stage from Hemet, <ft. 

iii LOCailOn 6ooo feet above sea level. if 

i^ How to Get There. Take train to Hemet or San Jacinto, from which points the stage if* 

liii leaves for Strawberry Valley every day, except Sunday. (fi 

Vli Rates. The round trip by stage (with hand baggage) is $3 oo. Meals at the Keen House <fi 

ill per day are $100, board and lodging per day $1.50, or by the week from |8.oo to $9.00. ffi 

j^ Address: MRS. J. M. KEEN, Proprietor Keen House, jj 

|£ Strawberry Valley, Riverside Co., Cal. >^ 

Seven Oaks Mountain Resort 

Situated on the banks of the Santa Ana river and on the northern slope of San 
Bernardino mountains. It is easily reached from Los Angeles in one day, and is a 
delightful trip. Fare from Redlands by stage and saddle horse, $2.50. Rates, $2.00 
per day, or $10, $12 or $14 per week. Entirely new management and everything 
first-class. Table unsurpassed. Seven Oaks is already famous for the loveliness of 
its situation, embracing magnificent views of mountain and stream. Excellent fish- 
ing and shooting when in season. Elevation 4800 feet. Daily mail and telephone. 
For further particulars and illustrated souvenir apply to 

LE BAS & PROCTOR (the proprietors) 

Seven Oaks, Redlands, Cal. 

Bundu's Elslnor6 m SDrlnos and Hoi6l.... 

Bundy's Hot Sulphur and 
Mineral Water Springs at 
:Elsinore, Riverside county, 
California, stand unrivaled m 
or out of California for their 
curative qualities to a wide 
ransre of diseases caused 
through impure condition ol 
the blood. Prominently so in 
cases of Rheumatism, Kidney, 
Bladder and chronic diseases 
of the skin. Bundy's Hot 
Springs possess these superior 
curative qualities because the 
water runs directlyJfrom^theaorrj-maZ source in the adjacent mountains into the Bath-house tubs and 
drinking fountains, thereby retaining all the natural heat (112°) and curative mineral solutions and 
gases, forjextemal and internal uses. Bundy's Springs are the only ones in Elsinore so situated. 
Springs whose waters are pumped into tanks consequently lose the natural gases so essential to 
perfect cure, hence Bundy's Springs are not for 'relief" only.but for complete cure. Analysis of 
Bundy's HotjSprings water mailed on application. Owning the springs, I am able to offer rates within 
reach of poor and rich alike, including first-class accommodations. Modern cottages with pleasant, 
sunny rooms. Guests at Bundy's Hotel use baths free of charge. The climate at Elsinore is warm, 
winter and summer, with cool nights. For complete information address E. Z. BUNDY, Elsinore, 
Rivergide County, California. 




If you want a present for a gentleman, write F. B. Silverwood. 



When answering advertisements, please mention that you " saw it in the Land op SmvSBiHB.' 



F. J. Ganahl Lumber Co., 



©V 



Doors, Sash, 

Blinds 

and other 

Building Material 



EAST LOS ANGELES LUMBER 
YARD 



A® 




Dealer in 



LUMBER 



Lath, Shingles, 
Etc. 



PASADENA AVENUE AND AVENUE 19 

Telephone East 8J Los Angeles, Cal. 



THE AHERN TRACT IS THE CREAM Vnc'^^M'JVkWf? I."It".5S^ *"" 

Don't fail to see this superb property before you buy. Glorious scenery of the foothills, Santa Monica 
and Sierra Ma- 
dre Mountains; 
richest of soil, 
purest of 
mountain 
water piped 
through the 
tract, graded 
and beautifully 
improved 
streets, cement 
sidewalks, re- 
finedneighbor- 
hood ; class of 
buildings re- 
stricted to cost 
not less than 
$^,500. 

Some Thirty-Eighth Street Residences in Ahern Tract. 
Twenty-three new residences have been built on this tract within the past six months. Traction 
electric car line within a minute's walk. W. J. AHEBN (Owner), Real Estate, Insurance 
and- lioang. 3215 Termont Avenue. liOS Angeles. 




PRESS or 







123 

SBroaduiay 

los^nqeles, 

Cal. 



Telephone 

Main 4 1 7 



PKINTERvS «•? BlNDER.5 TO TME 

Land or 5un.5Mjne 



Help— All Kinds. See Hummel Bros. & Co. 300 W. Second St. Tel. Main 509 



When answering advertisements, pleage mention that you " saw it in the I,and of Sunshine. 



Twro w^ay s .. 




FOOT ADORNMENT 

We can call these shoes by no name which would 
suit as well. Each pair haslthat stamp of style 
which has hitherto been found only in very ex- 
pensive goods. And we know the quality is such 
as will endear them to those who expect value 
for their money. 

BLANEY'S 

352 South Spring, near Cor. Fourth St. 

RING UP MAIN 940. 

Merchants Parcel Delivery Co. 

C. H. FINLEY, Manager. 

Parcels 10c. , Trunks 25c. Special rates to mer- 
chants. We make a feature of " Specials" and 
Shipping. OflBce hours 7:30 a. m. to 6 p. m. 
Saturdays to 10 p. m. Agents for By thin ia. 
No. Ill Court Street, Z.oa Angeles, Cal. 



iVzjs^ V.^z.js^r.rtz-s^ V.V s^zs^tjs'^t^,^ sfiz^^. 



photographic 
j^aterial 



Our stock is complete, and we 
have a special department for 
finishing amateurs' work. 

DEWEY BROS., 

Wholesale and Retail Dealers, 
109 W. Second St. , IvOS Angeles.Cal. 
-H Tel. Green 1784. 



^^^srz^-^z^ z^^z^-z^ 



Green 1784. g> 



OPALS 



75,000 

Genuine 
Mexican 

OPALS 

For sale at less than half price. We want an agent in 
every town and city in the U. S. Send 35c. for sample 
opal worth $2. Good agents make $10 a day. 
Mexican Opal Co., 607 Frost Bldg., Los Angeles, CaL 
Bank reference, State Loan and Tnist Co. 



NOT OUK WAY. 



The City Council 
of Los Angeles re- 
cently passed an 
ordinance prohib- 
iting the sprink- 
ling of cl ot h e s 
prally by laundries 
and Chinese laun- 
dries have peti- 
tioned for 10 days' 
grace in which to 
adjust themselves 
to modern cus- 
toms. 



e^ 



Every department of our service is 
modern, reasonable and safe. 

We have facilities for doing family 
washing separately. 

We have patented the only machine 
which insures 

No=Saw=Edge 
On Collars and Cuffs 

We also produce the least destructive 
and most artistic polish to linen. 

The safest and best is cheapest. 

Empire Steam Laundry 

Telephone Main 635 

149 South Main Street 
Los Angeles 




'Barker bR^nd-' 

LiREncnUars & Cuffs f//^- 
f*H2«^WESTT^OY. NY. '*2Z^' 

SACHS BROS & CO. 

San Franpisoo Coast Agents 



> • F. B. Silverwood's best Hats are $3; regular $5 qualities. 



The riacmillan Company's 
New Books 



NEW SUMMER NOVELS 
Richard Carvel 

By Winston ChurchiIvL. Just 
Ready. Cloth, $1.50. Author 
of "The Cei^kbrity." With 
eight full-page illustrations by 
Malcolm Fraser. 

First edition exhausted by advance orders 
a week before the date set for issue. 

" Pure romance of the most captivating and 
alluring kind. '—Boston Herald. 

The Celebrity 

By Winston Chukchii^l. An Epi- 
sode. 8th Edition. $1.50. 

*' A downright good story, fresh in both plot 
and style . . . entertaining from beginning to 
end." — ZAtf Independent. 

Jesus Delaney 

By Joseph Gordon Donnei.i.y. 

$1.50. 

"Striking, clever characterizations of novel 
types ; there is no lack of entertaining, absorb- 
ing incident." 

The Short Line War 

By Merwin- Webster. $1.50. 

A vivid story of an attempt to "capture "a 
small railroad by a big one ; prevented by its 
keen, energetic, and resourceful President. 

Hugh Qwyeth 

A Roundhead Cavalier. By Beui^ah 
Marie Dix. $1.50. 

"A capital historical romance."— TA^ Outlook. 
" The story is valuable."— Ltterature. 

The Maternity of Harriott Wicken 

By Mrs. Henry Dudeney. $1.50. 

"An absorbing, tense, relentless novel, . . . 
tragic beyond the wont of tTagedy."-Philadelpkta 
Press. 

Men's Tragedies 

By R. V. RiSi^EY. $1.50. 

Realistic stories of crises in men's lives, but the 
realisms of strong men of high ideals. 

Rose of Dutcher*s Coolly 

By HamIvIN Garland. Revised Edi- 
tion. $1.50. 

" It is beyond all manner of doubt one of the 
most powerful novels of recent years."— The New 
Age. 



TRAVEL, DESCRIPTION, ETC. 

Letters from Japan 

By Mrs. Hugh Fraser, author of 
"Palladia," etc. 2 vols., 8vo, 
$7 50. A record of modern life 
in the Island Empire. Superbly 
illustrated from original Japan- 
ese drawings and photographs 
" Really charming pen-pictures . . . diversified 
by delightful character sketches." — Boston Even- 
ing Transcript 

The Philippines and Round About 

By Maj. G. J- YodnghuSband. 

Cloth, $2.50 An up-to-date ac- 
count of conditions and events 
of the past year, by the author . 
of books oi travel in Burmah, 
Japan, Ceylon, etc. An admirable 
complement to Professor Wor- 
cester's book. 
" Interesting and valuable." — Independent. 

The Philippine Islands and Their 
People 

A record of personal observation and experience 
with summary of the history of the Archipelago. 

By Dean C. Worcester, Member 
of the Philippine Commission. 

5th Edition. $4.00.. 

"Should be read by every American."— £?/««- 
ing Bulletin, Philadelphia. 

The flaking of Hawaii 

By Prof. Wii^WAM Fremont Black- 
man, Yale University. Cloth, 
$2.00. 
A sober and comprehensive discussion of the 
forces developing the islands. 

The Trail of the Gold Seeker 

By Hamlin Garland, author of 
"Main Travelled Roads," etc. 

Nearly Ready. $1.50. 
Sketches in prose and verse, the literary results 
of the author's recent tramp overland to the gold 
fields. 

The Statesman's Year Book 

American Edition, 1899. Statistical 
and Historical Annual of the 
States of the World for the Year 
1898. Carroll D. Wright, 
Editor. 36th Annual Publica- 
tion. $3.00 net. 
" stands easily fir.st among the statistical an- 
nuals published in the English language."— 
Review of Reviews. 



The riacmillan Company, Publishers 

New York 



When answering advertisements, please mention that you ' saw it in the Lamd of SVMSBiifBi" 



When answering advertisements, please mention that you " saw it in the L,avj> op Sunshuvb.' 



OUR PREMIUM OFFER 



The Land of Sunshine 

AND 

Missi on Mem ories 

Through a special arrangement with the publishers, we are enabled to offer 
the Land of Sunshine for one year, postage paid to any address, and a copy 
of "Mission Memories," containing 75 handsomely engraved full-page 
illustrations {6x4l4) of the 24 California Missions, printed on heavy enam- 
eled paper — with either yucca or embossed cover, tied with silk cord. 

The ** Land of Sunshine " will not only be kept up to its usual high stand- 
ard, but has added many new features. 

The magazine numbers among its staff the leaders in literature of the West, 
in itself a guarantee of future increased merit. 

"Land of Sunshine" one year, and one yucca cover "Mission Memories" $1.75 

" paper " " " 1.50 

The Land of Sunshine Pubwshing Co., 

501-503 Stimson Building, Los Angeles, California. 



A Unique Library. 

The bound volumes of the Land of Sunshine make the most interesting and 
valuable library of the far West ever printed. The illustrations are lavish and hand- 
some, the text is of a high literary standard, and of recognized authority in its field. 
There is nothing else like this magazine. Among the thousands of publications in 
the United States, it is wholly unique. Every educated Californian and Westerner 
should have these charming volumes. They will not long be secured at the present 
rates, for back numbers are growing more and more scarce ; in fact the June num- 
ber, 1894, is already out of the market. 

Vols. 1 and 2— July '94 to May '95, inc., gen. half morocco, $3.90, plain leather, $3.30 
" 3 and 4— June '95 to May '96, " " «♦ 
" 5 and 6— June '96 to May '97, " " " 
" 7 and 8— June '97 to May '98, " " " 
" 9 and 10— June '98, to May '99 " " '* 

The Land of Sunshine Publishing Co., 

501 Stimson Building, Los Angeles, Cal. 



F. B. Silverwood's best Hats are $3 ; regular $5 qualities. 



2.85, 


*' 


<« 


2.25 


3.60, 


fi 


<( 


3.00 


2.85, 


<( 


i' 


2.25 


2.70, 


<< 


t( 


2.10 



When answering advertisements, please mention that you "saw it in the IyA.KD 0» StTMftHiKB." 



SEE NEXT PAGE 



Life 
Income Investments 



BEARING 

CALIFORNIA ALMOND 

ORCHARDS 

In the South Antelope Valley, the Greatest Almond 
District in the World, on the 

Insurance 'Annuity Plan 

Safest and Most Remunerative Proposition Ever Devised. Cash or Time 

Payments. No Interest. Perpetual Income Assured to Investor 

if He Lives, to His Family if He Dies. 

DEATH OF INVESTOR 

Cancels all unmatured payments, beneficiary secures bearing five-year-old almond orchard and 
income from same fiee and clear, also $250.00 to $1,200.00 a year in cash, and $1,000.00 to $5,000.00 
residence erected on the property, or one-half the cost of residence in cash. Death of investor with- 
out other estate or insurance leaves beneficiary amply provided for for life. Property deeded in trust 
at the outset to the 

STATE BANK AND TRUST COMPANY 

Of lios Angeles, Paid-up Capital »500,000.00 

Cash Benefits Guaranteed by the TRAVELERS INSURANCE CO. 

Of Hartford, Conn., and other old line companies. 

TWO PLANS. 

Sale of Individual Orchards. Sale of Undivided Interest in the American 
Almond Grower's Association, 

Requiring no personal attention now or in the future. Will pay 60 per cent net profit 
per annum, based upon the last 

United States Census Report as reproduced herewith 



Nuts and 
Citrus Fruit 


Acre- 
age 


Yield 
per 
Acre 


Total 
Yield 


SelUng 
Price 


Value 


Yield 
per 
Acre 


Land 
Value 
(b)(c) 


Almond 

Fig (a) 


6,098.00 
1.274.00 
3,834.00 
3,237.00 
13 096 50 


pounds 
2,601 

8,784 

3,600 

2,984 
boxes 

96 


pounds 
15,251,078 

11,190,816 

13,802,400 

9,659,208 
boxes 
1,246,047 


per lb. 
0.1000 

0.0233 

0.0900 

0.0400 
per box 

1 8200 


1,625,109.80 
298,421.76 

1,242,216.00 
386,368.32 

2,271,616.30 


250.00 
204.66 
324.00 
119.36 
172 90 


95.00 
110.50 


Madeira Nut.... 

OUve 

Orange 


111.43 
56.83 
186 00 















112 page illustrated book, rate tables on 2^ to 80 acres from age 26 to 65, association plan where 
$1.26 a month will receive same proportionate profit as larger investments, free on application. 

Alpine Springs Land and Water Company 

1115 Stock Exchange Building, 2$S0 Henne Building, 

IDS LaSalle Street, ^ Chicago. 3d St. near Spring, .Iios Angeles. 

Lands, Orchards and Town Sites at 
Tierra Bonita, Palmdale and Little Rock, Los Angeles Co., California. 

Nummel Bros. & Co., Employment Aoents, 300 W. Second St Tel. Main 509 



When answering advertisements, please mcuaon that you " saw t in the Land op Sunshinb,' 



SEE OPPOSITE PAGE 

Life Income Investments. 



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s£^'gg2g6£:5S'«;;&?SgSiS25gSsSgs;sS3ggSggg£SgJS ^jf^oj 



Age of Pur- 



OS 2 8" D » 

«» a®;* CO JO 

©g j'i'o 3, m 



-§ Si's 






F. B. 3ilverwood sells Hats at $1, $1.50, $2, $2.50 and $3, fully guaranteed. 



MOUNT LOWE RAILWAY 

Grandest of all Mountain Railway Rides — Magnificent Panorama 
« of Earth, Ocean and Islands. 

RUBIO CANYON, 3300 feet above sea level. 

ECHO MOUNTAIN, 3500 feet above sea level. 

YE AliPINB TAVERN, 5000 feet above sea level. 

SUMMIT OF MOUNT I^OWE 6100 feet above sea level. 




Echo 

Mountain 

House 



Situated on the crest of Echo 
Mountain, commanding a 
magnificent view of Moun- 
tains, Canyons, Valleys, Ocean 
and Islands. Undoubtedly the 
finest and best equipped 
Mountain Hotel in the world. 
Elegantly furnished apart- 
ments, rooms single or en 
suite, with or without baths, 
lighted by gas and electricity. 



WORIiD'S FAIR SEARCH I^IGHT. 
OBSERVATORY WITH LARGE TEIiESCOPE located at Ecbo Mountain. Open 

Evenings to Guests, Free. 

Ye 

Alpine 
Tavern 

Among the giant pines 
in the heart of the Sierra 
Madre Mountains. The 
Tavern is absolutely the 
most unique, perfect and 
complete mountain re- 
sort in Southern Califor- 
nia. In addition to the 
apartments in the Tav- 
ern, there are a large 
number of auxiliary 
tent-houses located in 
the shade in the im- 
mediate vicinity of the 
Tavern. The accom- 
modations are complete 
and first-class in every 
respect. Cuisine imex- 
celled. 

Hotel Rates 913.50 and upwards per week. Special rates by the month or season. 
Special ticket rates for g^icsts remaining one week or longer. 

U. S. Postoffice (mails daily), Western Union Telegraph and Telephone service at hotels. 

For tickets and tuU information, call on or address 
CliARENCE A. WARNER, Traffic and Excursion Agent, 

314 South Spring St., Los Angeles, Cal. Telephone Main 960. 
J. S. TORRANCE, Gen'l Manager, Echo Mountain, Cal. 




Httmmei Bros, k Co., ''Help Center." 300 W. Second 



Tel. Main 509 



When answering advertisements, please mention that you " saw it in the Laitd of Sumshiwb.* 



Grand Canon of Arizona 

Two Hundred Miles Long, Over a Mile Deep, and 
Painted Like a Flower. 

Reached Only by 

the Santa Fe Route 

stage Leaves Flagstaff Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays. 
Returning, Arrives at Flagstaff Tuesdays, Thursdays and Saturdays, 




ALTA VISTA. 



Copyright, 1898, by Oliver Lippincott. 



SIX-HORSE STAGES MAKE THE TRIP IN TEN HOURS 

Excursion Rates 

from all points on the Santa Fe Route 

To Holders of N. E. A. Tickets 

•30,00 for the round trip from Los Angeles, or $10.00 from Flagstaff 
to the Canon and return. 

JNO. J. BYRNE, General Passenger Agent, Los Angeles 



F. B. Silverwood's is the Largest Hat and Furnishing Store in Los Angeles. 



When answering advertisements, please mention that you " saw it in the Land of Sumshiitb.' 



AN Education 

is secured by traveling 

East or West 

Via nrf O J_ ( SUNSET ROUTE 

-oft^e ihree Routes { g^Sf^A I8fl?i 

of the 

Southern Pacific Company 

Through mountain gorge or across level plain within sight 
of many historic and wonderful beauties^ 

PERSONALLY CONDUCTED TOURIST EXCURSIONS* 

G.'^.W. LUCE, Ass't Gen. Frt. and Pass. Agt* 

LOS ANGELES TICKET OFFICE, 261 S. SPRING ST. 

I to visit the J 

\ Largest Southern California Wine Plant \ 
\ N. E. A. 

i While in Los Angeles you should secure an education concerning ? 

5 California Wines. We are the largest producers in this section, and I 

5 we invite you to visit our vaults and plant. Free Samples will be ? 

S drawn for you from casks of 35,000 gals, capacity down, so that you may l 

I intelligently choose varieties in original packages from car loads down to J 

5 cases and quarts to send to your home or friends as souvenirs from the » 

\ greatest wine producing State. As we make all our own wines, our guar- j 

I antee of Absolute Purity amounts to something. The gold, silver and j 

5 bronze medals awarded our wines at the Omaha Exposition also stand for i 

- a good deal. How to find the place : Take traction street cars to the * 

I office and vaults at 3rd and Alameda, from which the Winery is but a few i 

5 minutes' walk. C 

\ SECONDO QUASTI \ 

} Telephone flain 810 Los Angeles, Cal. 5 

iT'^rfm^R*^ inu^*^i^ir« ifR*^rf^«^ rf^rf^jT*^" tf^Mm^RB-'* ttKd^^A^n. M<t'J^9Jf^lnl. ^■^^n*^*'* »«T<jOUi«jr« ^n^K^Kif* ■^«^u^*'« ^'^'^k^'. ^n^i^^n^n. 

tlammel Bros. 4 Co. furnish iiest help. 300 W. Second St Tel. Main 509 



When answering: Advertisements, please mention that you " saw it in the Lahd or Sunshikb." 



The company's elegant steamers SANTA ROSA 
and CORONA leave REDONDO at 11 a. m., and 
PORT LOS ANGEI«ES at 2:30 p. m., for San 
Francisco via Santa Barbara and Port Harford, 
July 1, 5, 9, 13, 17, 21, 25, 29, Aug. 2, and every 
fourth day thereafter, 

Leave PORT LOS ANGELES at 5:45 a. m., and 
REDONDO at 10:45 a. m.. for San Diego, July 
3, 7, 11, 15, 19, 23, 27, 31, Aug. 4, and every fourth 
day thereafter. 

Cars connect via Redondo leave Santa P6 dex>ot 
at 9:56 a. m., or from Redondo railway depot at 
9:30 a. m. Cars connect via Port Los Angeles 
leave S. P. R. R- depot at 1:35 p. m., for steamers 
north bound. 

The steamers COOS BAY and BONITA leave 
SAN PEDRO for San Francisco via East San 
Pedro, Ventura, Carpenteria,SantaBarbara,Galeta, 
Gaviota, Port Harford, Cayucos, San Simeon, 
Monterey, and Santa Cruz, at 6 p. m., July 2, 
6, 10, 14, 18, 22, 26, 30, Aug. 3, and every fourth 
day thereafter. 

Cars connect with steamers via San Pedro leave 
S. P. R.R. (Arcade depot) at 5.-03 p. m., and 
Terminal railway depot at 5:15 p.m. For further 
information obtain folder. The company reserves 
the right to change without previous notice, 
steamers, sailing dates and hours of sailing. 
W. PARRIS, Agent, 

124 W. Second Street, Los Angeles. 
GOODALL, PERKINS & CO., 

General Agents, San Francisco. 







CEANIC S. S. CO — nONOLlJLlJ 
APIA, ALCKLAND and SYDNEY 




HONOLULU 



SAMOA,TAHm. /ucEAHic Steamships 



NEW ZEALAND, 
AUSTRALIA. 



Only Stumer Line to Hie Wondotaib * te Pacific 

/,„. Tw South Sea Islands 



" Send 10 cents postage foi 
" Trip to Hawaii," with fine 
photographic illustrations. 
20 cents for new edition of 

same, with beautiful colored plate illustrations ; 

20 cents postage for " Talofa, Summer Sail to 

South Seas," also in colors, to Ochanic S. S> Co., 

114 Montgomery St., San Francisco. 

Steamers sail to Honolulu twice a 
month, to Samoa, New 2^aland and 
Sydney, via Honolulu, every 28 days. 

J. D. SPRECKELS BROS. CO., 
114 Montgomery Street, San Francisco. 

HUGH B. RICE, Agent, 

^30 S. Spring St., Los Angeles, Cal. 




Great 

Rocklsland 
Route 



Leave Los Angeles every Tuesday via the Denver 
8t Rio Grande" Scenic Line," and by the popular 
Southern Route every Wednesday. Low rates ; 
quick time ; competent managers ; Pullman up- 
holstered cars ; union depot, Chicago. Our cars 
are attached to the " Boston and New York 
Special," via Lake Shore, New York Central and 
Boston & Albany Railways, arriving Boston 8:00 
p. m., New York 1 p. m. 
For maps, rates, etc.. call on or address. 

F. W. THOMPSON, Gen. Ag't. 
214 S. Spring St. Los Angeles. 

Personally Conducted 

REDONDO BY THE SEA 

17 Miles from Lios Angeles 

In effect June 4, 1899 
Le'ave Los Angeles Leave Redondo 

9:30 a.m daily 8:00 a.m. 

1:30 p.m daily 11:00 a.m. 

5:30 p.m daily 4:15 p.m. 

11:80 p.m Saturday only 6:30 p.m. 

8:10 a.m „ Sundays 7:00 a m. 

9:30 a.m Sundays 8:00 a.m. 

10:45 a.m Sundays 9:30 a.m. 

1:30 a.m Sundays 11:00 a m, 

5:30 a.m Sundays 4:15 a.m. 

7:00 p.m ..Sundays 5:45 p.m. 

L. J. PKRRT. Superintendent, Grand Are. and Jeffenon St 
City office, 125 W. Second St., Wilcox Blk. Telephrae West 1. 



ACME 



BICYCLED 




Direct from the factory to the rider 
at WHOLESALE PRICES. 

WE HAVE NO AGENTS. 



If you want to save agent's profits 
and secure a High Grade Bicycle at 

MANUFACTURER'S PRICE, 

write for catalogue showing eight 
beautiful models with complete spec- 
ifications. GUARANTEE: REPAIRS 
FREE AND NO QUESTIONS ASKED. 



Acme Cycle Co., Elkhart, Ind. 



Underwear a Specialty at Silverwoods. 



When answering advertisements, please mention that you " saw it in the Land of Sunshinb." 



•^TT^TT^y-z^s-z^jTz^v -z^TT^TT^s-z^ :z^s-z^r:z^5-z^ z^s-z^r^^sr^^ 

^5anta Monica 

^ Where coolest breezes blow 

Cj on warmest days 

ti. combines the attractions of the seashore with 

proximity and frequent electric and steam 
railway facilities to the metropolis of South- 
ern California. 

Its Modern Tourist Hotel 
the Arcadia offers 

marine and mountain views and adjacent 

drives, hunting, boating, fishing wharf, warm 

salt water plunge, broad walk along the surf, and the longest wharf in "^ 

the world, and other attractions unsurpassed. 

For convenient and enjoyable headquarters from which to visit all 
points of interest, go to 

The Arcadia Hotel 




Surf Bathing the year round 



f Santa Monica, Cal. 



FRANK A. MILLER, Prop 





EVERYBODY GOES 



TROLLY PARTIES 
A SPtCIALTY 



i 



^»^T0 SANTA MONICA 
via Los Angeles Pacific Electric Ry. 



: 

: 
: 

It provides one of the most modem equipments and the • 
coolest and most scenic route in Southern California. t 

tor santa Monica: Cars leave Fourth and Broadway, Los Angeles, via Hill and 
16th streets, every half hour from *6:30 a. m. to 7:30 p. m., and hourly to 11:80 p. m. 

Via Bellevue Ave,, Colegrove and Sherman, every hour from *6:15 a. m. to 11:16 p. m. 
4:45 p. m., 5:45 p. m. and 11:45 p. m. to Sherman only. Cars leave Plaza lo minutes later. 

For lios Aug:ele8: Cars leave Hill Street, Santa Monica, at ♦5:50. ♦6:10, ^6:40 a. m., 
and every half hour from 7:10 a.m. to 7:40 p. m., and hourly thereafter to 10:40 p. m. 
Sundays, every half hour from57:10 a. m. to 7:40 p. m., and hourly to 10:40 p. m. I,eave 
band stand. Ocean Ave., 5 minutes later. 

Cars leave Hill Street, South Santa Monica, 40 minutes after each hour from 6:40 a. m. 
to 9:40 p. m. Connect at Morocco cars via Sherman and Colegrove. 



• ♦Except Sundays. Offices, Chamber of Commerce BIdg., 4th and Broadway, Los Angeles 



For = = = 



Horton House 



A home-like place 

A cool retreat 

A pleasant room 

Qood thins^s to eat 

Our Hotel Rates cannot be beat 




San Diego 
Cal. — 



W. E. HADLEY 

Proprietor 



F. B. Silverwood carries the largest stock of Neckwear in Los Angeles. 



When answering advertisements, please mention that you " saw it in the Land of Sunshinb. 




Arlington Hotel and Annex 

SANTA BARBARA, CALIFORNIA 



Perpetual May Climate 
Ocean Bathing Every Day 



E. P. DUNN 



A Camp Convenient to Los Angeles People.... 

Back of Sierra Madre. East of Mt. Wilson 




— iiGflMP STURTEVflNT 

The most beautiful canon in the Sierra Madre ; shaded by immense evergreens, 
watered by a mountain stream of cold water. A village of tents, scattered among 
the trees, not crowded together, each an ideal summer home. A Dining Room 
under the big oaks, where good fare meets a mountain appetite. A well stocked 
Grocery. Trails upon the mountains and games at the Camp. 

THE TRIP TO THE CAMP is one of the delightful features, made with burros, over a good 

trail, presenting the traveler with scenery and impressions which can be experienced in no other way. 

A ROUND TRIP ON TWO TRAII^S maybe made via Mt. Wilson and the old Wilson trail, 

leading by Echo Rock. Echo Rock is the only accessible point in the county from which both the 

northern ranges and the San Gabriel valley can be obtained. 

RATES : Hotel accommodations $7.00 and $8 00 per week, $1.25 per day. Tent and outfit for two 
persons for camping, $10 00 per month. For circular and further information, address 

W. M. STURTEVANT, Proprietor, 
Or BRADBURY CILLY, Manager, Sierra Madre, Cal. 

Gamp Sturtevant, Sierra Madre, Cal. 

Underwear is a Specialty at Silverwood'g. 



Wlien answering advertisements, please mention that you " saw it in the I«and of'Sunshuvb; 

LA JOLLA BY THE SEA 




HOULD you visit San Diego, you 

will have missed one-half your 

life if you fail to take a trip t* 

La JoUa, the seventh wonder, with its 

seven mammoth caves. "La JoUa, the 

_^^ j«,^^^^^^^^^^^^^^«»« Gem,'* is fittingly named. Nowhere oh 

B^H^^«9^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^HR the Pacific Coast can be found the varied 
WmmmK^^^^^/^^K^^^^^^BM natural scenery which is had here. The 
BHIK^^^^^HHHj^^^^^^^HHI seven famous caves, hollowed out by the 
^^H^^^^HHj^^^^^^^^^^^H action of the mighty waves, in the huge 
^HQj^^^^^^HQSjS^^^^HH cliffs, over one hundred feet high and 
Hd^^^^^^^^^^HH^^HHBH jutting the be explored 

at low tide. There are also other weird 
and fantastic freaks of nature formed along the rocky shore, which must be seen to 
be appreciated, such as Cathedral Rock, Alligator Head, Goldfish Point, etc. Fish- 
ing and bathing here are unsurpassed. Shells and sea-mosses, tinted with rainbow 
colors, are found here in great abundance. Every hour spent, when not fishing, 
boating or bathing, or viewing nature's marvelous work, can be enjoyed in various 
ways. La Jolla is situated 14 miles from San Diego, on the ocean, and is reached 
only by the San Diego, Pacific Beach and La Jolla Ry. 
Three mail trains each way daily. 

For further information apply to GRAHAM E. BABCOCK, 
San Diego, Cal. President and General Manager. 



HAWLEY, KING & CO. £, Carriages and Bicycles 

Agents 

- ■ -,-: ■ COLUMBUS 

BUQQY 
CO. 

H. A. MOVER 
Q.W. OSGOOD 
and 

CORTLAND 

WAGON 

CO. 



(s) @ • 

Agents 
VICTOR 

FEATHER- 
STONE 

and 

WORLD 
BICVCLE 




SPIDER PHAETON 

We quote you $-^00.00 on this fine Phaeton. 



Carriage Repository, cor. Broadway and Fifth St. 

Wholesale anil Tarm Implement Store, 164-168 N. Los Angeles Street 



F . B. Silverwood makes a specialty of Shirts of all kinds. 



^WE INDIAN FAKE ^— -e-— ^ » *.t 

A COWBOY'S PENCIL /"^oSj^^^^C^^^t^ . . ^ 

ARIZONA'S BIGGEST IVfltiMlvbRSiTT ) mustratea 




THE MAGAZINE OF 

CALirORNIA*H-TlWE5T 



WITH A SYNDICATE 
OF WESTERN WRITERS 



L 



EDITED BY 

CHAS.f.LUMMIS 

A?SOflArt e01T«l! 

ARArtELLERYCHANNlKfr- 



C0PY«iCHTE0 1895 BY LAND OF SUMS WINE PUB. CO 



X<^ 



n 



CENTS 
A COPY 



LANS OF SUNSHINE PUBLISHING CO. 

INCORPORATED 

501-503 STIMSON BUILDING 



fil»1 



When answering advertisements, please mention that you " saw it in the Land of Sunshine.' 




Our Gold Medal Wines commend themselves to those who 
require and appreciate Pure, Old Vintages. We are producers 
in every sense of the word, owning large Vineyards, Wineries 
and Distilleries, located in the San Gabriel Valley. For 
strength-giving qualities our wines have no equal. We SELL 
NO Wines under Five Years Old. 

SPECIAIi OFFER • We will deliver to any R.R. station in the 
United States, freight free : 

2 cases Fine Assorted California Wines, XXX, for $9 00 

Including one bottle 1888 Brandy. 
2 cases Assorted California Wines, XXXX, for $11.00 

Including 2 bottles 1888 Brandy and 1 bottle Champagne. 

SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA WINE COMPANY 



J. 



Tel. M. 332 



220 W. FOURTH ST. Los Angeles, Cal. 




Metal Beds--^ I 

As shown by us combine all the points of R 
utility and beauty with comparative cheap- w 
ness. So with every article in the store |^ 
Intrinsic worth considered there is no furni- 
ture in the city so cheap as ours. No " trade 
tricks " are allowed to cover inferior material 
or workmanship. There is safety and satis- 
faction in supplying your furniture needs 
here. Our new booklet " American Home 
Furnishings" free. 

Niles Pease Furniture Co. 

439-41-43 South Spring St. LOS ANGELES 



Matilija Hot Springs 

=POIiLEY & BURDICK, Proprietors 

These justly celebrated Sulpliur-Mineral Springs are the nearest 
and easiest reached Springs in the Ojai Valley, 15 miles from Ventura 
and 4^ miles from Nordhoflf, the terminus of the Ojai Valley Railroad. 
1100 feet above sea level. For a through trip to the Springs from Los 
Angeles take the 4:30 p.m. Southern Pacific Santa Barbara train, arriving 
at Nordhoflf 8:15 p. m. where the Matilija Stage meets the train. 

Hunters for Deer^ ^ 

And other g^ame, in the •' Upper Ojai." should make their head- 
quarters at these springs. Post OflBce, Public Telephone, Supply Store. 
Dining Room Plunge Bath, etc., etc. 
Kates Reasonable. Address, 

POLLEY & BURDICK, 

See July Land of Sunshine. Matilija, Ventura Co., Cal. 

Reliable help promptly furnished. Hummel Bros. & Co. Tel. Main 509 




When answering advertisements, please mention that you " saw it in the Land of Sunshine." 

In the Heart of Los Angeles********^ 

49 ** 



^ The Hollenbeck, on Second 
49 and Spring Sts., is the most 
49 centrally located of all the 
4^ Los Angeles Hotels. 

Electric cars pass its doors 
to all points of interest. 

It is headquarters for Tal- 



♦J 
♦J 



^ ly-ho and Railway Excur- 

^ sions, commercial men and 

49 tourists. 

49 It is run on both Amer- 

4i ican and European plans. 

♦J 

49 

courteous. 




Has first-class Cafe and 
rooms with bath and other 
conveniences. Rates are 
reasonable, its conveniences ample and its service XDrompt and 



HOLLENBECK HOTEL 



49 

49 

49 

49 

49 

49 Second and Spring Sts. 

49 



A. C. BILICKE & CO., 



Props. 

Los Angeles, Cal. 



5» 



Fancy Fruits and Vegetables 

Largest and Best Selected Line in 
Los Angeles 



Berries 

CALIFORNIA OLIVESj ETC. 

Wholbsale and Retail 



Tfe Ship to All Points. 



LUDWIQ & MATHEWS 

Mott Market. Tel. Main 550 



BOSTON 



DRY 
GOODS 



STORE 



THE Ji W. ROBINSON COMPANY 

S39 and 341 South Broadway, L,o8 Angeles. Opposit<iCity Hall, 

THE exclusiveness of the Boston Store stock is manifested 
in all of the 32 departments, is an intergal part of the 
largest, best appointed, most exclusive dry goods store 
in the Southwest. 



! I 



EXCLUSIVE STYLES 



\lf' 



E show exclusive styles in silks, dress goods, tailor 
suits, waists, skirts, jackets and capes. All the latest 
trimmings and novelties. 



MAIL ORDER 
DEPARTMENT 



Agents for Butterick Patterns 

Now Ready— early autumn Septem- 
ber Delineator, also September 
fashion sheets and patterns. 



SEND FOR 
SAMPLES 



All kinds of OutiDg Shirts at Silverwood's. 



When answering advertisements, please mention that you " saw it in the Land of Sunshine.' 




An 

Elegantly 

Furnished 

Conveniently 
Located 

FAMILY 
HOTEL 



^ 



The Hotel Palms ''' ''' '"'^•" 



LOS ANGELES 



H. C. FRYMAN, Proprietor 
For four years manager Mount Lowe Hotel. 

A home-like place filled with palms and works of art, one block from Sixth 
Street Park, on car lines, five minutes' walk from center of business portion ; 140- 
foot frontage, 75 elegantly furnished rooms, 25 suites with private baths ; steam 
radiator in every room, spacious parlors and large ball room 

American and European Plan. Rates Reasonable. 







TffAOe. MA OK 

JSATO /VOV' /6" /SSr 

/SATO o£c er^f 

fAT'D IN£rt6lAMl> UA. 



Airv MeeaMAMrAiTPe/itin9 /mcamaoa 



^ ^^MftWrF An.lll<,TFn - AI\A/AY< 






ONCE ADJUSTED -ALWAYS ADJUSTED" 

We Remodel your old SPEC- 
TACLES into the BEST im- 
proved spectacles on the market 
for ONLY 50 CENTS. 

CANNOT HURT the ears or nose Call and 
examine them or write for descriptive circular. 
Aurocone Retainers mailed to any address upon 
receipt of price 

PACIFIC OPTICAL CO» 

SOI.E AGENTS 

245 S. Spring Street, Los Angeles, Cal. 

90% OF AMERICAN WOMEN 

wash dishes three times each day. If yoii 
are one of these, wear a pair of " Good- 
year" Rubber Gloves and alwavs have 
soft, white hands. Sent by mail, post- 
paid, on receipt of $1.50. Agents wanted. 
Address M. O. Dept., 
M. F. Reese Supply Co., Setauket, N. Y. 

A fine lot on Central Ave. 
and Fourth St., Los Angeles. 
Inquire 2200 Grand Ave. 



For Lease 




Buy Direct from the Producers 

California Ostrich Feathers 

FOR 55C. 

We will send prepaid a handsome detni-plume ; 
for $1.45, a bunch of 3 tips ; for $2.8% an 18 inch 
plume. Not woolly feathers but fine black lustre. 
Being fresh from the birds will stay in curl and 
wear for years. Our handsome illustrated cata- 
logue mailed Free with each order, or for a 2c 
stamp. 

OSTRICH FARM 

SOUTH PASADENA. CAL. 

Independent of the Feather Trust. 



F. B. Silverwood's is the Larg:est Hat and Furnishing Store in Los Angeles. 



The Land of Sunshine 

(incorporated) capital stock $50,000. 

The Magazine of California and tlie West 

EDITED BY CHAS. F. LUMMIS 

The Only Exclusively Western Magazine 

AMONG THE STOCKHOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS ARE: 



DAVID STARR JORDAN 

President of Stanford University, 

THEODORE H. HITTEIvL 

The Historian of California. 

MARY HALIvOCK FOOTE 

Author of The Led-Horse Claim., etc. 

MARGARET COLLIER GRAHAM 
Author of Stories of the Foothills. 

GRACE ELLERY CHANNING 

Author of The Sister of a Saint, etc. 

ELLA HIGGINSON 

Author of A Forest Orchid, etc. 

JOHN VANCE CHENEY 

Author of Thistle Drift, etc. 

CHARLES WARREN STODDARD 
The Poet of the South Seas. 

INA COOLBRITH 

Author of Songs from the Golden Gate, etc. 

EDWIN MARKHAM 

Author of The Man with the Hoe. 

ETC., 



JOAQUIN MILLER 

CHAS. FREDERICK HOLDER 

Author of The Life of Agassiz, etc. 

GEO. HAMLIN FITCH 

Literary Editor S. F. Chronicle. 

CHARLOTTE PERKINS STETSON 

Author of In This Our IVorld. 

WILLIAM KEITH 

The greatest Western painter. 

DR. WASHINGTON MATTHEWS 
Ex-Prest. American Polk-I,ore Society. 

GEO. PARKER WINSHIP 

The Historian of Coronado's Marches. 

FREDERICK WEBB HODGE 

of the Bureau of Ethnologfy, Washington . 

CHAS. HOWARD SHINN 

Author of The Story of the Mine, etc. 

T. S. VAN DYKE 

Author of Rod and Gun in California, etc. 

CONSTANCE GODDARD DU BOIS 

Author The Shield of the Fleur de Lis . 
ETC. 



CONTENTS FOR AUGUST, 1899 * 

My Brother's Keeper, illustrated, by Chas. F. Lummis 139 

Arizona's Biggest Gold Mine, illustrated, by Sharlot M. Hall 148 

A Cowboy's Pencil, illustrated with drawings by Ed. Bosein 158 

Early California, Report of the Viceroy in 1793 (continued) 166 

In the Lion's Den (editorial) 173 

That Which is Written (book reviews by the Editor) 177 

The Angle of Reflection (department) by Margaret Collier Graham 181 

The Landmarks Club 183 

Philippine War Pictures 

California Babies 



Entered at the T.os Angeles Postoffice as second-class matter. 



Land of Siin^hiine Ptibliehing Co. 

F. A. PATTEE, Bus. Mgr., 501 Stimson BIdg., Los Angeles, Cal. 

Directors : — W. C. Patterson, Pres.; Chas. F. Lummis, Vice-Pres. ; F. A. Pattee, Sec.; H.J. 
Fleishman, Treas.; E- Pryce Mitchell, Auditor; Chas. Cassat Davis, Atty., Cyrus M. Davis. 

Other Stockholders :— Chas. Forman, D. Freeman, F. W. Braun, Jno. F. Francis, E. W. Jones, 
Geo. H. Bonebrake, F. K. Rule, Andrew Mullen, I. B. Newton, S. H. Mott, Alfred P. Griffith, 
H. E. Bostwick, H. B. Brook, Kingsley-Barnes & NeunerCo., I.. Replogle, Jno.C. Perry, F. A.Schnell, 
G. H. Paine, I«ouisa C. Bacon. 

WARNING. 

The lyAND OF Sdnshink Publishing Co has nothing to do with a concern which 
has imitated its name as nearly as it dared. This magazine is not peddling town- 
lots in the desert. It is a magazine, not a lottery. Chas. F. Ldmmis. 



Rise's CURE FOR 



The Best Cough Syrup. 
Tastes Good. Use in time. 
Sold by Druererists. 



CONSUMPTION 



"We offer you a ready-made 
medicine for Cougtis, Broncliitis, 
and ottier diseases of tlie Tliroat 
and Lungs. Like oth.er so-called 
Patent Medicines, it is well ad- 
vertised, and, tLaving merit, it 
has attained a wide sale under 
tlie name of Piso's Cure for Con- 
sumption. 

Piso's Cure for Consumption is now a '• Nos- 
trum," though at first it was compounded after a 
prescription by a regular physician, with no idea 
that it would ever go on the market as a proprie- 
tary medicine. But after compounding that pre- 
scription over a thousand times in one year, we 
named it " Piso's Cure for Consumption,'' and be- 
gan advertising it in a small way. A medicine 
known all ovei the world is the result. 

Prepared by 

THEPlSOCOMPANY,Warren,Pa. 



r>of Syrip Of Prunes 



NATURE'S 

GENTLE 

LAXATIVE 

The only genuine fruit lax- 
ative on the market. 
If your druggist does not 
sell it send us his name and 
address. 

25c. and 50c. a Bottle. 



California Prune Syrup Co. 

LOS ANGELES, CAL. 




THE PLACE TO LIVE....! 



Where is it? At the head of the San 
Gabriel Valley, eight miles east of Los 
Angeles and three miles south of Pasa- 

idena. Call at the office of 
. GAIL BORDEN 

i I Room 433 Stimson Bldg., Los Angeles, | 
I Cal., and he will tell you all about the j 
i I Garden Spot of the County. 



!^ ^ ^^N ^^ »=^^»^^?=S'e-S! a in>'0-iB».^ 



ie^»'i«-.ia,Ji..ie,ja,je,je,je.je.je,,je,je^ii^ 




Penny Wise 



Crown and Bridge work is a branch of the dental art 
that cannot be done chesply and done well. There's a trick 
of fit, a knack in application that only skill and long expe- 
rience acquire, meaning an investment of time and money. 
I have spent bo.a liberallv. The material, too, is expensive, 
I use the most expensive, the best. My charges flre no 
higher than they should be— as little as they can be. To pay 
less is " penny wise." And the loolishness cannot be esti- 
mated at a single pound, either. 



SPINKS' BLOCK 

COR. FIFTH AND HILL STS. ^^jr,/W§0 |L>^ KZ^^fi^ PB^^n^M^ >k 

Tel. Brown 1375. LQS ANGELES *^^^^^ ^f''I^^2:^liltlC^^^ \ 




Write F. B. Silverwood about Underwear for Men. 




C. M. Davis Eng. Co. 



A PUEBI^O GIRI, AT HOME. 



Photo, by C. F. Lummis. 



THK LANDS OF THE SUN EXPAND THK SOUL. 



THE LAND OF 

SUNSHINE 



Vol. 11, No. 3 



LOS ANGELES 



AUGUST, 1899. 



f My Brother s Keeper. 



BY CHAS. F. LUMMIS^ 




HE meeting in Los Angeles, in July, of a 
national convention of our Indian educat- 
ors and managers gave the Frontier a chance 
to *'size up" just what is doing now in 
a policy which concerns all of us more, per- 
haps, than we ordinarily realize. The In- 
dian, poor devil, will presently die off. His 
obliteration, somewhat gruffly begun by the 
border ruffian, is now much more spiritedly (though less courag- 
eously and less frankly) carried on by those who make their 
living by philanthropy. But we shall remain — and our child- 
ren's children will have to live by the record we make. 

It is entirely true that our long-infamous Indian Service is 
grown cleaner. There are fewer thievish agents, fewer vile 
school-principals, fewer tangible scoundrels and visible ignoram- 
uses. The moral sense of the United States has begun to take 
account of these things, and has greatly bettered them. But 
its task is only begun. As much injustice is done the Indian 
as ever ; but now under the name and fetish of civilization. The 
First Americans, upon whose stolen lands we live, have been 
taken out of the hands of the ward-heelers and given into 
those of theorists and ignorant system-makers. And not to 
their gain. 

The most protuberant feature of the recent convention was 
its absolute innocence of scientific knowledge. There was no- 
where in it (save by Supervisor Wright's short paper) any 
recognition of the fact that scholars have at last made it possible 
for even politicians and Indian Commissioners to understand the 
Indian — if they care to. Certainly wisdom is not useless even in 
statecraft. Yet 300 of the people whose livelihood it is to * 'teach" 
the Indian (and who are incidentally deciding our attitude to- 
ward this and other "weak races") sat here for a week in sol- 

Copyright 1899 by Land of Sunshine Pub, Co, 



I40 LAND OF SUNSHINE. 

emn conclave, as naked of all that scholars know and prize — 
scholars in London, Paris, Berlin, even Washington — as if 
Humboldt, or Lewis J. Morgan, or Bandelier, or Matthews 
and all that immortal school had never lived. Yet it takes no 
great mind to realize that no man can understand a people by 
sedulously avoiding all knowledge about them. The history, 
the social organization and therefore the needs of the Indian — 
all these are (so far as the convention showed) a sealed book 
to our Indian-educators. 

No less notable in the atmosphere of the convention was the 
superb vacancy of humor in some of its larger dignitaries. A 
very nice and very high official of good head and heart, who 
never read any book standard to his profession, in any lan- 
guage ; who knows no more of the literature or history of the 
subject than he does of the Maya pictoglyphs ; who never 
saw an Indian except — dozled — who never talked with an In- 
dian except as a patronizing "boss," who does not even know 
enough natural history to be aware that maternal love was in- 
vented by Nature to preserve the race, but actually thinks and 
declares a human being cannot love his mother well until he 
has been to school — this handsome and reverend gentleman 
solemnly rose and said he thought ''More study and experi- 
ence would change the opinions' ' of men who have already 
studied more of his own ignored specialty than he ever studied 
of everything together ; who are masters of thousands of 
books (without knowing the chief of which, at least, no man 
can pretend to know much about Indians), not one of which 
books this unconscious humorist ever read, nor could read if 
he tried. And not books alone (though the man is a fool who 
thinks to get along without them) ; but in actual human ex- 
perience with Indians, as students and as men, these whom 
the amiable Secretary of the Indian Commission thus patron- 
ized have had more, a thousand fold, than he ever had or has 
the physical or moral courage to get. For it costs something 
to acquire a real education ; whereas to draw a large salary 
for knowing very little is easy — to a certain conscience. 

The attitude of the convention was as far from humanity as 
from scholarship and humor. By convention be it understood 
that I mean no slur on the bulk of the delegates. They were 
largely women ; and with the one notable exception of an un- 
balanced though well-meaning person, who has been for years 
a firebrand to the Indians and the service alike in New Mex- 
ico, they are mostly honorable. Godfearing, hardworking 
women ; not scientists, certainly, but humane and womanly. 
There were some manly men, too. And these people do not 
think with the machine. Scores of them have told me their 
shame and grief at the way things are going ; but they say, 
when asked why they do not protest, ' ' For what ? We have 



MY BROTHER'S KEEPER. 



141 





TT •-- 




_^ 



C. H. Davis Eng. Co. 



OUR BARBARIANS. 



ipyright by C F. l.i 



found it does no good." Not only does it do no good, but they 
are punished in the indirect and cowardly ways a political 
system has at hand. 

The convention had 315 delegates ; but the convention was 
merely Major Pratt, of the Carlisle (Pa.) Indian school — a man 
of brains ; a man, I believe, of the strictest integrity, a man I 
admire for his tremendous force. It takes a Man to be in his 
proper person a National Convention. If Major Pratt were 
not one of the most undilute materialists ever born in civiliza- 
tion, if he were not a soldier to whom these quarter of a mil- 
lion human beings are merely an awkward squad and he the 



142 



LAND OF SUNSHINE. 



recruiting sergeant to lick them into shape, I know no man in 
the United States to whom I would more confidently entrust 
the adjustment of our relations with the " inferior race." For 
he is a monumental organizer, a just man, a manly man. 
Only, he has known (boiled) Indians for thirty years, and has 
not yet learned that the Indian has a soul ; that he loves his 
parents and his children, and even the birthplace that we have 
stolen from him. This, which is literally true, and which I 
am prepared to prove before any audience, is as structural a 
thing as need be said, and as harsh a thing as should be said 
of a most gallant man. He is as little to blame for being born 
rather short on sentiment, as the Indian is to be blamed for 




C. M. Davis Eng. Co. 



ONE OF OUR WARDS. 



Photo, by C. F. Lunnnis. 



being almost as slow of civilization as we ourselves were. 
Major Pratt believes he is trying to make the Indians citizens 
of the United States ; as a matter of fact he is trying to make 
them soldiers. 

For years our heartless " philanthropy" has been taking In- 
dian children from home, "educating" them impossibly — 
and then turning them adrift. This was cruel enough, but 
worse follows. The core of the " system" now (mostly Major 
Pratt's organizing) is to take the Indian from home as young 
as possible, " educate" him, and turn him loose in the popu- 
lation — as many thousand miles from home as possible, and 



MY BROTHER'S KEEPER. 



143 



never let him go home again. The confessed theory is that he 
has no right to have a father and mother, and they no right 
to him ; that their afifection is not worth as much to him as 
the chance to be a servant to some Pennsylvania farmer or 
blacksmith, and generally at half wages. 

Now only a professional fool — or an Indian educator — is 
unaware that even an Indian child has a home ; that God was 
able to invent mother-love without waiting for any help from 
the present United States Indian Commission, and did it, hasty 




C. M. Davis Eng. Co 



t'opyright by C. F. Luiuuiis. 



A FATHKR WHOSE SONS WERE STOLEN. 



as His action may seem ; that all humanity rests on the family 
and that nothing can compensate for the wreck of it. 

Only a man totally ignorant of all that has been done by 
scholars even in his own lifetime — or a man to whom the In- 
dian is a livelihood and the salary sufficient substitute for an 
education — can so blind himself as to blink the cruelty (and, 
unless all justice is a lie, the folly) of such a policy as is now 
proposed. It makes small difference to the Indian whether he 



MY BROTHER'S KEEPER. i45 

be killed oflf in the name of education or in the name of war — 
except that the latter is manlier and more merciful. The pres- 
ent project means nothing else — though really good people and 
people not altogether fools delude themselves to believe in it. 
The whole new plan is — as every man who is a scholar either 
in the books or the field knows — either heartless or childish. 
I do not believe it knowingly heartless. It means well. It is 
simply unread and unhorizoned as a ten-year-old. Ignorant 
of history and of anthropology, it insists that the Indian shall 
civilize as much in twenty years as our own Saxon or Teuton an- 
cestors did in five hundred. It means well — and tries to do what 
even the primary scholar in evolution or anthropology knows to 
be sheer impossible ; breaking thousands of homes and ruining 
thousands of lives in its freshman experiments. It expects to 



ill 

B 


t ^ 




[HL..^ 


^ 



CM. Davis Eng. to "q^ c()LRSK AN INDIAiS HAs .No HOME." 

subvert the law of gravitation — in a word it thinks it is smarter 
than God. It is ignorant not only of science, history and 
humanity ; it does not even know what the Indian is, what he 
was, how he has changed and can be changed more ; what he 
needs and how it can be given him. It is a mere philanthropic 
Procrustes ; if the guest is too long for the bed, cut his legs ofi" ; 
if too short, rack him out till he fills from head to foot-board. 
If he does not jump readily from the time of Abraham to the 
time of Edison, take an axe to his fool skull. Not a real axe, 
which might get bloody and turn our refined stomachs. Just 
rob him of his children. 

Now no man — and no woman — is fit to be a teacher, or a 
superintendent or a system maker, who doesn't know yet that 
the pupil is human ; that every human thing is born of woman 



MY BROTHER'S KEEPER. M? 

and loves her and is loved by her ; was gotten by a man, and 
is by him more or less valued ; and that until they shall become 
criminals (and it is not yet criminal to have been owners of the 
land we have robbed) begetter and begotten, conceiver and 
conceived, have some sacred human rights the one in the other 
— rights even as big in the sight of God and honest men as the 
right of some fellow to draw a fat salary in a profession he 
never earned by study. And any system of "Indian educa- 
tion " which is founded on breaking up the family is accurst. 
That is the system our block -builders now design to give us. 

This is not a simplex question. It is no pleasure to any 
honest man to say harsh things of other honest men. I 
would not lift my voice if I were afraid to stand before any 
audience face to face with those criticised, and prove that I 
have studied the Indian more honestly and more tuUy than all 
his Washington oppressors put together, in books and in fact ; 
that I know him better, and know better what better men had 
done for him before the first traceable ancestors of his present 
self-deceived foes were born, than all the systematic Procrustes. 
This will not sound vain to any one who has ever studied the 
subject at all. One need not have read many old books nor 
have lived long on the human side of Indians, to know more 
than any of the salaried gentlemen who live by the Indians. 
Without consulting a single one of them, I am willing to leave 
the question to any man of national or international reputation 
in these lines. The sober, enormous truth is that our present 
Indian service is a political machine. There is not one scholar 
remotely connected with it, nor, so far as I know, in remote 
sympathy with it. The only men who do sympathize with it 
are the border tough and the Service officeholder. 

I intend to say much more about this matter. It concerns 
all the nation I love, particularly the West. And I will say 
not only no word that is not true, but no word I am not ready 
to prove anywhere. I ask nothing better than the chance to 
prove, before their own audiences, that these whom I accuse 
never did and never can talk to an unspoiled Indian, nor with 
any Indian till he has learned what they are too lazy to learn ; 
that they are as ignorant of history, of ethnology and of evo- 
lution as the Indian himself, except that they know the dic- 
tionary names ; and that they are no less heartless than the 
Apaches whose roasted victims I have seen "pegged out" — 
only that they fool themselves (as well as us) into believing 
that their torture is a means of grace. And if I seem to bear 
hard on the men who make the system, my only intrinsic hope 
is to touch those who do the largest work in it and draw the 
smallest salaries ; who are mostly less influential but more 
human. And above all, to stir the big American conscience 
in which, slow as it is, I believe as I do in my mother. 
[to be continued.] 



148 

^ Arizona's Biggest Gold Mine, 



BY SHARLOT M. HALL. 




INMOST midway, as the miles go, between 
Prescott and Phoenix, but a little to the 
west of the Santa Fe, Prescott and Phoenix 
railway, just where the Hassayampa mount- 
ains tumble their tons of sun-bleached 
granite abruptly into the skirts of the des- 
ert and the tourist going south finds the 
first giant cactus elbowing the last pinon, is 
one of the most "typical" things in Ari- 
zona — only a little bigger than the rest. 
It is unfortunate that just about this 
point the casual traveler is too busy reconstructing his notions 
of Southwestern geography and straining his eyes for the first 
glimpse of a desert that does not materialize, to guess that the 
twinkling lights up the mountain side beyond Congress Junc- 
tion mark something better worth seeing than miles of veri- 
fied atlas. 

The axis of the earth may not stick out visibly in this re- 
gion, but the ribs of the continent do ; and some restless pros- 
pector delving among the disjointed vertebrae struck one of 
those "pay streaks" with which nature sometimes chinks her 
most unpromising handiwork. 

The landscape immediately about Congress inclines to the 
perpendicular, with no suggestion of effort wasted in fertility. 
If Josh Billings could have cast his eye over the rocky hillside, 
spattered with the quartzy line of Congress ledge, he would 
have amended his famous remark about piety and beans, and 
added that gold also seems to flourish best in the poorest 
soil. The very Cacti look dizzy with clinging to their uncer- 
tain perches, and the mill buildings rest on made foundations 
or straddle over ditches and boulders like Landes peasants on 
stilts. But a minins: camp would not be "typical" if nature 
had pre-ordained its site for a human dwelling place — or its in- 
habitants for neighbors. Congress had more to recommend it 
than convenience ; it had wealth. 

Forming one segment of a circle which has given the min- 
ing history of Arizona its farthest-known names, it is little 
wonder that scarcity of water did not deter nor greatly delay 
prospecting in the Congress hills. 

From the dump at the mouth of the main shaft a triple- 
notched peak thirty miles to the southward marks the Vulture, 
once a Dorado of fabulous richness ; as far to the west is the 
Bullard, held for half a million in gold, and like to bring its 
price, and to the east are Stanton, Rich Hill, and Weaver of 
evil reputation but the heart of a rich placer belt. 



ARIZONA'S BIGGEST GOLD MINE. 



149 




Though pros- 
pectors came and 
went through 
this section in 
the days of the 
Argonauts, it is 
only about 
twelve years 
vsince the origi- 
nal owner of 
Congress came 
down the little 
canon * ' at the 
wake end of a 
burro," and 
selecting a fa- 
vorable location 
on the big ledge 
which may be 
traced a mile or 
two across the 
hills, presently 
uncovered * * py- 
rats as big as me 
fist, sure" and 
rich enough to 
warrant a pro- 
longed celebra- 
tion. 

Whether 
through this 
cheerful tenden- 
cy, or in defer- 
ence to a proverb 
current among 
old prospectors, 
that the man 
who strikes a 
big lode never 
makes a stake 
out of it, the 
discoverer of 
Arizona's rich- 
est gold mine 
drifts about the 
camp in time- 
worn jumper 
and overalls. 

The propertj' 




C. M.Davis Eng. Co. 



AT THK 1850-FOOT IvSVEL. 




ARIZONA'S BIGGEST GOLD MINE. 

changed hands a good many times in the early years following 
its discovery before coming to its present owners, the Congress 
Gold Company, an association of experienced mining men who 
have made it a standard for progressive and successful opera- 
tions. There is not today a better ordered camp in the South- 
west nor one in which employers and employed work in greater 
harmony. 

An old man sweeping the already clean floor of the shaft- 
house leaned on his broom and said with a leisurely smile of pro- 
prietorship : ** Twenty years I've worked for Mr. Gage; 
Tombstone first, then right here at Congress ever since the 




C. M. Davis Kng. Co. 



TAILING-DUMP AND LOCOMOTIVK. 



Photo, by Hamaker. 



company came. That boy over yonder hasn't lost a shift in 
four years ; lots of the men have worked two and three years 
without a lay-ofi". Nobody quits here except to die or to go to 
work for himself — and we're mostly too busy to die" — a 
statement borne out by the meagerly filled little graveyard across 
the canon back of the town. Though, perhaps, its tenantless 
condition is due in part to the scarcity of saloons that usually 
form such a liberal portion of a mining camp, for here those 
vultures must perforce set themselves apart, with their black 
kin of the desert, beyond the limits of Company ground. 

The atmosphere of the camp (and incidentally its difference 
from some other mining camps) is indicated by that one re- 



154 



LAND OF SUNSHINE 




SLUM-POOI, AT CYANIDE PlyANT. 

mark, *' Nobody quits." Many of the miners have built neat 
little houses and have their families with them ; and though 
there are not probably two dozen men of any one nationality 
among the 350 or more employed in mill and mine, it is 
"home" to all alike. A school-house that would do credit to 
a prosperous village overflows with sun-browned children, and 
the camp even boasts of a tennis court tipped up against a 
grand slope overlooking the town. 

All this busy life centers around some big red-roofed build- 
ings high up on the hill, and some cool, dark openings in the 




TAKING OUT ORE. 



ARIZONA'S BIGGEST GOLD MINE. 



^55 



mountain side whence come the '^sinews of war" — a car a day 
of concentrates and fifteen tons of shipping ore, with the larg- 
est cyanide plant in the United States pounding away on the 
tailings to run the monthly tally up by many thousands. 

The reduction works at Congress consist of a forty-stamp 
mill and the above mentioned cyanide plant. The mill has 
some of the finest machinery in the West and eats up one 
hundred tons of ore a day as easily as a hungry man eats din- 
ner. Coming up four cars at a time from the stopes and work- 
ings, hundreds of feet below, the ore is dumped on ''grizzlies" 
to sort itself, much as oranges and potatoes are sorted for 




SOME OF THE CONGRESS ROCKS. 



market, the oversize going to two huge Blake crushers where 
it is chewed, literally, in the awesome iron jaws to the required 
size. Slipping on into storage bins it is fed out through Tul- 
lock feeders to the forty 850-pound stamps that out-distance 
the seconds, and drop six inches ninety times a minute. The 
mill-house rocks and roars like a ship in a stormy sea, or a city 
in the gripe of an earthquake, as the great stamps rise and 
fall. In sets of five, with rhythmic movement of clock-work, 
they beat up and down, strong pulses from the mighty heart of 
gain. 

The rock-pulp, wet now, flows from the stamps to the van- 
ners, twenty ever-shaking, endless belts, like broad dining 



ARIZONA'S BIGGEST GOLD MINE. i57 

tables ; it is ** concentrates" at last, and with a brief interval 
of draining on the sand filter is ready to go, all moist and un- 
sacked, into the cars for shipment to the smelter at El Paso. 
It is done with, so far as the mill is concerned ; but partly 
because the water supply is short ; for every quart of water 
used in mill, mine and camp comes from Martinez Creek, a 
mile away, and is raised 500 feet to get it over the intervening 
mountain. There is some gold left in the car-loads of tailings 
that are rolled out on long trestles and dumped in putty- 
colored mountains below the mill. 

A great mine is not unlike a well managed household ; there 
are no wastes permitted, small or great ; so in the spring of 
1895 ^ cyanide plant with a capacity of 100 tons a day was 
put in to work on these gold-bearing tailings. 

The ninety-ton leaching tanks, pumps, pipe lines, zinc 
boxes and mechanical roaster form another plant, approaching 
the stamp mill in size and even more interesting. 

" Cyaniding," as it is briefly called, is a comparatively new 
treatment, and its principles are but dimly understood except 
by persons actively engaged in the work. 

That gold is as soluble in certain solutions as a lump of 
sugar in water is a surprising statement to the average mortal, 
yet it is quite true, and is the basis of all gold-plating pro- 
cesses used by manufacturing jewelers as well as of the cyanide 
treatment for ores and tailings. 

At Congress the process is adapted to local circumstances ; 
the tailing dumps are plowed to assist in drying them, and the 
dry product carried by wheel scrapers to a pulverizer from 
which it is discharged by an elevator to the storage bins and 
thence to the self-feeder of the furnace. 

In the long furnace, capable of roasting one hundred tons a 
day, each "roast" stays four hours, passing to a cooler and at 
last, as needed, to the leaching tanks. Here, in a solution of 
cyanide of potassium, the gold is dissolved and drawn off by 
filtration, leaving the sand and waste behind. The filtered 
solution next enters an intricate arrangement of boxes filled 
with shavings of pure zinc, where the gold is precipitated, and 
the water, carrying some zinc and the remaining cyanide, goes 
on to storage tanks, from which it is used over and over again. 
For water is next in value to gold at Congress, and never a 
drop is wasted. 

The cyanide treatment changes the tailings from a dirty 
white color to red, and the busy plant is hemming itself in 
with great mountains of impalpable red dust that wheels in 
blinding clouds before the desert wind. Contrasting sharply 
with the red waste of the cyanide plant looms up the tons of 
dump from the mill, enough tailings, it is said, to keep the 
lower plant running night and day for five years if the mill 



158 LAND OF SUNSHINE. 

were to shut down tomorrow and not crush another pound of 
ore in that time. 

The mine itself is made up of twenty-three claims, following 
the snake-like trail of the croppings across the hills. There 
are three big openings in the mountain-side along the Con- 
gress vein, and two smaller but very important ones on the 
parallel Niagara ledge. The main shaft, No. 2, is nearing the 
2500-foot level, and still the beautiful white quartz, rich with 
sparkling iron pyrites, goes on to unguessed depths. Another 
shaft, 650 feet, and another something less, are connected with 
No. 2 by levels at intervals of three hundred feet, the levels 
serving to perfect the air circulation and to facilitate working. 
There is free passage through the thousand foot tunnels from 
shaft to shaft all over the mine, and it is said that ten miles 
would scarcely cover the horizontal workings. 

Congress is not a wet mine nor a warm one ; no water has 
been found so far (except a small seep in the shaft near the 
1800-foot level), hardly enough to wet one's shoes ; and possi- 
bly because the shaft follows the dip of the ledge, having an 
incline of only about thirty degrees, the deeper levels are cool 
and pleasant. A forest of Oregon pine has been stowed away 
in timbering this gold-lined under-world, and the waste trap- 
rock and tailings taken out have filled up cartons and built new 
mountains rivaling the old. Half of the waste perhaps never 
sees daylight, but is used to fill up worked-out stopes and 
drifts, so the immense dumps are a very modest index to the 
underground workings. 

Mine, mills, and all company buildings are lighted by elec- 
tricity, and the company owns and operates its own railroad 
connecting the mine with the main line between Prescott and 
Phoenix. A wonderful road it is, with sharper curves and 
heavier grades and more of them to its four miles than are to 
be found on any other standard gauge road in the United 
States (a thirty degree curve is coming close to railroading 
around a corner, and five per cent, grades are not seen every 
day), getting up the mountain at last by a series of switch- 
backs to the very mouth of the mine and discharging its 
freight on the edge of a sky-sweeping view. 

To be "typical" a mining-camp must have two distinct 
sections, " Mill Town" and *' Lower Town." Mill Town at 
Congress, with its store, ofiices, bunk-house, and homes of the 
employees, toes the line along the railroad track with con- 
scious virtue : it is a place where good people eat and sleep 
between times of working, and, considering the lack of water, 
it has a right to be proud of itself. Lower Town, straggling 
along the canon half a mile below, is like all of its kind — only 
more so ; a few less pretentious frame buildings, a few more 
roofless adobes and canvas lean-tos, with acres of battered tin 
cans and ragged gunny sacks between. 



A COWBOY'S PENCIL. I59 

Two fires in ten months have nipped its enthusiasm, and 
besides in a climate where clothing is a concession to preju- 
dice, houses are superfluous. 

Its citizens would be as typical in Klondike or Kimberly ; 
they have foregathered from all ends of the earth and no man 
knows his neighbor's mother tongue or the gods he was born 
to. Gold is the business of life and delvers into ancient his- 
tory are not encouraged. 

There are no holidays at Congress ; down in the mine the 
cables whiz and picks tap day and night, week in and week 
out, the year through. Nothing stops, except when once a 
month the forty rumbling stamps stand still for a few hours, 
and a "clean up" is made. Then all ears ache with the 
silence till the thud and roar begin again. 

The mountain sides all along are dotted with fresh dumps 
and burrowing prospect holes — for every miner in camp is 
ambitious to "strike another Congress," another lead that 
will turn out 3,600 ounces of gold a month and keep it up as 
regular as the march of the seasons. 

Prescott, Ariz. 

* A Cowboy's Pencil!" 

REAIv cowboy, by the way, and not a Buffalo Bill 
melodrama of that much abused and much distorted 
class ; a quiet, sober, hard-fisted, hard-working com- 
peller of cattle on the great ranges, not a dime-novel, six- 
shootering rioter. In a word, as Hough puts it in his sane 
and authoritative book, '* not a freak but a factor." It is one 
thing to " shoot up the town " in a circus tent, and play cow- 
boy with variations for the amaze of Eastern "culture," 
which likes to think of the West as fierce and " woolly ; " it is 
very much another thing to be a real cowboy. One is play 
and a good salary, the other hard work and small pay ; but 
somehow the manlier. That is doubtless the reason why the 
best cowboys do not adorn the Wild West shows. There have 
been and are daredevils and desperadoes on the " range ; " 
but the vast majority of these men of the wilderness are serious, 
steady, manly men, not vaudeville fire-eaters. If this were 
not true, the West would not have been conquered to civiliza- 
tion, that's all ; for it was men's work — not child's play nor 
horse play. It was as sturdy and noble a pioneering as Daniel 
Boone's ; an accomplishment that any sort of sober thought 
must realize was not achieved by any dime-museum freaks. It 
needed men — and it had them, and still has. 

I have known cowboys with college degrees and cowboys 
who could not read ; gentle cowboys and rough ones ; ex- 
perts and the ruck ; thousands of them in all, and in many 

• Illustrated from drawings by Kd. Borein. 





C. M. Davis Enp. Co qNE OF THE RURAI^ES. 

5th Corps, Celaya. 



A COWBOY'S PENCIL. 



163 



lands between Idaho and Argentina ; but very seldom a scrub 
and not often a fool. It is a hard, dry life, which breeds vir- 
ility, indeed, but has few ** advantages " as we use the word. 
And to those who know that life there is a dignity in its men 
— above all in those who try to be not only good cowboys but 
something more. 

Bd. Borein, some of whose drawings are here reproduced, is 
an average cowboy, perhaps, of this latter day. A quiet, mod- 
est, unassuming boy — for he is not much more by the almanac, 
though a good deal more in the fiber of his spine — his school 
has been the cattle-ranges of California and Mexico ; his book. 
Nature ; his tools the reata ; his home a California saddle. 
And yet he has other horizons. 

There is no pretense here of having discovered ' * some mute, 
inglorious Remington '* (as if a mute Remington could fail 
to be rather glorious) ; but here certainly is a young man who 
has had no chance to learn technique, nor much of any other 
chance, yet draws, despite many crudities, with a certain fresh- 
ness and feeling — with an unmistakable sincerity, which is 
more than can p^ft. .^tois^ be said of some of his big- 
gers. It does not \^uKm ^^^^ ^^^ Successful Ones so 
dear to draw as yiw^W it does this tired "puncher," 




'^^y.Xi*'^^^^ 



C. M. Davis Eng. Co 



A RANCHERO OF GUADAI^AJARA. 



i64 



LAND OK SUNSHINE. 




C. M. Davis En?. Co. 



A JAWSCO TYPE. 



toiling over his paper 
after a day's work that 
would send an easy mas- 
ter to bed for a week. 

Borein was born in San 
I^eandro, Cal., in 1873. 
His father was an " old- 
timer," a deputy of the 
famous sheriff Harry 
Morse. A little turn in 
the public schools, a few 
months in an architect's 
ofi&ce, a year as carpen- 
ter's apprentice — and 
then the boy "bought a 
good horse and lit out " 
to the open which had 
always been calling him. 
A little contact with I^. 
Maynard Dixon, the 
most promising of the 
younger California illus- 
trators and the one like- 
liest to understand him, 
confirmed Borein's 
youthful thirst for draw- 
ing — but did not by any 
means give him a liveli- 
hood. That he found in 
a calling not unnatural 
to his love of the saddle 
and the wilds ; and pres- 
ently he was a cowboy 
on the Jesus Maria 
rancho in Santa Barbara 
county. After some 
years there he was awhile 
on the Mali- 
bu, whose 
owner, F. H. 
Rindge, en- 
couraged him 
and helped 
out his ambi- 
tion to work 
his way 
through Mex- 
ico. He over- 



,i^- 



Oy THH 



A COWBOY'S PENCIL. 



165 




ran the peninsula of Lower California, 
horseback ; and later the Mexican 
States of Sinaloa, Jalisco and Colima, 
and in general the roughest and least 
known parts of the Republic. He is 
now in New Mexico, cowboying, draw- 
ing from life ; working and learning ; 
unassuming and persistent. 

C. F. L. 



Mex. 

BY SAM T. CLOVER. 

The city chokes me ! Burning in my breast 
I feel an ardent longing for the West — 
The broad free prairies and the pure ozone — 
Which man may breathe in comfort all 

alone ! 
I'm not content ! I mope and wonder when 
My feet may stray to those old haunts again. 

Content ? Not I. 
I want my freedom and the pure, clear sky ; 
I long for Mex — my little bronco mare — 
I want the prairie and my gallops there ! 
Those mad, wild dashes on the yielding sod 
Unknown to plowshare and by man untrod ; 
Lord ! how the blood went tingling thro' 

my veins 
As on we sped across the boundless plains ; 
In long, delicious breaths I drank the air 
And thought that life was never half so fair ! 
All cares and troubles lingering far behind^ 
My soul was mated to the morning wind. 
I yelled to Mex, and, throwing loose the reiu, 
A thousand fancies flitted through my brain; 
No more a plodding scribe, unknown to 

fame, 
I dreamed of fortune and an honored name ; 
No longer scorned, I fancied that instead 
The critics heaped the laurels on my head — 
Just then, alas ! the iron pierced my soul. 
For horse and rider tumbled in a hole ! 

Then, more sedate, 
We traveled homeward at a steadier gait ; 
The little mare, still restive at the bit, 
And half inclined, at times, to swallow it — 
Anxious as ever for a reckless run — 

And caring nothing for the rising sun. 

But I, poor mortal, blind to nature's 
,/C(/ beauties, 

^^r Thought of my morning task and 
daily duties ; 

And so, despite her jerks and angry 
frown. 

We both reluctantly returned to town. 



ONE OF THE BOSSES. 



Managing Editor Chicago Evening Post. 




-^rxt^.. Atxjt^*' ^^■ 



GOING TO THE RODEO, BAJA CAI^IFORNIA. 




TAIWNG " A STEER. 







RUNNING WITH THE ROPK. 



[68 

' Early California, 

UNPUBLISHED DOCUMENTS-THE VICEROY'S REPORT 
CONTINUED. 

CONTINUATION of the report of the Viceroy of Mexico, the 
Count of Revilla Gigedo, on the history of California from 
1768 to 1793, follows : 

1^108. All these matters I took into consideration when formulating 
the rules which ad interim govern in San Bias, and by which I order 
that double the salaries and rewards fixed by the "Reglamento" of the 
South Sea should be paid, as had been done by the Viceroy, Frey don 
Antonio Bucareli, in virtue of royal orders commanding him to take 
this step, and by which afterwards his measures were approved. 

109. However, I economized as much as possible in the pay of the 
ships' companies without injuring the interested parties, and in my 
letter, No. 191, of December 27, 1789, I reported to His Majesty, enclos- 
ing a copy of the provisional "Reglamento" and timely remarks on this 
subject. 

The English Vessels are Set at Liberty. 

1 10. Many were the inquiries I instituted after receiving information 
of the detention and taking of the English dispatch boat and bilander. 
It always seemed to me that the temporary commander of Nutka, don 
Estevan Jose Martinez, had acted hastily ; that no good could result 
from complaints impossible to investigate, extravagant claims for dam- 
ages ; and that the royal treasury had really suflfered loss by maintain- 
ing decorously and generously the English prisoners, keeping their 
vessels in repair and furnishing to them everything necessary for the free 
return to Macao. 

111. The captains, James Colnet of the "Argonauta" and his em- 
ploye, Thomas Hudson of the bilander "Princess Royal" requested 
permission from me to come to this capital (Mexico) and I conceded it. 
They presented their complaints against Martinez, aad I ordered an in- 
vestigation to be instituted against him, but these proceedings could 
not be continued as it had been necessary to employ the accused and 
some of the witnesses in commissions and the service of the king, and 
also because the plaintiffs desired their prompt liberty and could not 
conveniently await the end of an ordinary law suit. 

1 12. The fact is that Colnet had established himself on our northern 
coasts of the Californias without just title, and in a harbor and territory 
of which formal possession had been taken in the year 1774 by the 
brevet lieutenant of the second class, don Juan Perez. 

113. It is also proven that Martinez, in taking prisoners the English 
vessels and all the foreigners that had entered the harbor of San Lo- 
renzo de Nutka, could base his action upon the royal " cedula " of 
November 25, 1692 ; the treaty of peace of 1670, to which said ** cedula " 
refers, ratified and confirmed by the treaty of 1783; upon article II, 
treatise (tratado) 6th, title 5th, part 1st of the Ordinances of the royal 
navy; and upon the peremptory royal order of October 18, 1776, trans- 
mitted to the viceroy, don Antonio Bucareli, to detain, take prisoner and 
prosecute by law whatsoever foreign vessel should arrive in our ports of the 
South Sea. 

114. Finally there is no doubt that, running all these risks, Colnet 
had entered the port of San Lorenzo. John Mears ran the same risks 
when he was at Clayucat, traded with the Indians, and built the miser- 
able abandoned hovel (xacal) or hut, which is used as a pretext whereon 
to base an imaginary right in opposition to the legitimate and perfect 
title possessed by the king of Spain to a harbor and territory discovered 



EARLY CALIFORNIA. 169 

and acquired by the commander of an expedition undertaken in vessels 
of his royal navy and at the expense of his royal treasury. 

115. In my opinion all these reasons remove the causes for com- 
plaint on the part of the English about detaining their two small ves- 
sels, whose profit derived from the fur trade could never have been so 
enormous as Mears claims in his statements ; but in reference to this 
matter, which was also one of those I tried to end in preference, I re- 
fer to the statements and documents contained in my letters, numbers 
530 and 538, of March 1st and 2d, 1790, addressed to the Ministry of the 
General Offices of War and Treasury of the Indies in charge of don Fr. 
Antonio Vald^z ; and to numbers 87, 91, 126 and 132 of March 31, April 
30 and November 30, 1792, forwarded to the Count de Aranda, prede- 
cessor of Your Excellency in the Ministry of State. 

Boundary Expedition. 

116. Through this medium I received the copies of the convention 
made between our Court and the one of St. James on October 20, 1790, 
and dififerent other communications of anterior and posterior dates re- 
lating to this important and grave matter. 

1 17. All these dispositions had for their object that the just rights of 
our sovereign should be protected, without infringing upon the points 
amicably settled in reference to fisheries, navigation and trade in the 
Pacific ocean and South sea. 

118. Our king has undoubtedly just titles to the dominion of the 
coasts situated in the N. W. of North America, and to the adjoining 
islands, because we have occupied during a period of nearly three cen- 
turies a considerable part thereof ; repeatedly costly expeditions for 
discovering and settling them have been undertaken, as well at the ex- 
pense of the king's treasury, as with funds of his vassals. Formal pos- 
sessions have been taken in the royal name of His Majesty of every- 
thing discovered. Settlements of foreign powers and the navigation of 
their vessels have always been prohibited, and proceedings were insti- 
tuted against the violators of the treaties of peace wherein it is declared 
and decided. 

1 19. For these reasons I stated in my letters, numbers 34 and 44, of 
March 27 and September 1, 1791, as I do in this detailed report, that the 
subjects of His Majesty were never dispossessed of lands or buildings on 
the frontier coasts (costas avanzadas) to the north of our peninsula of 
the Californias, but that I was ready to comply punctually with the pro- 
visions of article 1 of the convention of October 28, 1790. 

120. I also stated in the same letter, that in my opinion the compen- 
sation provided in article 2 had been made, and I believe to have proven 
my reasons with the documents which accompany the reports numbers 
87, 91 and 126, of March 31, April 30 and November 30, 1790. 

121 . I said nothing specially about the points agreed upon in articles 
3 and 4, because I am aware that on the coasts of the Pacific ocean and 
South sea, which comprehend our actual established possessions, there 
are few or no vacant localities (parajes) whereon the English could es- 
tablish themselves and carry on a trade with natives not subject to 
Spanish dominion. 

122. After considering what has been decided upon by article 5 and 
in the royal order of December 25, 1790, transmitted to me by the Count 
de Florida Blanca, in reference to the English occupying in Nutka 
the territories situated to the North, and we those on the southern part, 
fixing in 48° latitude the dividing line of the establishment of our legiti- 
mate ownership and those for joint occupancy, use and commerce by 
both nations, I was convinced that it might be convenient to cede 
Nutka entirely to the English, and for us to transfer that establishment 
to one of the best points on Juan de Fuca straits, and this to be pre- 
cisely the dividing point, running thereform another boundary or 



I70 LAND OF SUNSHINE. 

meridian line north and south to 60"'. Thereby the English would be 
hindered from entering the province of New Mexico. In accordance 
with these propositions, I said in my mentioned letters, numbers 34 
and 44, that I would formulate the instructions governing the person to 
whom the exploration of the northern coasts of the Californias and the 
marking of boundaries would be entrusted. 

123. The baylio frey don Antonio Vald^s had already informed me 
on this matter in a royal order of December 11,1 790, advising me that 
the viceroy of Peru had received the corresponding command to order 
that a frigate should sail from Callao to San Bias, same to be detailed 
for the aforesaid commission, leaving it at my discretion to place this 
man-of-war under the command of the captain of the first-class, don 
Juan Francisco de la Bodega y Cuadra, commander of the port of San 
Bias, if I thought that his experience and knowledge might contribute 
to carry out the work more successfully. 

124. This the good character, zeal and aptitude of Cuadra promised 
me, whom I ordered at once to come to this capital (Mexico) and I lost 
not a moment in making preparations beforehand, so that the supplies 
and everything else which the frigate might require should be in readi- 
ness at its arrival in Acapulco. 

125. The man-of-war "Santa Gertrudis" in command of don Alonzo 
de Torres, dropped anchor October 31, 1790, and after repairing the 
damages suffered by a heavy storm, set sail December 19 and arrived in 
San Bias, January 15, 1792. 

126. All this information I conveyed to the Count de Florida Blanca 
and to don Antonio Vald^s in my letters, numbers 60, 88, 105 and 113 
of November 17, January 1, and February 3, of said year. The letter, 
number 56, of October 27, 1791, to the Count de Florida Blanca was ac- 
companied by a copy of the instructions given by me to the commander 
of our boundary expedition, don Juan de la Bodega, how to accomplish 
and perform his commision, and how to treat with and be governed in 
his actions with the commander of the other expedition on joining him 
in Nutka. 

127. This letter was an answer to the royal order of June 29, 1791, in 
which the Count de Florida Blanca acknowledging the receipt of former 
ones, promised to inform me as to what His Majesty should decide in 
reference to my representations contained in letter number 34, ordering 
me. Ma/ in any case I should conduct myself in these matters, as I had done 
since the beginning in matters relating to the English, with no less prudence 
than zeal. 

128. I expressed my gratitude for these kind words, and reported 
afterwards, in letter No, 64, of Nov. 27, 1791, on the active measures 
taken by me for sending the vessels of our expedition to Nutka. With 
letter No. 71, Jan. 3, 1792, 1 transmitted a copy of the second instructions 
delivered to the commander, don Juan de la Bodega, containing additional 
clauses to those inserted in the first instruction I had addressed to him. 

129. Although this first one covered the necessary ground, I based 
the second upon the last papers published by the English under the 
title of appendices or supplements to Mears' voyage, and making an 
extract of same, annotating some of its errors and the weakness of its 
argumentation, I transmitted the whole to the commander commis- 
sioner. 

130. He called on me for some necessary assistance, which I rendered 
promptly, and on the first day of Ap^, 1792, he left San Bias in the 
"Santa Gertrudis," which was under the command of its captain, don 
Alonzo de Torres, and accompanied by the frigate "Princesa" and the 
new schooner (goletaj "Activa," rigged as a barkentine in command of 
I he respective officers : don Salvador Fidalgo, lieutenant of the first 
i. lass, and don Salvador Men^ndez Valdes, first pilot. 

131 . The last two vessels, having suffered some damages, returned on 



EARLY CALIFORNIA. 171 

t 
the same 1st of March into port. The schooner had lost the main top- 
masts which had certainly to be provided for ; others had to be replaced ; 
the main-topsails had to be shortened so as to correspond to the length 
of the new top-masts, and other details of work had to be perfected. 

132. The frigate * ' Princess " made more than four inches of water an 
hour. Its hull was cleaned of eyerything (se puso d plan barrido) and 
the keel exposed. Then it was discovered, that the rats had gnawed and 
penetrated m three different places on the larboard side, and in the stem 
post near to the rudder fastenings. 

133. After both vessels had been repaired, the schooner *' Activa " set 
out again on its voyage, March 15, and the frigate "Princesa" the 
23d of the same month. The one arrived without accident at its destina- 
tion, the strait of Fuca, and the other at Nutka. 

134. The *' Santa Gertrudis " made its voyage to the same harbor in 
60 days, arriving more than two months ahead of the vessels composing 
the English expedition ; and I, through the Count de Aranda, received 
the royal order, dated February 29, of last year, approving all my in- 
structions to the commander, don Juan de la Bodega, as also all my 
measures relating to the commission he had been charged with ; but I 
was advised, that His Majesty would not agree to the relinquishment or 
integral cession of the establishment of Nutka to the English. 

135. This cession might have taken place, for, as I had received no 
answer to my letters (numbers 34 and 44 of March 27 and Sept. 1, 1791) 
nor any other royal order besides the one of June 29 of the same yesu: 
which entrusted to my zeal and prudence those determinations for sus- 
taining the King's rights in questions which might arise, I ordered (pre- 
vine) Bodega in article 8 of the first instruction, that after having made 
delivery of Nutka to the English (as His Majesty had commanded by 
another royal order of May 12, 1791, which was immediately transmitted 
to the commander of that port), he should transfer our establishment to 
that locality on Fuca strait offering the best advantages, and to procure 
that said place should be the jjoint of the dividing line. 

136. I was very much pained for having erred even if only in this 
measure, and it was my desire to take steps which would impede its 
eff'r'Cts ; and although the distance and want of vessels at San Bias were 
difficulties in the way of applying remedy, at the first opportunity and 
without loss of time I dispatched the small schooner "Saturnina" to 
Nutka, communicating the royal order of February 29, 1792, to the com- 
mander of the expedition, so that, if it was yet possible, he could com- 
ply with same. 

137. This schooner arrived in the port of San Francisco, when 
Cudra on his return entered the harbor of Monterey ; and as the de- 
livery of Nutka had been suspended because the English commander, 
George Vancouver, would not agree to its conditional surrender, there 
was yet time to comply with the contents of said royal order, which Bo- 
dega forwarded immediately to the lieutenant of the first-class don Sal- 
vador Fidalgo, who remained in command of Nutka, by the bilander 
" Horcasitas " which returned to Nutka in place of the schooner ** Sa- 
turnina." 

138. As His Majesty had approved my measures in reference to the 
government, preparation and carrying into effect of the Boundary Com- 
mission, and as the only error I committed, thinking to have rendered 
a service to the king, is remedied, I shall now report upon the incidents 
which passed with the English commander, his explorations, those un- 
dertaken by the commander of our vessels and the ones to be made in 
the future. With this matter and other needful propositions, I shall 
end this unavoidably detailed report. 

139. The English frigate ''Dedalo" which left Portsmouth August 
18, 1791, under the command of Captain Thomas New, arrived at Nutka 
July 4, 1792 with supplies for the vessels commanded by Vancouver and 



172 LAND OF SUNSHINE. 

brought instructons for him from His Britannic Majesty to take posses- 
sion of the buildings and territories, which were supposed to have been 
occupied by English subjects in April, 1789. 

140. Richard August, lieutenant of the royal navy, was the bearer of 
said instructions contained in the royal order of May 28, 1791, which 
the Count de Florida Blanca addressed to the commander of Nutka for 
the purpose of surrendering said English possessions ; but August was 
killed by the Sandwich Islanders and the captain of the '* Dedalo," 
New, substituted him. 

141. Even if this ojficer could treat at once with reference to the de- 
livery, he and the commander of our expedition agreed with pleasure 
to suspend everything until the arrival of the principal commissioner, 
Vancouver. 

142. The last named finally arrived at Nutka, and Cuadra, in com- 
pliance with his orders, consequently offered the English commander 
to place him in possession of the territories which Mears had enjoyed, 
and to cede to him the houses, gardens, storehouses and shops of our 
establishments, without prejudice to the legitimate right by which we 
had occupied it, and with the understanding that on the part of the 
Spanish, the English should never experience any act of violence nor 
suffer the slightest injury. But Vancouver, cutting off all discussion 
on the matter, solely insisted in his answer : that formal surrender with- 
out any restriction should be made to him of all the territory of Nutka; 
that the Spanish flag should be hauled down ; and, his sovereign to be 
recognized as the sole lord of that port. 

143. Cuadra was ever ready to accede to everything regular and just. 
He retired to Fuca and manifested that said point should be the dividing 
line, but Vancouver gave to understand that the real boundary was the 
port of San Francisco occupied by us. 

144. Notwithstanding this pretension, Curada insisted on his propo- 
sitions ; and as the last and safest course proposed that after dividing the 
territory of Nutka, the English should occupy the part to the north 
and the Spanish that to the south, and the port should remain common 
to both nations. 

145. Vancouver, inflexible in his opinions and claims, did not agree 
to the propositions of Cuadra ; but it was amicably decided to suspend 
the surrender of Nutka, the same to remain in our power until both 
Courts, informed of what had been done and alleged by their commis- 
sioners, should in the best of harmony and concert agree and decide 
what may be convenient to their legitimate rights. 

146. In consequence the lieutenant of the first-class, don Salvador 
Fidalgo, took interim command of Nutka, with the frigate **Princesa" 
remaining under, his orders. 

147. Cuadra entered Monterey Oct. 9, 1792 ; the English frigate 
"Dedalo" Nov. 21 ; and the commander, Vancouver, with the two ves- 
sels of his expedition, "Descubierta" and the barkentine "Chatham," 
arrived Nov. 25. 

148. The "Dedalo" set sail Dec. 21 to comply with its commission 
in Botany Bay, and on the way stopped at the island of Oaiti. Van- 
couver started again on his navigation, Jan. 13, of the present year. 

149. The English were treated with the greatest consideration and in 
the most friendly manner ; and whatsoever they asked for or could de- 
sire for continuing their voyage was generously placed at their disposal. 

150. As Vancouver was convinced that these supplies represented a 
considerable amount, he offered drafts against his Court, but Cuadra 
refused to accept same, assuring the commander that he had my orders 
to treat him generously, and that he desired as well on his own as on 
my part to prove to the subjects of His Britannic Majesty our full and 
sincere friendship. 

151. Acknowledging this favor, the English commander stated that 



EARLY CALIFORNIA i73 

nothing could erase from the memory of his countrymen the friendly 
treatment and favors which they had received from the Spanish. He also 
expressed to me in writing heartfelt thanks, and in proof of his grati- 
tude made a gift of the value of two thousand dollars, more or less, to 
the "presidio" and mission of Monterey in implements useful for agri- 
culture and timber cutting, beads and other small articles. 

152. Finally Vancouver informed Cuadra that it would be a great 
convenience for him to send Robert Broughton, captain of the barken- 
tine "Chatham" to his Court with the report containing the result of 
his commission, begging Cuadra to take Broughton to San Bias and ex- 
tend to this oflScer his help so as to enable him to continue on his jour- 
ney to Vera Cruz and Spain. 

153. Cuadra complied with this request, which he considered in order, 
and having left Monterey, the next day after Vancouver had gone to sea, 
in the schooner " Activa," accompanied by the frigate *' Aranzazu" and 
the bilander *' Horcasitas," which had just returned from Nutka, bring- 
ing Fidalgo's answer, wherein he oflfered on his part to comply with the 
royal order of February 29, 1792, Cuadra's vessels met those of Van- 
couver. 

154. Both sailed of their own accord together from the 14th until the 
17th of January, on which date Vancouver had arrived at the point 
whence his course to the Sandwich Islands diverged, when they separ- 
ated after a mutual exchange of favors and courtesies. Cuadra's long 
voyage ended in San Bias, Feb. 1 st, his mission finished. 

155. During the same and in the preceding years of 1790 and 1791, 
the following explorations, which I will relate briefly in their chrono- 
logical order, were carried out. 

Fifth Bxploration to Latitude 60° and to Cook's River 
by Don Salvador Fidalgo. 

156. The lieutenant of the first-class, don Salvador Fidalgo, left 
Nutka in the dispatch boat ** San Cdrlos" May 4, 1791, and on the 24th 
of the same month reached the port of Prince William, which he recon- 
noitered in its entire length on the east and north sides. 

1 57. Afterwards he discovered Montag^ and I^as Vertiz islands ; en- 
tered into Cook's river, sailed down to the island of Kodiac, and returned 
again on his course to the eastern coast with the intention of retracing 
and reconnoitering from 57° latitude to Nutka, but fogs and bad weather 
hindered him from doing so. 

158. Therefore, as also on account of the scarcity of provisions and 
the near approach of the equinox, he arrived Sept. 14, at Monterey, 
where he remained until Oct. 25, date on which he set sail, anchoring at 
San Bias Nov. 13. 

159. These explorations corrected in a few points those made in 1789 
by the brevet ensign of the first class, don Estevdn Martinez, and the 
pilot, lyopez de Haro ; and also verified the notices in reference to the 
Russian establishments, because Fidalgo visited two on Cook's river 
and one on Kodiac island in the bay of cape " Dos Puentes." He also 
took possession, according to custom, of a bay and of a cove, which he 
named respectively C6rdova and Menendez, both east of Prince William ; 
of the port he called Gravina to the north, and of the harbor named by 
him Revilla Gigedo on the before-mentioned Cook's river. All this I 
reported, accompanied by charts and documents, in my letters, Nos. 19 
and 31, of Jan. 12, 1791, the first addressed to the department under 
the charge of Your Excellency, and the second to the Secretary of the 
Navy. 

[to be continued.] 



174 




Doubtless it surprises no one. Only a fool ignores what our politics 
are today. But, please God, there are still a good many Americans 
who find a shock even in the expected thing. Alger could stay in the 
Cabinet so long as he had done nothing worse than kill ofif two thousand 
American soldiers. He had a "pull" stronger than the practically 
unanimous wish of the American people. His rotten beef contracts 
were no bar. But when from these venial ojBfenses he graduated to the 
crime of locking arms with a man who does not think that Prest. 
McKinley is infallible — whop goes his head, instanter. Secretary 
Alger has not served his god ; but if he had served his king he would 
not in his age be left naked to his enemies. 



FHE 



A Bloody Tyrant, whose Washerwoman had struck because 
MODERN she was Tired of Washing for Nothing and Board Herself, Sold 

AESOP. her to a Perfect Gentleman for a specified Sum. The Degraded 

Creature, who could not perceive the Difference between a Perfect 
Gentleman and a Tyrant, still maintained that her Time was her Own. 
*' When I Marry you," she said, " will be time enough for me to do your 
Washing Gratis." 

*• Well, of all Ungrateful Scrubs ! " cried the Perfect Gentleman. "It 
was noble to Refuse the Tyrant, for he was a Brute. But if I kick you, 
it is merely to Improve your Manners and Morals. I'm a Liberator, I 
am." And he swatted the Erring Lady and Tromped upon her. 

Thereat, some of his children cried : " Let go. Dad ! You do not 
look Pretty I " The Neighbors likewise congregated, murmuring : "It's 
a darn shame 1 Why don't he beat his wife ? " 

But the Perfect Gentleman retorted: "If you Mugwumps would 
cease your Seditious Utterances there would be no Friction between Me 
and this Misguided Person. You make her Think a Woman ought not 
to be Licked. I would not have knocked her Down at all if you hadn't 
been Going to Object. So you see you are Responsible for her Bruises, 
not I. You do not seem to Know who I Am. I am a Perfect Gentle- 
man ; and no Gentleman will stop Licking a Lady till she admits his 
Divine Right to Lick her. I perceive that you are Traitors to Me and 
god. What do you Suppose he gave me such a biceps for? As for 
Licking my Wife, I guess you never saw her Arm. It would take a 
Man to make her keep Our House in order. But I reckon I can Reform 
this Washerwoman's domestic affairs . Go to ! " 



POETRY 



Next to The Recessional, Edwin Markham's The Man With the 
AND Hoe has created a deeper sensation than any other poem of many 

FACT. years. Not so much for its poetry — which, with some reserva- 

tions, is rather tremendous — but for its sociology, which is intrinsically 
bad. If the public ear had been for art, it would have recognized 
Markham's voice long ago ; for it is a fine, sonorous voice, never petty, 
never brazen but never commonplace. If sensation, however, be the 
better advance agent, we can forgive it so long as it brings in its train 
the Real Thing — and this it seems to have done. Certainly sensation 
is not fame ; but here is one man at least who can afford to stand on 



IN THE LION'S DEN. 175 

merit after the empiric discovery. Mr. Markham's slender book of 
verse, *titled by the famous poem, is a gain to our literature. It has a 
dozen poems anyone now extant might be content to have written. 

As to the caved forehead and bent shoulders of the Hoe-Man and the 
trying to charge them to the Oppressor, Mr. Markham has lived better 
than he has written. He was outfitted with a hoe himself; but nothing 
ails his forehead or his back. He had it in him to be Markham. No 
one could hold him down ; none could have put him up. No theorist 
coaxed the blacksmith to grow into a sonorous poet and a man than 
whom not one in California is more loved or more useful in a circle 
constricted only to his own choice. Markham did it. 

And that's what ails the Man with the Hoe. We may itch to kick or 
guillotine the ** lords and rulers " or ward-heelers who are content to 
see hirn there ; but he doesn't stay there unless Ae is content. It is a 
cowardly trick of the day to lay our faults to heredity and destiny, and 
our virtues to ourselves. This is very comfortable, but it is no more 
science than it is religion. The only oppressor a man can't get away 
from is himself. 

There really seem to be sober people who " don't know how "what 
we could get out of the Philippines with honor." can 

Easy enough, if we care to. Easy now, easy before we began WE DO ? ' 

to fight those poor fools for wanting to be free, easy any day between, 
easy and efiective. 

We can get any partnership we ask of England ; and we do not need 
it. If we — or England and we — had said to the Filipinos : " Gentle- 
men, you are free of your tyrant. See if you can govern yourselves. 
No other nation shall meddle with you, but we will hold you responsible 
to civilization. Make a good, decent country of yourselves, or we will 
fall upon you " — why, no nation or conspiracy of nations would have 
meddled ; and the Filipinos would have been our loving friends. We 
should have saved some thousands of American lives. We should have 
saved some thousands of American girls from marrying nameless 
diseases from Luzon . We should have saved the honor of the United 
States. And we can just as well do it today. The war goes on 
not to save American principles but to save the pride of the administra- 
tion. It thinks a lie well stuck to as good as the truth. And knowing 
that some American speculators can make money if the deal goes 
through, it expects the American people to pay the freight. 

Prescott, Ariz., has a chance to distinguish itself. Capt. a man 
" Bucky" O'Neill, of that town, was one of the first Americans and a 

killed in the war of '98. To this day not a man has been monumen 

killed whom the nation could less afford to spare. 

There is now a question of building that man a monument — and how. 
The unhatched would erect a cast-iron or granite abomination in the 
plaza ; the deeper hearted (and I believe the hero's widow first suggested 
It) prefer to build something worthier of "Bucky" O'Neill. Prescott 
has no public library. If it would honor the man who was not only a 
hero but a scholar, the best friend that education ever had in that 
frontier town, it will make that memorial a public library building. And 
there are a good many people rather interested to watch what Prescott 
will do. 

Admiral Dewey, in a message sent the Secretary of the Navy, now, 
June 28, 1898, said of the Filipinos : is DEWEY 

••Aguinaldo, insurgent leader, with 13 of his staff, arrived a"trator? 

May 19 by permission. . . . I have given him to understand that I 
consider insurgents as friends, being opposed to a common enemy. He 

• The Doubleday & McClure Co.. New York, |1. Lot Angeles, C. C. Parker. 



176 LAND OF SUNSHINE. 

has now gone to attend a meeting of insurgent leaders for the purpose 
of forming a civil government. In my opinion these people are far su- 
perior in their intelligence and more capable of self-government than 
the natives of Cuba, and I am familiar with both races." 

Now will some administration flunkey newspaper please rise and call 
Dewey a ** Copperhead " ? 

:raid This magazine certainly cannot be accused of unmixed admira- 

TO FACE tion of the newspaper. The newspapers alone— and almost 

THE TRUTH. alone the worst of them — brought on the war. That the Ma- 
nila censorship pinches the newspapers is a minor affair. The vital thing 
is that the administration is shutting off information from the American 
voters. The truth about the Philippine war would hurt no one. No one, 
that is, except the administration. It would not help the Filipinos 
nor embarass our army. But it would lose votes to McKinley. There- 
fore the people are to be kept from the truth, so far as possible. 

Now Abraham Lincoln had a grown war on his hands. He had a 
nation's life to save — not the pockets of a few speculators to fill. His 
armies met not runaway ** niggers," but fierce Americans who could 
"kill even." But Abraham Lincoln never had to gag the newspapers 
nor pry into the mails nor try to fool the people. He cared more for his 
country's honor and safety than he did for a second term. He listened 
to his God, not to Hanna. And, with all due reverence, he was not a 
fool. Any man is a fool who thinks he can cheat history — or even bam- 
boozle all contemporary America. The Lion is a Republican — but a 
Lincoln Republican, not a Hanna- Alger Republican . The ablest men 
in America today, who oppose the sin of Imperialism, are Republicans. 
It is not partisanship. It may be conscience, it may be only common 
sense. But at any rate, the strongest opposition to the President's 
course is within the President's own party. At any rate, any man in a 
Republic who is afraid to face the truth doesn't ** belong." Because a 
Republic ceases when it ceases to be truth. 

IGH- A woman of affairs as well as of letters, and seriously occupied 

CLASS with her mundane duties, Margaret Collier Graham brings 

ESSAYS. to a finish in this issue the series of little essays which has 

been running for a full year in this magazine, under title ** The Angle 

of Reflection." 

In all seriousness, and without suspicion of boastfulness, no maga- 
zine in the United States is publishing today an editorial department quite 
so high in literary quality, nor anywhere near so durable in morals, as 
this little "Angle " of Mrs. Graham's has been. It is many years since 
any American magazine has published in a year twenty-four pages of 
philosophy so deep and sane and so masterfully expounded. Indeed, 
very little matter of this calibre is printed anywhere these flabby days. 

I8T The passing of a temblor in California the other day has pleas- 

THE ured some of the hard-luck States; and they are welcome. 

DIFFERENCE. No one was hurt, and no damage was done. Just here it is 

as well to recall the historic fact that this same summer more people 

have been killed by sunstroke in the one State of New York than have 

been killed by earthquakes in California since history began. 

4EY ALSO There is nothing more evident in the cosmogony than that 

NEED Heaven loves a good joke. It is all the time having fun 

CONDENSING. with US. There are some of its human practical jokes to 
whom this idea will seem disrespectful ; for God appears to have 
amused Himself by making some people who think that they have a 
sense of humor and that God hasn't. As a matter of fact that is prob- 
ably the only thing that reconciles Him to looking upon His human 
handiwork. For instance, the Anthropological Society met in Wash- 



IN THE LION'S DEN. X77 

ington the other day, and decided to call our aborigines "Amerinds," 
as a neat logotype for American Indians. The Lion suggests that in 
turn, these Anthropological Idiots should be condensed — since our time 
is as valuable as theirs. Anthropoids seems to fulfill their etymology 
— and their nature. 

No man who understands the value of words pretends that our all 
war in the Philippines is popular. Some Americans believe it against 

an outrage on liberty; a great many look upon it as an un- THE grain. 

happy mess we can't get out of — but no one, not even the *' professional 
patriot" is proud of it. Even those who cannot see any principle in- 
volved, are getting tired of it — and will be more tired before we are done. 
The curious thing is to observe how many forgetful souls imagine the 
United States " has to have " a war that is unpopular. 

Three thousand American soldiers sick, July 15, in the hos- beginning 
pitals of Manila. One thousand American soldiers dead in TO PAY 

Luzon already. And what are we getting for those American the piper. 

homes forever clouded ? That is the beginning. All the world knows 
— the Filipinos included — that we can "lick" the Filipinos, if we are 
fools enough to keep at it long enough. If it were to save our country, 
a million American homes would cut off their right-hand hopes to lay 
them upon the altar. But what feeds the war fire now is not the patri- 
otic homes. It is the politicians. And they leave us to furnish the 
kindling. 

In 1898 we saw American homes giving up their sons for where 
volunteers. We see nothing of the kind now. Right or are our 

wrong, a year ago the country was behind the war. Today, volunteers? 

only the politicians are. You knew a good many of the volunteers of 
1898. You don't know any of the volunteers of 1899. Today the re- 
cruits are leaving no homes desolate. They are the homeless and the 
failures. Our American boys are getting home as fast as they can. In 
their place go none but the usual |1 3 a month machines. Does that 
mean anything ? 

The San Francico Chronicle^ the leading Republican daily of not 
California ; the Call^ next in size in the Republican ranks ; the without 

Argonaut, Republican and Strongest weekly in the West; the company. 

Portland Oregonian, foremost Republican paper in Oregon — these are a 
few of the big Coast papers that are against the administration's war. 
In the East there is the same state of things. Really, there is no lack 
of precedent for any American who would rather not rent his ideas. 

The unbiased patriot who draws, as postmaster of San Fran- earning 
cisco, a larger salary than he ever saw before or will ever his 

know again, offers to sniff the United States mails and inter- bone. 

cept, in good Russian fashion, anything which does not please his Mas- 
ter. Amen ! The sooner the better. We cannot find out too quickly 
just how much American freemen will stand. And even Californians. 
There has been a time in history when the name Montagu was worn by 
men, and had not been given to lap-dogs. And the time has not come 
in history when lap-dogs can scare Americans out of the house. 

Not long ago the Administration was wonderfully anxious to know 
what the Dear People wished. Today, if the Dear People attempt to 
say what they wish, the Administration threatens to prosecute them. 

Now the Cubans are to be allowed to ** vote for annexation or inde- 
pence." In other words, we leave it to a ballot of the Cigar Island 
whether the United States shall be a liar or not. 




THAT 

WHICH 11^_^ 
WRlTTffl 



^^-' 



There is a certain pessimism in having 
any fears for the present trend of literature. 
Never before in the world's history has litera- 
ture swarmed with so many writers of almost human 
intelligence. 

JAMES If Mr. Henry James would like to know what Henry James 

TURNED might look like if suddenly invested with a backbone and res- 

MAN. cued from the parenthetical kittens which now steal in at every 

comma to run away with his thread, he would better step before the mir- 
ror of Bdith Wharton's The Greater Inclination. For here he is regen- 
erate — James turned Man. There is no blunting of that abnormal 
activity of insight which has condoned the faults of James ; but also, 
there are none of his faults except the basic one. With Mrs. Wharton, 
intuition is normal, not a progressive disease. Where James dawdles, 
too weak to let go of his own content with his wire-drawing, she is mas- 
ter of herself. She tells in a sentence what he would need a page for ; 
as spiritually and far more clearly. 

There are exquisite pastels, and they have their place. They are a 
medium for drawing little things out to such thinness that we call it 
great. But the Masters always have painted and always shall paint in 
the oils of humanity. Consumption has its certain beauties ; but it is 
not so beautiful, nor even so refined, as red health. A story that has in 
it no weman we would fall in love with, no man we would like to thrash 
— in a word, no human beings — is, after all, not quite a story. It may be 
a very delightful Delsarte exhibition by a most flexible mind. But I am 
not here to growl at Mrs. Wharton. Her eight stories are of extraordi- 
nary skill. And I am profoundly grateful to her for proving, so uncon- 
sciously but so inevitably, that one needn't be as effeminate as James to 
be so intuitive. Chas. Scribner's Sons, New York. $1.50. 

A BROAD, So noble a book as Prest. Jordan's Imperial Democracy ought 

FAIR to be read by every man who has the confidence to call himself 

VIEW. an American. He may not agree with it ; but if he is half-way 

fit to belong to this republic he will feel uplifted by it and grateful that 

there are still such Americans. 

Dr. Jordan has not only the large (though unstudied) expression, but 
the structural point of view. This book, to a theme which interests 
every sober American — and every drunken one as well — is valuable not 
only for its patriotism. It has the generic foresight ; it sees things as 
history sees them ; and there is a special value and a special interest in 
this getting a verdict from " a sort of contemporary posterity." D. Ap~ 
pleton & Co., New York. $1.50 

A VERY A truly large and truly delightful novel— rare things, both, 

UNCOMMON in these smallish days— is Winston Churchill's Richard Car- 

NOVEL. Del, and one to advance its author at once to serious considera- 
tion amid the stronger writers of the day. As a stage-manager he is ad- 
mirable, handling a large company without a hitch, and keeping the 
stage always in action — not only that, but with good, real figures. His 
character-drawing is no less notable; and "Richard," "Dorothy," 



THAT WHICH IS WRITTEN. i79 

"Jack," perhaps above all *'Patty,"are vital persons, who come into our 
aflfection as " Grafton " into our hate. The Maryland and the London of 
just before the Revolution are painted with convincing skill ; and such 
historic figures as Charles Fox and John Paul Jones — dangerous actors — 
are used with considerable success. All in all it is one of the novels of 
the year, and merits the extraordinary success it is meeting — three or 
four editions before it is fairly cold from the press. The Macmillan Co., 
New York. $1.50. 

Jeremiah Curtin, "the man of fifty languages," and of sev- American 
eral valuable books of folklore in other lands, has just added to primitive 

our obligation to him a tat and handsome volume of the myths literature. 

of the Wintus and Yanas, two tribes of " Digger " Indians in the Sacra- 
mento Valley, Cal. The title. Creation Myths of Primitive America y is 
a trifle over-catholic, as are some of Mr. Curtin's sweeping assertions in 
the like line. Nor does the annotation of the book indicate so much 
knowledge of the myths of the many hundred other and larger and more 
important Indian tribes as of Irish or Russian folklore. 

The myths, however, are important and typical, and Mr. Curtin has 
told them well and in the Indian spirit. In his notes he properly refers 
to Schoolcraft's "remarkable genius for missing the truth and confusing 
everything he came in contact with." Little, Brown & Co., Boston. 

In the golden days of the frontier there was no good reason the 
why an adventurous person might not have his fun with big Texas 

game and be strictly conventional. The foolish desperado ranger. 

killed for fun, hate or plunder, and generally died violently and an out- 
law. The foreseeing one became a deputy sheriff, a ranger, or some 
such thing, and the more fun he had the better peace officer he was. If 
the outlaws " got" him he died a hero. To have killed twenty men in 
saloon or street was a sure road to the shrievalty. 

A Texas Ranger, by N. A. Jennings, gives a frank and rathe 
naive picture of that picturesque, half-bandit mounted police of the 
uneasy border 25 years ago. Mr. Jennings, now a newspaper reporter 
in New York, was one of McNelly's men, and without constructive 
skill at all in painting a general picture, " reminisces" most enter- 
tainingly. Not so well disciplined, so well organized or quite so 
legal in status, the Texas Rangers very much resembled the Mexican 
Rurales of today in devil-may-care, dash and effectiveness. They 
did much the same work in much the same method. The chief differ- 
ence is that the Rurales are a government machine, as strictly organized 
as any regular army, while the Rangers were a sort of guerrilla police — 
the border's self-defense. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York. $1.25. 

Not because he wished to, but because if he didn't someone kipling'8 
else would, Mr. Kipling has made into two quiet-looking newspaper 

volumes the newspaper letters of his literary youth, with title letters. 

From, Sea to Sea. It would be foolish to pretend that these journalistic 
matters are up to the top notch of Kipling ; but, on the other hand, here 
is certainly newspapering of a class we would rather not lose. 

The most valuable, though perhaps not the best, of these epistles to an 
India paper are the "American Notes." These are the egregious im- 
pressions of a — Bleeding Briton, very new but also very thick in the 
biceps. His bludgeoned criticisms of things American are mostly true 
in the positive — but this world is comparative. Doubtless Mr. Kipling 
knows our faults less intemperately now. Still, there is use in reading 
his entirely unconstrained strictures, and in knowing how our faults and 
follies struck the sophomore who has become the wisest traveler of his 
time. The Doubleday & McClure Co., New York. 2 vols. $2. Post- 
paid to any address " on approval." 



18© LAND OF SUNSHINE. 

)NE There is a most rare quality in the poems of Grace EUery 

OF OUR Channing — now collected in a slender volume under title 

POETS. Sea-Drift. Several of them— and several of the best — were 

first printed in these pages ; and there are many who will never again 
seethe Sierra Madre without recalling '*The Violets of Mountains." 
An exquisite simplicity, an unmodern sincerity mark these verses. 
Without self-consciousness, without afifectation, here is the expression of 
that rare thing — a woman wise enough to be a woman. Of imagination 
there is much ; but the great beauty of these poems is their unspoiled 
heart. Small, Maynard & Co., Boston. $1.50. 

ARMING A book that should be on the table of every man that tickles 

AND the soil, particularly in California, where there is a higher 

HORSE SENSE, average of intelligence engaged in agriculture than elsewhere, 
is The Modern Farmer^ by Edward F. Adams. The author is agri- 
cultural editor of the San Francisco Chronicle; he lives on his 
farm ; he is himself a modern farmer. This large, sound, interesting 
book claims to be, and probably is, the very first book to treat of the 
farmer as a business man. Doubtless, there is no other point of view 
from which the farmer is so much in need to see himself and his en- 
vironment. The book is eminently sensible ; and the farmer to whom 
its message is not worth many times its cost is a curiosity. The N. J. 
Stone Co., San Francisco. $3. 

*N The Real Hawaii, by Lucien Young, U. S. N., is so palpably 

EX PARTE a book with a purpose that it will take no serious place as his- 

PLEA. tory, and will be valued most by those who desired beforehand 

to believe it. Lieut. Young saw enough of Hawaii (he was in the 
*' Boston" affair) to have learned a great deal ; and of his honesty there 
is no question. Yet the book is chiefly an example of the ease with 
which we can believe the thing we would like to. The unredeemed 
wickedness of the Hawaiians who had fat lands ; the celestial nobility of 
the missionary tramps who now have that land, and are glad to show 
that the transfer was in the interest of God and morality ; the purity of 
our politicians and adventurers in releasing the ignorant natives from 
bad monarchs and giving them over to good ward-heelers — these are the 
book. Compared with Miss Craft's unpretentious but deep and true 
Hawaii Nei, this is a partisan editorial beside a scientific work. But it 
may be popular — as partisans are more common than scholars. The 
Doubleday & McClure Co., New York. |1 .50. Sent to any address " on 
approval." 

^ANDY An attractive and worthy series of American biographies, in 

AMERICAN admirable duodecimos, and by competent persons, is issuing 

BIOGRAPHIES, from the press of Small, Maynard & Co., Boston, a young 
house which has already won distinction by its good taste in matters 
literary and mechanical. M. A. de Wolfe Howe is editor ; and the five 
volumes already issued are : Phillips Brooks^ by the editor ; David G. 
Farragut, by James Barnes ; Robert E. Lee, by W. P. Trent ; James 
Russell Lowell, by Edward Everett Hale, Jr. ; and Daniel Webster, by 
Norman Hapgood. 75c. each. 

ANOTHER Will R. Halpin has published a genial and gentle novel of 

PAVING California, entitled Juan Pico. The book is unusually beauti- 

STONE. ful, the story full of feeling. Unhappily this is all. The local 
color is not Californian. The local geography is a sad muddle ; the 
picture of I^os Angeles rather absurd ; and the California terms much 
misapplied. Mr. Halpin's only Spanish seems to be *• Madre Mi ;" and 
this grotesque impossibility he employs scores of times. The book is 
kindly and of good intention, but it has nothing to do with its field. 
The Robert Lewis Weed Co.. New York. $1.50. 



THAT WHICH IS WRITTEN. i8i 

Dross, by Henry Seton Merriman (author The Sowers, etc.), under 
is so good a story of the First Empire in France that this re- the 

viewer found excuses for reading it from cover to cover after terror. 

his bedtime. To a busy man that means something. The story has in 
plot a certain quality of Charles Reade — and a style absolutely unlike. 
It anyhow gets to the sympathy ; which is what fiction is for. H. S, 
Stone & Co., Chicago. |1 .75. 

The "San Pedro Harbor Fight" was one of the most curious the first 
and one of the most instructive episodes in modern American defeat 

politics ; and as such has a more than local interest. How im- of alger, 

pudent a corporation can be, yet how surely the people — not the popu- 
lists but the people — can hold their own, has perhaps never been so 
strikingly proved before. A dispassionate history of this very remark- 
able afifair has been printed by Charles Dwight Willard, who, as secre- 
tary of the Los Angeles Chamber of Commerce, bore an honorable 
brunt in the fight. He tells the story in a slender local volume ; but 
frankly, with foirness, and sufficient detail. His little book of The Free 
Harbor Contest is an authoritative addition to the material of which 
Southern California history is to be made. Kingsley-Bames & Neuner 
Co., Los Angeles. 

The Pedagogues, by Arthur Stan wood Pier, is a fully amusing, f^ N 
if somewhat unconstrained, story of the Harvard Summer amusing 
School. For a new author here is a considerable promise, both story. 

in plot and in a not too vicious sarcasm. The character-drawing is, in- 
deed, a little unreined ; "Prof. Palatine" and "Jessie" and "Gorch", 
at least, are exaggarated somewhat — not so much from truth as from the 
convention we agree to accept as truth — but they are tangibly real. Mr. 
Pier seems to "have it in him." Small, Maynard & Co., Boston. |1.25. 

Vengeance of the Female — an odd enough title to be piquant — a story 
is really "a little book of travel," by Marrion Wilcox, author of 

of A Short History of the War with Spain. It is a gossipy, travel, 

familiar picture of parts of Spain, England, Italy and other lands, with 
enough thread of story to make it human. Some handsome photo- 
graphic illustrations add to its interest. H. S. Stone & Co., Chicago. 
%\ .50. 

A cheerful prevaricator, branded even among the many, is another 
Albert J. Capron, with his "Legend of the Pueblo of Acoma" RED- 

(N. M.), in The Pacific Monthly for July. It is long since handed. 

anyone has seen such impudent mendacity — while the ignorance is 
fully up to the worst. The pictures of " Acoma" happen to be of 
Hualpi ; but that is the least dishonesty. The Pacific Monthly is a 
young magazine of Portland, which has shown some growth already. 
It is a pity that it has been imposed upon so wretchedly in this case. 

The sober Review of Reviews is latest victim of the person who has 
confidence to write of the vSouthwest his own ignorances, the facts he 
borrows from honest students (and distorts) and his own peculiar brand 
of misspelling proper names and historic words. 

Miss Alice C. Fletcher, that gallant worker in science and in human rights, has pub- 
lished the last message of John Comfort Fillmore, The Harmonic Structure of Indian 
Music. This paper was indirectly Prof. Fillmore's death. He had written it for the 
meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science ; and was on his 
way to Boston to deliver it when an Eastern sunstroke finished his brave and useful 
life. As we have frequently remarked, Fillmore turned folk-music from guesswork to 
a science ; and this comprehensive paper is a fair summary of his great discovery. 

Fleming Bremner (Calle Nueva, 6, City of Mexico) publishes an English metrica 
version of Becquer's Rimas, with some "rondels " and other rhymes of his own. 

The Forester (Washington, D. C.) is an excellent little monthly in a good cause. 




BY MARGARET COLLIER GRAHAM. 



THE TREE 

OF KNOWLEDGE, 



OUR 



APOLOGY. 



Why a knowledge of good should be called innocence, 
and a knowledge of evil experience, is hard to explain. 
Wise men blush at the charge of ignorance brought by 
those learned in iniquity, forgetting all the good of which their 
accusers have no ken. Vice turned virtue is generally brag- 
gart and dictatorial, essaying to guide the steps of those who 
have avoided pitfalls. Character is the only garment of which 
the wearer boasts that it has been often to the cleaner. Men 
flock to hear a blatant "evangelist" vaunt himself on his 
struggle from the mire and all around are men whose better 
wisdom has kept them clean. *'But the good men were not 
tempted ' ' you say ? Then go to them in crowds and learn 
why. They have something to tell worth while. 

The society that commits its virtue to the keeping of 
the physically weak, will always defend evil by calling 
good effeminate. Have we any right to wonder when 
callow intellects deduce the virility of vice ? Society is suffler- 
ing for a little fearless honesty. I^egislation might rest from 
the suppression of evil if only those who hate it dared to show 
their hate. What save cowardice gives us the laughable spec- 
tacle of good men separating themselves from iniquity by a 
public ordinance and walking arm in arm with the offender ? 
Loving the sinner and hating the sin ? My good friend, the 
sin is the sinner. 



ARTISTIC 



VIRTUE. 



Most picturesque of all our would-be virtues, and there- 
fore dearest to the sentimentalist, is forgiveness. And 
what is it? A chimera. Your friend plays you false ; 
what is he to you ever afterward but a traitor ? You have for- 
given him — you love him still ? Have a care how you love 
falsity. But he is sorry — he repents ? Love him then with a 
reservation, for part of him is not your friend. Not all the 
power of the universe can get a man back where he was be- 
fore he did his neighbor wrong. Every step taken in return- 
ing to the right path might have carried him forward in it. All 
the moral energy exerted in overcoming unrighteousness might 



THE ANGL.E OF REFLECTION, i83 

have made for righteousness. We may blot out our share in 
his punishment but his sin cannot be blotted out. Strange 
that man retains a moral sense in spite of all his efforts to 
strangle it with dogma ! 

It is humility rather than pride that keeps the clear- p^'de 
sighted from perpetually suing for pardon. The futil- or humility? 

ity of the plea oppresses him. Wrong cannot be 
righted, it may only be avoided, and that is a matter of future 
conduct not of present words. It is better that sorrow for 
one's misdeeds should lie too deep for words, than too shallow 
for actions. The man of shuffling morals is easily brought to 
his knees. The valiant soul confesses to itself, does penance 
until death, and looks for no absolution. God and man may 
forget my offense, but when I forget it the numbness of spirit- 
ual death has set in. He who asks that his sins be washed 
away begs for moral blindness. Far better ask that the mem- 
ory of his good deeds be blotted out. Character would suffer 
less from the loss. Remorse is tonic, forgiveness is anaesthetic. 
The truly repentant cannot forgive himself and why should he 
ask another to do what he finds impossible ? Why claim a 
miracle at the hands of his maker ? That he does is but an- 
other evidence of the colossal conceit of mortality. 

There is no charity so popular as that which covers a covering 
multitude of sins and keeps them warm and comfort- °'* warming? 

able. Tenderness to evil is very often an indirect 
cruelty to good. Forgiveness too easily shades off into con- 
nivance. The world may be so busy reforming the wrong- 
doer that it finds no time to encourage the right-doer, and yet 
there may be more genuine philanthropy in smiling upon the 
good man than in weeping over the sot. A little undisguised 
scorn is valuable at times. 

The youth looking about for a career which will bring ^s a 
him most readily into social prominence today might profession. 

logically fix upon crime. The criminal is on every 
tongue and on every page. Government, education, conditions 
are held responsible and vigorously attacked. The individual 
alone is treated gently as an irresponsible effect. And yet man 
is, and always has been, the great first cause of evil. 

Society rallies eagerly at the call of an abstraction. It the virtue 
is so much easier to build "rescue" homes than to close ^^ hating. 

our own to well dressed vice. '* Judge not," we say 
virtuously when we are too cowardly to follow our judgment. 
In all our analysis of evil, all our wordy efforts at its suppres- 
sion are we forgetting the vital remedy — to hate it ? 



i84 




t LAMiMARKS 



IWCORPOHATtD ; r 

TO CONSERVE THE MISSIONS 
AND OTHER HISTORIC 
LANDMARKS OF SOUTHERN 
CALIFORNIA. 

DiBBCTOBS : 

Frank A. Gibson. 
Henry W. O'Melveny. 
Rev. J. Adam. 
Sumner P. Hunt. 
Arthur B. Benton. 
Margaret Collier Graham. 
Chos. F. Lummis. 

HoHOBABT Line Meubkbs : R. Egan, Tessa L Kelso. 

LiFK Membibs : Jas. B Laukershim, J Downey Harvey, Edward E. Ayer, John F. Francis, Mrs. John F. 
Francis, Mrs. Alfred Solano, Margaret Collier Graham, Miss Collier, Andrew McNally, Rt. Rev. G«o. Montgomery, 
Miss M. F. Wills, B. F. Port«r, Prof. Chas. C. Bragdon, Mrs. Jas. W. Soott, Mrs. Phoebe A. Hearst, Mrs. Annie D. 
Apperson, Miss Agnes Lane, Mrs. M. W. Kincaid, Col. H. G Otis, H. Jevne, J. R. Newberry- Dr. W, Jarvis Barlow, 
Marion Brooks Barlow, Geo. W. Marston, Chas. L. Hutchinson, U. S Grant, jr., Isabel M. R. Severance. 

ADVISORY BOARD: Jessie Benton Fremont, Col. H. G. Otis, R. Egan, W. C. Patterson, Adeline 
Stearns Wing, Geo. H. Bonebrake, Tessa L. Kelso, Don Marcos Forster, Chas. Cassat Davis, Miss M. ¥. Wills, 
C. D. Willard, John F. Francis Frank J. Polley, Rev. Hugb K. Walker, Elmer Wachtel, MaJ. H. T. Lee, 
Rt. Rev. Joseph H. Johnson, Bishop of Los Angeles. 

Chairman Membership Committee, Mrs. J. (i. Mossin. 



OFFICERS I 
President, Chas. F. Lummis. 
Tice-President, Margaret Collier Graham. 
Secretary, Arthur B. Benton, 114 N. Spring St. 
Treasurer, Frank A. Gibson, Cashier 1st Nat. Bank. 
Corresponding Secretary. Mrs. M. E. Stilson. 

812 Kensington Road, Los Angeles. 



^' 



►HB Club's work at San Diego, the Mother Mission, is now prac- 
tically at a standstill for lack of funds. One hundred dollars 
was sent down from the Club's treasury for a starter ; and San 
Diego has raised $115 at home. A very handsome money's worth of 
work has been done for this small sum — thanks to the care of Mr. Heb- 
bard, architect in charge — in putting brick foundations under tottering 
walls, and cement-capping wasted ones. But this is not enough to do 
for a monument so important in history. The Club will try to set the 
ball rolling again ; and again hopes that San Diego will match its con- 
tribution. The appeal is to Americans everywhere. Contributions 
from $1 up are welcome and go net to the work of preserving these 
historic piles. 

Of the 15,000 American educators who met in national convention in 
Los Angeles in July, 72 by count cared to see a California Mission. 
Sixty went to San Fernando, July 15 ; and two days later 12 stepped off 
at Capistrano from a train of 500 with stop-over privileges. In both 
cases, members of the Club did their best to make the day pleasant and 
instructive. 

CONTRIBUTIONS FOR THE WORK. 

Previously acknowledged, |3680.96. 

New contributions : A Friend in San Diego, $25. 

$1 each: J. B. O'Brien, D. Hitchcock, W. A. Scripps, Mrs. W. A, 
Scripps, Maj. H. Sweeney, Geo. J. Bickel, Dr. R. M. Powers, Miss S. S. 
Crocker, Miss Helen Ballard, all San Diego ; Bertrand B. Taylor, Boston, 
Mass. 



i85 



War Views in the Philippines. 




CM. Davis Eng. Co. NATIVE) WOMAN, MANILA. Photo by Allen. 




GRA.YSOX (NEBRASKA VOI,UNTEERS), WHO FIRED THE FIRST 
SHOT IN THE PHILIPPINE WAR, FEB. 4, 1899 




FILIPINO INSURGENTS, PRISONERS OF U. S. FORCES. 




I* 
I* 

lii 



CALIFORNIA BABIES 



II II 



II II II II 





THIS CLIMATE SUITS ME. 




QUAII, SHOOTING IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA. 



When answering advertisements, please mention that you "saw it in the I^and of Suivshinb." 



$100 Reward. $100. 
The readers of this magazine will be pleased 
to learn that there is at least one dreaded disease 
that science has been able to cure in all its 
stages and that is Catarrh. Hall's Catarrh 
Cure is the only positive cure now known to 
the medical fraternity Catarrh being a con- 
stitutional disease, requires a constitutional 
treatment. Hall's Catarrh Cure is taken inter- 
nally, acting directly upon the blood and rau- 
cous surfaces of the system, thereby destroying 
the foundation of the disease, and giving the 
patient strength by building up the constitution 
and assisting nature in doing its work. The 
proprietors have so much faith in its curative 
powers, that they offer One Hundred Dollars 
for any case that it fails to cure. Send for list 
of testimonials. Address F. J. CHENEY & CO., 
Toledo, O. JSIS" Sold by druggists, 75c. 

Get Posted 

We are in receipt of a charming booklet from 
Jones-MuUen Co., of New York city, entitled 
" Umbrella Economy," which is certainly worth 
a two cent stamp to secure. It thoroughly illus- 
trates and describes what the advertisement sug- 
gests on the outside of the back cover of this 
issue. 



ASTHMA 

IT IS CUB SPECIALTY 

Bronchitis, Lungjhroat, 

Wasting and Nervous 

Diseases cured to 

stay cured 1 1 

Oor New Method treatment and 
Remedies Cure all Stomacb. Liver. 
Kidney and Chronic Blood Diseases 

FREE our Book on Health 
Dr. Gord i n's Sa n ita ri u m 

514 PINE St., S. F., CaU 




CHAS. E. MARSHALL 

:-— ° Wood Mantels 

TILES AND GRATES 

Tel. Brown 1821 Correspondence Solicited 

514 S. Spring St., Los Angeles, Cai. 




ILL develop or reduce 
any part of the body 

A Perfect Complexion Beautifier 
and 

Remover of Wrinkles 

Dr. John Wilson Gibbs' 

THE ONLY 

u^,^: ,iFv^M|n^l Electric Massage Roller 

-^^ ,.-: o'^ariiS^aaHBi' I (Patented United States, Europe, 
Canada.) 
" Kb work is not confined to the 
face alone, but will do good to any 
Trade-Marli Registered. part of the body to which it is ap- 
plied, developing or reducing as desired. It is a very pretty 
addition to the toilet-table."— Chicago Tribune. 

"This delicate Electric Beautifier removes all facial blemishes. 
It is the only positive remover of wrinkles and crow's-feet. It 
never fails to perform all that is expected." — Chieago Times- 
Herald. 

"The Electric Roller is certainly productive of good results. 
I believe it the best of any appliances It is safe and effective." 
— Harriet Hubbard Atxr, New York World. 

For Massage and Curative Purposes 

An Electric Roller in all the term implies The invention of a 
physician and electrician known throughout this country and 
Europe. A most perfect complexion beautifier. Will remove 
wrinkles, "crow's-feet" (premature or from age), and all facial 
blemishes— POSITIVE Whenever electricity is to be used for 
massaging or curative purposes, it has no equal. No charging. 
Will last forever Always ready tor use on ALL PARTS OF THE 
BOUY, for all diseases. For Rheumatism, Sciatica, Neuralgia, 
Nervous and Circulatory Diseases, a specific The professional 
standing of the inventor (you are referred to the public press 
for the past fifteen years), with the approval of this country 
and Europe, is a perfect guarantee. PRICE : Gold, $4 00 ; 
Silver, (3 00. By mail, or at office of Gibbs'Company, 1370 
Broadwat, New York. Circular free. 

The Only Electric Roller. 
All others so called are Fraudulent Imitations. 




Copyright. Copyright. 

"Can take a pound a day off a patient, or put it on." — New 
York Sun, Aug. 30, 1891. Send for lecture on "Great Subject of 
Fat." NO DIETING. NO HARD WORK. 

Dr. John Wilson Gibbs' Obesity Cure 
For the Permanent Reduction and Cure of Obesity 

Purely Vegetable. Harmless and Positive. NO FAILURE. Your 
reduction is assured — reduced to stay. One month's treatment 
$5.00. Mail, or office, 1370 Broadway, New York "On obesity, 
Dr. Gibbs is a recognized authority.— N. Y. Press, 1899." 

REDUCTION GUARANTEED 

"The cure is based on Nature's laws."— New York Herald, 
July 9, 1893. 



5 IN EVERY WAY 



In Location, In Appointments, In Customers, 
Service and in Goods ours is :: :: :: :: :: 



In 



A Strictly First-Class Shoe House 



m 

m 
m 
m 

5 price 

I G. k 

■J Telephone Red 3441 

m 



Not only can we meet every demand in our line, but there is not a shoddy 
piece in our entire stock. Our aim is to excel in quality and compete in 
That is why our name is in every shoe we sell. 

C. M. Staub Shoe Company 

255 South Broadway, Los Angeles 
Maii, Orders Soucited. 



F. B. Silverwood for Mackintoslies and Umbrellas. 



when answering advertisements, please mention that you " saw it in the Land op Sunshine. 



Or 



H.JEVNE 



^:^:^:^^ 
^^^^^. 



WHOLESALE AND RETAIL GROCER 

TTHE 

ADVANTAGES 'I LARGE STORE 

On account of its large purchasing ability, and consequently the 
low prices it offers to customers, should be borne in mind. 

Ours supplies any want in edibles, beverages or smokes, and at the 
same time provides the best and the freshest. 

YOU ARE ALWAYS SAFE AT JEVNE'S 

208-210 SOUTH SPRING STREET 



'^i Telephone Main 9d 



I^OS ANGEI.ES 



Oil 



KNr>x« 



P^.J_ 



di|ty 



with 




OOUR 



^0 Tia 

Fa,. 



Ho 



^'■^ Taint nun too much cos it's Knoxes^ 

IT'S NOT LIKE PIE 

IT'S HEAI.THY. 

Endorsed by all users. That " invaluable little 
receipt book " sent free for 2c. stamp. Knox'H 
Sparkling, and Knox's Acidulated Gela- 
tine at yourgrocers, or pint sample, postpaid, 5c. 
Pink Gelatine with every package. 

C. B. KNOX, Johnstown, N. Y. 



To Cure a Cold in One Day- 
Take Laxative Bromo Quinine Tablets. All drug- 
grists refund the money if it fails to cure. 25c. 
The genuine has I,. B. Q. on each tablet. 



FOR MEATS, FISH, GRAVIES, 

SOUPS, «fcC., THIS SAUCE 

HAS NO EQUAL 

Manufactured and Bottled only by 

GEORGE WILLIAMS CO., 

LOS Angeles, Cal. 

If this sauce is not satisfactory, return it to your 
grccer and he will refund your money. 

G10B6B Williams Co 




i American 
I Beet Sugar €o. 



FACTORIES AT 



Oxnard and Chino, California 



GUARANTEED 



To be the Finest Sugars 
And will Preserve Fruits 



••••••••••i 



Help— 411 Kinds. See Hummel Bros. & Co. 300 W. Second St. Tel. Main 509 



When answering advertisements, please mention that you " saw it in the I^and of Sunshine.' 



••••••• •••••••• •••••••• 



LOS ANGELES FURNITURE CO. 

CARPETS, RUGS, CURTAINS 

225-227-229 S. BROADWAY Opposite City Hall 
LOS ANGELES, CAL. 



A COMFORT IM HEALTH OR SICKNESS 



Our adjustable bedside 



table for use over bed-lounge or chair, is the most 
c o n V e n ient all-around 
piece of furniture ever in- 
vented — ideal for the sick 
room and as a reading 
table with which to hold 
a book. The leaf can be 
extended, raised or low- 
ered, or tilted to any 
angle. Neat folding book 
holders attached to each 
side of leaf. It is neat, 
simple and durable. 

This Adjustable Table with black enameled base, nickel standard and oak 

leaf, at $5.25. 





one of Califor 
Accommodations for 



n 



Sulphur Mt. Springs 

S nia's beauty spots. Acco _-- 

• campers. Illustrated circulars may be had ? 

) from Hugh B. Rice, agent for "Cook's ( 

) Tours," 230 S. Spring St., Los Angeles ; ( 

^ FiSKB & Johnston, 707 State St., Santa Bar- ^ 

S bara, or by writing to ( 

/ HAWLEY & RICHARDS, Props , ) 

) Santa Paula, Ventura Co., Cal. S 



RING UP MAIN 940. 

Merchants Parcel Delivery Co. 

C. H. FINLEY, Manager. 

Parcels 10c. , Trunks 25c. Special rates to mer- 
chants. We make a feature of " Specials " and 
Shipping. Ofl&ce hours 7:30 a. m. to 6 p. m. 
Saturdays to 10 p. m. Agents for Bythinia. 

No. Ill Court Street, Ijos Angeles, Cal. 



ili%%ififfif^ff(%%%%%%%%^%%%%%%%ifi%%%^%%%%%%^%%%%%%%%%fk^%^fk^%^%fk 



A Modern Laundry 
Conveniently 
Located 

Reasonable Rates 



Our Laundry is thoroughly up-to-date. 
We have invested thousands of dollars 
in modern machinery in order to be able 
to give first-class service, and we give it. 
Our place affords some advantages en- 
joyed by no other laundry in this sec- 
tion — such as no saw edge on collars and 
cuffs. In our place family washings can 
be done separately. We give the most 
artistic and least destructive polish to 
linen. 
The safest and best is always cheapest. 



J Telephone 
y 635 ... 



Empire Laundry 



149 South J 

Main Street jt 

it 



i LOS ANGELES, CAL. S 

^ St 



P. B. Silverwood makes a specialty of Shirts of all kinds. 



Educational 

Department, 




Pomona College. 



POMONA COLLEGE 



CLAREMONT 
CAL. 



Courses leading to degrees of B.A., B.S., and 
B.I<. Its degrees are recognized by University 
of California. Stanford University, and all 
the Eastern Universities. 

Also preparatory School, fitting for all Col- 
lies, and a School of Music of high grade. 



Address, FRANK T,. 



FERGUSON, 

President. 



Pasadena. 

Boarding and Day School for Qirls 

Certificate admits to Eastern Colleges 

124 S. Enclid Ave 

LASELL SEMINARY FOR Y0UN6 WOMEN 

AUBURNDALE, MASS. 

" In your walking and sitting so much more 
erect ; in your general health ; in your conversa- 
tion ; in your way of meeting people, and in in- 
numerable ways, I could see the benefit you are 
receiving from your training and associations at 
Ivasell. All this you must know is very gratifying 
to me." 

So a father wrote to his daughter after her 
Christmas vacation at home. It is unsolicited 
testimony as to Lasell's success in some im- 
portant lines. 

Those who think the time of their daughters 
is worth more than money, and in the quality of 
the conditions which are about them during 
school- life desire the very best that the East can 
oflfer, will do well to send for the illustrated cat- 
alogue. C. C. BRAGDON, Principal. 



Occidental College 

I.OS ANGELES, CAI,. 

Three Courses: classical, uterary. 

Scientific, leading to degrees of B. A., B. L., and 
B. S. Thorough Preparatory Department. 

Winter term began January 3, 1899. 

Address the President, 

Rev. Guy W. TVadgwortli. 

CHAFFEY COLLEGE, ontan., cai. 

Well endowed. Most healthful location. 

Enter from 8th grade. 

Opens Sept. 29. $250.00 per year. 
Elm Hall, for young ladies, under charge of 

cultured lady teachers. Highest standards . 
West Hail, for boys, home of family of Dean, 

and gentlemen teachers. 

WHAT A FATHER THINKS .... 

An unsolicited opinion 
from the father of one of 
our boys : 

* * * "Our best thanks are 
due you for your unfailing kind- 
ness shown our son during his 
residence at the Academy, and 
while he seems to have done 
very well with his studies, what 
is of far more consequence is 
the influence which makes for 
manliness and character build- 
ing, already apparent in this 
child after a single term." 

Fifth Annual Catalogue ot 

Los Angeles 
Academy 

Mailed to any address upon ap- 
plication to W R. WHEAT, Bus- 
iness Manager. 

Fall term commences Septem- 
ber 20, 1899. 

SANFORD A.HOOPER.A. M., 

Head Ma>ter. 

GRENVILLE C. EMERY, A. M., 
EDWARD L HARDY, B. L., 

Associate Masters 



DIFFERENT IN EVERY FEATURE 

The Brownsberger Home School of Shorthand and Typewriting 

903 SOUTH BROADWAY, I.OS ANGEI.JES, CAI^IFOKNIA 

Large lawn and porches where pupils study, and dictate. Individual instruction only. Half day 
attendance all that is necessary. Only teachers of long experience do any teaching. This is the only 
Shorthand School on the coast that has a business office training department. A new machine 
furnished each pupil at his home without extra charge. Send for catalogue. 

Corner Broadway and Ninth Street. Tel. White 4871. 



Ilummel Bros. & Co., furnish best help. 300 W. Second St. Tel. IMain 509. 




GIRLS' COLLEGIATE SCHOOL 



Girl's Collegiate School. 

ALiCB K. Parsons, B. a., 
Jbannb W. Dbmnbn, 

Principal*. 



1918-%!i-S4-S6 

South Grand Avenue, I<o8 Angeles 



^ 



los /7Dge/e6 




212 in^EST THIRD STREET 

Is the oldest established, has the largest attendance, and is the best equipped 
business college on the Pacific Coast. Catalogue and circulars free. 




226 S. Spring St., Los Angeles, Cai.. 

Oldest, largest and best. Send for catalogue. 
^. G. Felker, President 
John W. Hood, John W. I,ackby, 

Vice-President Secretary 



ARE YOU ONE OF THOSE 

who have inscribed their names and im- 
pressions in the register at the 

GRAND CANON 

If so, you want a copy of the book which 
reproduces the entire record, together with 
illustrations. Just published by 

G. K. WOODS, Mgr. Grand Canon Stage Co. 
Flagstaff, Arizona. 




1 WHEN YOU VISIT 

SAN DIEGO 

REMEMBER 



mYT— 

"^ ♦ THB- 





ROOM8 

$1.00 Psr Day 

AND UP 



American and European Plan. Centrally 
located. Elevators and fire escapes. Baths, 
hot and cold water in all suites. Modern 
conveniences. Fine large sample rooms for 
commercial travelers. 
Cafe and Grille Room open all hours. 

J. C. O'BRIEN. Prop. 



P. B. Silverwood's bigr store is at 124 South Spring St. 






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New residents in a city or persons moving from one section to another are usually forced to learn 
by experience the best places to patronize. Our object in publishing a Commercial Blue Book is to 
point out to our readers a few ot the leading stores, hotels, rooming houses, restaurants, schools, 
sanitariums, hospitals, etc.; also professional men, and the most satisfactory places in which to deal. 
As it is not our intention to publish a complete business directory, some firms equally as good as those 
we have listed may have been omited. Still, we believe that those who consult this guide will be satis- 
fied with the list submitted. The variety and class of goods handled, as well as the reputation of the 
merchant, has received careful attention in each selection made, with the Idea of saving our readers as 
much time, trouble and expense as possible. 



ART, MUSIC, SCHOOLS AND COL- 
LEGES. 

Artists. 
J. Bond Francisco, 416-417 Blanchard 
Hall, 235 S. Broadway. 

Business Colleges. 

Ivos Angeles Business College, 212 W. 
Third St., Currier Bldg. Tel. Black 
2651. 

The Brownsberger Home School of Short- 
hand and Typewriting, 903 S. Broad- 
way. 

Dancing Academy. 

W. T. Woods, 740 S. Figueroa st. Tel. 
Black 1781. 

Dramatic Training 

G. A. Dobinson. Studio, 526 S. Spring St. 
(Training of the speaking voice a 
specialty. ) 

Marbelized Plaster Medallions, 
Busts, etc. 

Sarah B. Thatcher, successor to Alfred 

T. Nicoletti, 129 East Seventh st. 

Musical Colleges 

Los Angeles Musical College, Bryson 
Blk., Second and Spring sts., Edward 
Quinlan, Director. Tel. Red 1083. 
Vocal Instruction 

Madame Genevra Johnstone Bishop. 

Studio, Blanchard Music Building. 
Mr. and Mrs. W. G. Cogswell, 1138 S. 

Flower st. 

Schools and Colleges. 

St. Vincent's College, Grand ave. 

Ivos Angeles Military Academy, west of 

Westlake Park. P. O. Box 193, City. 
Miss French's Classical School for Girls, 

512 S. Alvarado st. Tel. Brown 1652. 



Miss Ackelson's Select School, 614 S. 

Hill st, room 7 
Eton Preparatory School for Boys, 900 

W. Pico St., Horace L Brown, ItLB., 

Principal. Tel. Blue 786. 



Architects 



Arthur Burnett Benton, 1 14 N. Spring st. 
Tel. Green 14. 

R. B. Young, 427 S. Broadway. Tel- 
Main 151. 

John P. Krempel, 415-416 Henne Blk. 
Tel. Main 663. 

Architect Supplies 

Sanborn, Vail & Co., 133 S. Spring st. 

Acetyline Gas Generator and Calcium 
Carbide 

Hedden & Black, 746 S. Main st. 

Asoayers, Refiners and Bullion Buyers 

Wm. T. Smith & Co., 114 N. Main st. 
Tel. Brown 1735. 

Any vo— Theatrical Cold Cream Make Up. 
Rouge Gras 

Viole & Lopizich, 427 N. Main st., dis- 
tributing agents. Tel. Main 895. 
Banks 

California Bank, S. W. cor. Second st. 
and Broadway. 

German-American Savings Bank, N. E. 
cor. First and Main sts. 

Los Angeles National Bank (United 
States Depositary), N.E. cor. First 
and Spring sts. 

Security Savings Bank, N. E. cor. Sec- 
ond and Main sts. 

Southern California Savings Bank, 150- 
152 N. Spring St. 

State Bank and Trust Company, N. W. 
cor. Second and Spring sts. 



Land of Sunshine Commercial Blue Book, Los Angeles, Cal. 



Bakeries 

Ebinger's Bakery, cor. Spring and Third 

sts. Tel. 610. 
The Meek Baking Co. Factory and of- 
fice Sixth and San Pedro sts. Tel. 

main 322. Principal store 226 W. 

Fourth St. Tel. main 101 1. 
Ahrens' Bakery, 425 S. Broadway. 
Mrs. Angel's Bakery, 830 W. Seventh st. 
Ivos Angeles Bakery, Jean Dore, Prop. 

(French Bread.) 846 Lyon st. cor. 

Macy. 
Karl A. Senz, 614 S. Broadway. Tel. 

Main 1411. French Pastry. 

Bamboo Goods 

S. Akita, 504 S. Broadway 

Baths 
Hammam, 210 S. Broadway. Turkish 

and all other baths and rubs, 25 cts. 

toll. 

Beach Pebbles, Moonstones, Agates, Sea 

Shells, etc.. Dressed and Polished 

to Order 

J. A. Mcintosh & Co., L. A. Steam Shell 
Works, 1825 S. Main st. 
Bicycle Dealers 
L A. Cycle and Sporting Goods Co , 319 

S. Main st. 
Central Park Cyclery, G. W. Williams, 
prop., 518 S. Hill st Tel. Green 
1211. 

Bicycle Insurance. 

The California Bicyclists Protective As- 
sociation, Chas J. George & Co., 
Mgrs., 208 Ivaughlin Bldg. Tel. 
Main 990. 

Bicycle Biding Academy 

Central Park Cyclery, W. G. Williams, 
prop., 518 S. Hill St. Tel. Green 1211. 
Books, Stationery, etc. 

Stoll & Thayer Co., 252-254 S. Spring st. 

B. F. Gardner, 305 S. Spring st. 

Botanic Pharmacy 

Iviscomb's Botanic Pharmacy, Main and 
Fifteenth sts. Tel. West 68. 

Breeders of Thoroughbred Belgians, 
Angoria and Russian Babbits. 

The Bonanza Rabbitry, Elmer L- Piatt, 
930 Grand View ave. Circulars free. 

Enterprise Rabbitry, Ax & Peet, 1009 W. 
Ninth St. Tel. West 239. 
Building and Loan Associations 

The State Mutual Building and Loan As- 
sociation, 141 S. Broadway. 
Business Universities. 

Metropolitan Business University, W. C. 
Buckman, Mgr., 438-440 S. Spring st. 
Carpet Cleaning TVorks 

Pioneer Steam Carpet Cleaning Works, 
Robt. Jordan, Mgr., 641 S. Broadway. 
Tel. 217 Main. 

Great Western Steam Carpet Cleaning 
Works, H. Himelreich, Prop. Cor. 
Ninth and Grand ave. (formerly 
Tenth and Grand ave.) 



Carpenter "Work, Jobbing, Mill Work 

Adams Mfg. Co., 742 S. Main st. Tel. 
Red 1048. 

Carriage Works. 

J. U. Tabor & Co. ( J. U. Tabor and G. 
N. Rookhout). cor. Seventh and Los 
Angeles sts. Tel. Main 127. 

Cooperative Carriage Works, A. Sperl, 
Mgr., 337 E. First st. 

Chemical and Mill Testing Liaboratory 
and Assay Office 

Union Mining and Milling Co., 332 W. 
Second st. (Stephens Reduction 
Process.) 
Clothing and Gent's Furnishings 

London Clothing Co., 117-125 N. Spring 

St., s. w. cor. Franklin. 
Mullen, Bluett & Co., n. w. cor. Spring 

and First sts. 

Confectionery, Ice Cream, Sherbets, etc. 
Wholesale and Retail 

Merriam & Son, 127 S. Spring st. Tel. 

Main 475. 
M. Broszey & Co., 727 W. Sixth st. Tel. 

Red 2033. 
Coal Oil, Gasoline, Wood, Coal, etc. 
Morris-Jones Oil and Fuel Co., 127 S. 

Broadway. Tel. Main 666. 

Collateral liOans 

G. M. Jones, 254 S. Broadway, rooms 1 
and 2 (Private office for ladies). Tel. 
Main 739. 
Costumers, Theatrical Goods, etc. 
Mme. D. S. Corona De Weighs, 359 N. 
Main St. Tel. Black 2691. 
Curio Stores 
Wm. F. Winkler, 346 S.Broadway. 

Decorative Needle-work and Infants' 
Wear 

Beeman & Hendee, 310 S. Broadway. 

Delicacy Store 
Ahrens' Bakery, 425 S. Broadway. 

Dentists 
Drs. Adams Bros., 239>^ S. Spring st. 
G. H. Kriechbaum, 356 S. Broadway. 

Distilled W^ater and Carbonated 
Beverages. 

The Ice and Cold Storage Co., Seventh 

St. and Santa Fe Ry. tracks. Tel. 

228. 

Dry Goods 
N. B. Blackstone Co., Spring and Third 

sts. 
Boston Dry Goods Store, 239 S. Broadway. 
J. M. Hale Co., 107-9-10 N. Spring st. 

Dye Works, Cleaning 
American Dye Works, J. A. Berg, prop. 

Office 21 OK S. Spring st. Tel. Main 

850. Works 61 3-61 5 W. Sixth st. Tel. 

Main 1016. 
English Steam Dye .Works, T. Caunce, 

proprietor, 829 S. Spring st. Tel. 

Black 2731. 



Land of Sunshine Commercial Blue Book, Los Angeles, Cal. 



Druggists 

Boswell & Noyes Drug Co., Prescription 
Druggists, 300 S. Broadway. Tel. 
Main 125. 

FJ.Giese, 103N.Main st. Tel. Brown 310. 

Thomas Drug Co., cor. Spring and Tem- 
ple sts. Tel. Main 62. 

H. C. Worland, 2133 K. First st. Station B. 

H. B. Fasig, 531 Downey ave., cor. Tru- 
man St., East L. A. Tel. Alta 201. 

M. W. Brown, 1200 W. Washington st. 

Liscomb's Pharmacy, cor. Main and Fif- 
teenth sts. Tel West 68. 

Catalina Pharmacy, M. Home, prop., 1501 
W. Seventh st. Tel. Green 772. 

Edmiston & Harrison, Vermont and Jef- 
ferson sts. Tel. Blue 4701. 

E. P. Deville, cor, Sixth and Spring sts. 
Tel. Main 799. 

Homeopatkic Pharmacist 

Boericke & Runyon Co., 320 S. Broad- 
way. Tel. Main 504. 

Door and "Window Screens and House 
Repairing 

Adams Mfg Co., 742 S. Main st. Tel. 
Red 1048. 

JSlectricians 

Woodill & Hulse Electric Co., 108 W. 

Third St. Tel. Main 1125. 
Electric Supply and Fixture Co., 541 S. 

Broadway. Tel. Main 831. 
Electrical Commercial Co , 666 S. Spring 

St. Tel. Main 1666. 

Furnished Rooms 
The Seminole, 324 W. Third st. Rate 

$3 per week and up. 
The Spencer, 31 6>^ W. Third st. Rate 

$3 to $5 per week. 
The Narragansett, 423 S. Broadway, opp. 

Van Nuys Broadway. Tel. Brown 

1373. Rate 50c per day and up. 
The Kenwood, 131 K S. Broadway. Rate 

$3 to $6 per week. 
The Hamilton, 521 S. Olive St., facing 

Central Park. Rate $2 to $5 per 

week. 
Miss A. A. Ryan, 317 S. Main st. Tel. 

Red 2048. Rate $2 to |8 per week. 
Hotel Mackenzie, 827^^ S. Spring st. 

Rate $8 per month and up. Mrs. G. 

J. MacKenzie, prop. 
The Lawrence, cor. Fifth and Olive sts. 

Rate $5 to $12 per month. 
Menlo Hotel, Fritz Guenther, prop., cor. 

Main and Winston sts., opp. post- 
office. Tel. Brown 1221. 
The London, 307 Vz W. Second st. Tel. 

Green 1 363. Rate $2 to $5 per week. 
The Rossmore, Mrs. M. J. Knox, prop , 

416 W. Sixth St. Rate $1.50 to $5 

per week. 
The Smithsonian, 312 S. Hill st. Rate 

$2 to $4 per week. 
The Hafen, Mrs. M. J. Knox, prop., 344 

S. Hill St. Rate $1 .50 to $3 per week. 

Fish, Oysters and Game. 

(Family trade solicited) 
Levy's, 1 1 1 W. Third st. Tel. Main 1284. 



Fruit and Vegetables 

Gill & Dunn Fruit Co., 242 S. Broadway. 

Tel. Main 773. (Shipping solicited.) 
Marston & Co., 320 Temple st. Tel. 

Main 1622. (Shipping solicited.) 
Rivers Bros., Broadway and Temple st. 

Tel. Main 1426. (Shipping solicited.) 
Feather "Works, Mattresses, Pillows, £tc. 
Acme Feather Works, Jos. F. Allen, 

Prop., 513 S. Spring st. Tel. Brown 

1253. 

Furniture, Carpets and Draperies 

Los Angeles Furniture Co., 225-229 S. 

Broadway. Tel. Main 13. 
Southern California Furniture Co., 312- 

314 S. Broadway. Tel. Main 1215. 
I. T. Martin, 531-3-5 S. Spring st. 

Gas Regulator.4. 
Los Angeles Gas Saving Association, 666 

S. Spring St. Tel. 1666. 
Grilles, Fretwork, TVood Novelties, Etc. 

Los Angeles Grille Works, 610 South 
Broadway. 

Haberdashers and Hatters. 

Bumiller & Marsh, 123 S. Spring st. 

Tel. Main 547. 

Hair Bazaar and Beauty Parlors 
The Imperial, Frank Neubauer, prop., 

224-226 W. Second st. Tel. Black 

1381. 

Groceries 

Blue Ribbon Grocery, B. Wynns & Co., 

449 S. Spring st. Tel. Main 728. 
Despars & Sou, cor. Main and Twenty- 
fifth sts. 
H. Jevne, 208-210 S. Spring st. 
C. A. Neil, 423 Downey ave , East L. A. 

Tel. Alta 202. 
Marston & Co., 320 Temple st. Tel. 

Main 1622 
Electric Grocery, 1603S. Grand ave. Tel. 

Blue 2612. 
Geo. Williamson, 1436-38 S. Main st. 

Tel. White 2062. 
O. Willis, 690 Alvarado st. Tel. Main 

1382. 
J. C. Rockhill, 1573 W. First St., cor. 

Belmont ave Tel. Main 789. 
T. L. Coblentz, 825 S. Grand ave. Tel. 

Brown 777. 
J. Lawrence, Cool Block, cor. JeflFerson st. 

and Wesley ave. 
Morrison Bros ,419 S. Broadway. Tel. 

Main 784. 
Rivers Bros , Broadway and Temple st. 

Tel. Main 1426. 
Smith & Anderson, cor. Pico and Olive 

sts. Tel. Blue 2401. 
C. R. Robinson, 318 S. Broadway. Tel. 

Red 1732. 
J. H. Wyatt, 332 E. Fifth st. Tel. Brown 

973 
J. H. Crew, Station F Postoffice, 523 W. 

Washington st. 



Land of Sunshine Commercial Blue Book, Los Angeles, Cal. 



Hardware 

W. A. Russell, 204 S- Broadway. Tel. 

Main 47. 
Hardwood and Parquetry Flooring and 
Enamel Paints. 

Marshall & Jenkins, 430 S. Broadway. 
Tel. Green 1611. 

Hay, Grain, Coal and Wood 

The P. J. Brannen Feed, Fuel & Storage 

Co., 806-810 S. Main st. Tel. Main 

419. 
William Dibble, cor. Sixth and Los An- 
geles sts. Tel. Green 1761. 
Grand Avenue Feed & Fuel Co., A. F. 

Cochems, 1514 Grand ave. Tel. 

West 227. 
J. H. White & Son, 2024-2028 B. First st. 

Tel. Boyle 4 
A. B. Breuchaud, 841 S. Figueroa st. 

Tel. Main 923. 
Parker Seymour, 1528 W. Seventh St., 

Westlake District. Tel. Main 647. 
Enterprise Fuel and Feed Store, Ax & 

Peet, cor. Ninth and Georgia sts. 

Tel. West 239. 

Homeopathic Pharmacist 
Boericke & Runyon Co., 320 S. Broadway. 

Tel. Main 504. 

Hospitals 

The California Hospital, 1414 S. Hope 

St. Tel. West 92. 
Dr. Stewart's Private Hospital, 315 West 

Pico St. Tel. West 14. 

Hotels 

Abbotsford Inn, cor, Bighth and Hope 

sts. Rate, $1.50 per day and up. 
AUline Hotel, Hill st., bet. 3rd and 4th 

sts. American plan, fl.50 per day 

and up. European plan, $3 50 to 

$10.00 per week. 
Hotel Locke, 139 S. Hill St., entrance on 

Second st. American plan. Rate 

$8.00 to $12 per week. 
Bellevue Terrace Hotel, cor. Sixth and 

Figueroa sts. Rate, $2 per day and up. 
HoUenbeck Hotel, American and Europ- 
ean plan. Second and Spring sts. 
Hotel Van Nuys, n. w. cor. Main and 

Fourth sts American plan, $3 to 

$12 per day; European plan, $1 to 

$10 per day. 
Westminster Hotel, n. e. cor. Main and 

Fourth sts American plan, |3 per 

day and up ; European plan, $1 per 

day and up. 
Hotel Gray Gables, cor. Seventh and 

Hill sts. Rates $1 to $2 per day. 
Hotel Lillie, 534 S. Hill st. Rate $8 to 

$15 per week. 
The Belmont, 425 Temple st. Rate $6.50 

per week and up. 
Hotel Grey, n. e. cor. Main and Third 

sts. European plan. Rate, $3.00 to 

$12 per week 
Hotel Rio Grande, 425 W. Second st. 

Rate, $1.50 per day and up. 
Japanese Fancy Goods 
Quong Lee Lung & Co., 350 S. Spring st. 



Jewelers and Watchmakers 

S. Conradi, 113 S. Spring st. Tel. Main 

1159. 
W. T. Harris, cor. First and Main sts. 

Tel. Red 2981. 

liadies*. Children's and Infants' Wear 

I. Magnin & Co., 251 S. Broadway. 
liadies Tailor 

S. BeniofT, 330 S. Broadway. 
liaundries 

Acme Steam Laundry, 325-327 B- Second 
St. Tel. Main 531. 

Crystal Steam Laundry, W. J. Hill, Mgr., 
416-420 E. First st. Tel. Red 1932. 
Special prices to families; all silks 
and flannels washed with distilled 
water ; no shrinkage, no fade. 
liiquor Merchants 

H. J. Woollacott, 124-126 N. Spring st. 

Southern California Wine Co., 220 W. 
Fourth St. 

Edward Germain Wine Co., 397-399 S. 

Los Angeles st. Tel. Main 919. 

liivery Stables and Tally-hos 

Tally-ho Stable & Carriage Co., W. R. 
Murphy (formerly at 109 N. Broad- 
way), 712 S. Broadway. Tel. Main 
51. 

Eagle Stables, Woodward & Cole, 122 S. 
Broadway. Tel. Main 248 

Boyle Heights Livery Stable, J H. White 
& Son, 2024-2028 B. First st. Tel. 
Boyle 4. 

Eureka Stables, 323 W. Fifth st. Tel. 
Main 71. 

Millinery 

Maison Nouvelle, Miss A. Clarke, 222 W. 

3rd St. Tel. Main 1374. 
Meat Markets 
Norma Market, M. T. Ryan, 1818 S. 

Main St. Tel. West 171. 
Crystal Market, Reed Bros., 2309 S. Union 

ave. Tel. Blue 3131. 
Model Market, R. A. Norries, 831 W. 

Sixth St. cor Pearl. Tel. 979 Main. 
Boston Cash Market, Jos. Oser, 1156 S. 

Olive St. Tel. West 126. 
Grand Avenue Market, J. A. Rydell, 

2218 S. Grand ave. Tel. White 321 1. 
Philadelphia Market, S S. Jackson, 3304 

S. Main st. Tel. White 2063 
Pioneer Meat Market, B. Rudolph, 514 

Downey ave., East L- A. Tel. Alta 

208. 
Chicago Market, J. Wollenshlager, 410 

S. Main st Tel. Main 779. 
Popular Market, J. J. Everharty, 205 

West Fourth st. Tel. Red 1289. 
Park Market, Chas Kestner, 329 West 

Fifth St. Tel. Red 925. 
Superior Market, J. G. Young, 717 W. 

Jefferson st Tel. West 50. 
Eureka Market, Jay W. Hyland, cor. 7th 

st and Union ave. Tel. Main 1467. 
Oregon Market, Geo. N. Briggs, prop.» 

525 W. Sixth st. Tel. Red 2032. 



Land of Sunshine Commercial Blue Book, Los Angeles, Cal. 



Merchant Tailors 

H. A. Getz, 229 W. Third st. 

O C. Sens, 219 W Second St., opp. Hol- 

lenbeck Hotel. 
Benhard Gordan, 104 S. Spring st. Tel. 

Green 1692. 
Brauer & Krohn, 114>4 S. Main st. 
A. J. Partridge, 125 W. First st. Tel. 

Green 13 
M. C. Meiklejohn, 203 S. Main st. Branch 

E St., San Bernardino. 

Men'g Furnisbing Goods, Notions, Fancy 
Goods, etc. 

Cheapside Bazaar, F. E. Verge, 2440 S. 
Main st. 

Mexican Hand-Carved Lieather Goods 

H. Ross & Sons, 352 S. Broadway, P. O. 
box 902. 

Mineral Baths. 

Los Angeles Mineral Baths and Springs, 
A. Puissegur, Prop., cor. Macy and 
Lyon sts., and 851 Howard st. 
Modiste 

Miss H. M. Goodwin, Muskegon Block, 
cor. Broadway and Third st. 
Monumental Dealers 

Lane Bros., 631 S. Spring St., Los Ange- 
les, and 41 1 McAlister st., San Fran- 
cisco. 

Nurserymen and Florists 

Los Angeles Nursery. Sales depot 446 
S. Main st. P. O. box 549. (Special- 
ties, plant and cacti souvenirs.) 

Ethel Lord. City depot 440 S. Broad- 
way. Nursery corner Philleo and 
Marathon sts. 

Elmo R. Meserve. Salesyard 635 S. 
Broadway. Tel. White 3226. Nur- 
sery 2228 Sutter st. 

Opticians 

Adolph Frese, 126 S. Spring st. 

Boston Optical Co., Kyte & Granicher, 
235 S Spring st. 

Fred Detmers, 354 S. Broadway. 
Osteopathy 

Pacific School of Osteopathy and Infirm- 
ary, C. A. Bailey, Pres., Tenth and 
Flower sts. Tel. West 55. 
Paints, Oils and Glass 

Scriver & Quinn, 200-202 S. Main st. 

Tel. 565. 
P. H. Mathews, 238-240 S. Main st. Tel. 

1025. 

Pianos, Sheet Music and Musical 
Merchandise 

Southern California Music Co., 216-218 
W. Third st. Tel. 585. 

Fitzgerald Music & Piano Co., 113 S. 
Spring St. Tel. Main 1 159. 

Williamson Bros., 327 S Spring st. Tel. 
1315 Brown. 

Geo. T. Exton, 327 S. Spring st. Tel. 
1315 Brown. (Agent for Regal Man- 
dolins and Guitars. ) ^ " 



Pawn Brokers 

L. B. Cohn, 120-122 North Spring st. 

Photographers 
Townsend's, 340>4 S. Broadway. 
Photographic Material, Kodaks, etc. 

Dewey Bros., 109 W. Second st. Tel. 
Green 1784. 

Picture Frames, Artists' Materials, Sou- 
venirs 

Sanborn, Vail & Co., 133 S. Spring st. 
Ita Williams, 354 S. Broadway and 311 
S- Main st. 

Pleating— Accordion and Knife 
Tucking, Cording, Pinking and Braiding 

Mrs. T. M. Clark, 340^^ S. Hill st. 

Printing, Engraving, Binding 

Kingsley-Barnes & Neuner Co., 123 S. 
Broadway. Tel. Main 417. 

Restaurants 

Ebinger's Dining Parlors, cor. Spring 
and Third sts. Tel. 610. 

Saddlerock Fish and Oyster Parlors, 236 
S. Spring st. (Private diniug par- 
lors.) 

Maison Doree (French Restaurant), 145- 
147 N. Main st. Tel. Main 1573. 

Seymour Dining Parlors, 318 West Sec- 
ond St. 

The Rival Lunch Counter and Restaur- 
ant, 115 W. Second St. 
Rubber Stamps, Stencils and Seals 

Los Angeles Rubber Stamp Co., 224 W. 
First St. Tel. Green 1945. 

Ruberoid Roofing and P. & B. Roof 
Paints. 

Parafine Paint Co., 312-314 W. Fifth st. 

Safe Dealers. 
The Moser Safe Co., J. H. Hart, Agt., 338 
N. Main st. Tel. Main 1347. 
Sanitariums 
Electric Vitapathic Institute, 534>^ S. 
Broadway, D. L- Allen, Mgr., Dr. 
F. W. Bassett, Medical Director. 
Tel. Main 1363. 

Seeds and Agricultural Implements 

Johnson & Musser Seed Co., 1 13 N. Main 
St. Tel. Main 176. 

Sewing Machines and Bicycles 

Williamson Bros., 327 S. Spring st. Tel. 
Brown 1315. 

Shirt and Shirt Waist Makers 

Machin Shirt Co., 11 8>^ S. Spring st. 
Bumiller & Marsh, 123 S. Spring st. 
Tel. Main 547. 

Sign Writers and Painters 

S. Bros.-Schroeder Bros., 121 E. Second 

St. Tel. Main 561. 
Louis Gaubatz, 234 E. Second st. 

Soda Works and Beer Bottlers 

Los Angeles Soda Works (H. W. Stoll & 
Co.), 509 Commercial st. Tel. Main 



Land of Sunshine Commercial Blue Bool^, Los Angeles, Cal. 



Shoe Stores 

W. E. Cummings, Fourth and Broadway. 
Innes-Crippen Shoe- Co., 258 S. Broad- 
way and 231 W. Third st. 
Waterman's Shoe Store, 122 S Spring st. 
F. K. Verge, 2440 S. Main st. 

Sporting Goods and Bicycles 
L. A. Cycle & Sporting Goods Co., 319 
S. Main st. 

stenographers 
Mrs. E. ly. Widney, 403 Bradbury Bldg. 

stucco Worlt 
Gusta Zierold, 629 S. Main st. 

Surgical Instruments, Trusses, 
Hosiery- 



Elastic 



W. W. Sweeney, 213 W. Fourth St. Tel. 
Green 1312. 

Taxidermist and ::^aturalist 
Wm. F. Winkler, 346 S. Broadway. 

Teas, Coffees and Spices 
Sunset Tea & Coffee Co., 229 W. Fourth 

St. Tel. Main 1214. 
J. D. Lee & Co., 130 W. Fifth st. 

Tents, Awnings, Hammocks, Camp 
Furniture, etc. 

Los Angeles Tent & Awning Co., A. W. 

Swanfeldt, prop., 220 S. Main st. 

Tel. Main 1 1 60. 
J. H. Masters, 136 S. Main st. Tel. Main 

1512. 

Trunk Manufacturers, Traveling 
Cases, etc. 

D. D. Whitney, 423 S Spring st, 
Main 203. 



Transfer Co. 

(See Van and Storage Co's.) ' 
Undertakers 
Breese Bros,. 557-559 S. Broadway. 



Tel 



Main 243. 

C. D. Howery, 509-511 S. Broadway. Of- 
fice Tel. 107 ; Res. Tel. 541. 

Peck & Chase Co., 433-435 S. Hill st. 
Tel. 61. 

Upholstering, Polishing, Cabinet "Work 

Broadway Furniture & Upholstering Co., 
521 S. Broadway. 

Van and Storage Companies 

Bekins Van and Storage Co. Office 436 
S. Spring st.; Tel. Main 19. Ware- 
house, Fourth and Alameda sts.; Tel. 
Black 1221. 

"Wall Paper, Room Moulding, Decorating 

Los Angeles Wall Paper Co. , 309 S. Main 

St. Tel. Green 314. 
New York Wall Paper Co., 452 S. Spring 

St. Tel. Main 207. 

"Warehouse 

(See Van and Storage Co's.) 

Wood Mantels, Tiles, Grates, Etc. 

Chas E. Marshall, 514 S. Spring st. 

Tel. Brown 1821. 
TVood Turning, Grill and Cabinet Work. 

The Art Mill Co., 649 S. Spring st. Tel. 

Green 1638. 
Wood Turning, Scroll and Band Sawing 

Tel. A.J. Koll, 335-337 E. Second st. Tel. 

1242. 



A Unique Library. 

The bound volumes of the Land of Sunshink make the most interesting and 
valuable library of the far West ever printed. The illustrations are lavish and hand- 
some, the text is of a high literary standard, and of recognized authority in its field. 
There is nothing else like this magazine. Among the thousands of publications in 
the United States, it is wholly unique. Every educated Californian and Westerner 
should have these charming volumes. They will not long be secured at the present 
rates, for back numbers are growing more and more scarce ; in fact the June num- 
ber, 1894, is already out of the market. 

Vols. 1 and 2— July '94 to May '95, inc., gen. half morocco, $3.90, plain leather, |3.30 
•* 3 and 4— June '95 to May '96, " " " " -" " 

" 5 and 6— June '96 to May '97, ** " " 
'• 7 and 8— June '97 to May '98, " " " 
** 9 and 10— June '98, to May '99 " " " 

Thk Land of Sunshine Pubwshing Co , 

501 Stimson Building, Los Angeles, Cal. 



2.85, •' 


(( 


2 25 


3.60, •♦ 


" 


3.00 


2.85, " 


" 


2.25 


2.70, •• 


(t 


2.10 



F. B. 8ilverwoo<l*s l>est Hats are $3; regular $5 qualities. 



When answering advertisements, please mention that you " saw it in the I«AifD of Sunshine.' 



OLDKST AND LAROBST BANK IN 80CTHERN 
CALIFORNIA. 

Farmers and Merchants Bank 

OF LOS ANGELES, CAL. 

Capital (paid up) - - $,00,000.00 
Surplus and Reserve - 925,000.00 

Total - - 11,425,000.00 

OFFICBRS : 

I. W. Hellman President 

H. W. Hellman Vice-President 

Henry J. Fleishman Cashier 

G. A. J. Hbimann Assistant Cashier 

dirkctors : 
W. H. Perry, C. E. Thom, J. F. Francis 
O.W.Childs, I. W. Hellman, Jr., I. N. VanNuys 
A. Glassbll, H. W. Hellman, I. W. Hbllman 
Special Collection Department. Correspond 
ence Invited. Safety Deposit Boxes for rent. 



W. C. Patterson. President 

W. GiLLBLEN Vice-President 

W. D. Wool wine Cashier 

E. W. CoE Asst. Cashier 




CoR, First and Spring Sts. 

Capital $500,000 

Surplus and Undivided Profits 60,000 

This bank has the best location of any bank in 
I^os Angeles It has the largest capital of any 
National Bank in Southern California, and is the 
only United States Depositary in Southern Cali- 
fornia. 



First National Bank 

OF I«OS ANOKIiKS. 

Largest National Bank in Southern 
California. 

Capital Stock $400,000 

Surplus and Undivided Profits over 260,000 

J. M. Elliott, Prest., W.G. Kerckhoff, V.Pres. 

Frank A. Gibson, Cashier. 

W. T. S. Hammond, Assistant Cashier. 



directors: 



J. M. Elliott, 
J. D. Bicknell. 



J. D. Hooker, 
W. G. Kerckhoff, 



F. Q. Story, 
H. Jevne, 
J. C. Drake. 
All Departments ol a Modem Banking Business 
Conducted. 



^^^r-cj^j—^yr-rgj- 



^^% 





CORNER MAIN AND SECOND STREETS 



Officers and Directors. 

H. W. Hellman, J. A. Graves, M. L. 
Fleming, F. O. Johnson, H. J. Fleishman, 
J. H. Shankland, C A. Shaw, W. I.. <S 
Graves. J 

J. F. Sartori, President <g 

Maurice S. Hellman, Vice-Pres. 

W. D. I^ONGYBAR, Cashier A 
Interest Paid on Ordinary and Term Deposits ] 



^^" 



SS,\\W«\\\y^. 



«\i,,'^'»'»^,'^ ■«&««: •a*^'W;^.^»^,'e*^s*'»^«%^^^^ 



/ 



^Cp^S"\ Investors... i 

4 You can find nothing better. $ 

g Our 6 per cent. "Coupon Bonds" tP 

2 and 7 per cent. " Paid-up Income Stock" are dt 

2 Safe, Profitable, Standard Investments. P 

'* Safe as Government Bonds." $ 

The Coupon Bonds run for five years on a 6 per cent ^ 
basis. The coupons are payable six months apart. ^ 

The Paid-up Income Stock runs for one or three years ^ 
on a basis of 7 per cent. dt 

The above investments are secured by „ 

First Mortgage (held in escro^/ by trustee). Fire Insurance (upon improvements), w 
Life Insurance (upon the borrower's life). ^ 

The Protective Savings Mutual Building and Loan Association $ 

N. W. cor. First and Broadway, Los Angeles, Cal. i 

Title Insurance and Trust Co., Trustee. ^ 




Pedigreed Belgian Hares 



n 



A profitable and pleasurable business and one easily conducted by old or 
young is assured by the Belgian Hare. A ready market can always be found 
among those desirous of establishing choice herds, while its flesh is in 
great demand. A trio of Belgian Hares is as good as a gold mine, and the 
investment multiplies itself faster than a like amount invested in any other 
. way. Call on or write to 

I F. A. SCHNELL, 424 N. beaudry Ave., Los Angeles, Cal. I 
F. B. Silverwood carries the largest stock of Neckwear in Los Angeles. 



When answering advertisements, please mention that you " saw it in the Land of Shnshink. 




LmEn'cnllars B Cuffs »//>^^- 

SACHS BROS & CO. 
San Franplsco Coast Agents 

HUNTER & CAMFIEID 

I 



112 



General Business Agents 
Kxchanges 



REAL ESTATE 

INSURANCE 
SOUTH AND LOANS 

BROADWAY 

I,OS ANGELES, CaL 

Telephone 31 



" An Olive Orchard is a Gold Mine on the face of 
the earth." — Italian Proverb. 

A 20- ACRE OI.IVE GROVE in our "Si- 
erra Madre" Fruit Colonies in Southern Califor- 
nia assures health, happines.s and a large annual 
income for centuries. 

We sell, plant and bring the orchard into bear- 
ing: for you on our easy payment plan. We have 
railways, churches, schools, a perfect "all the 
year" climate and beautiful homes. 
No Pioneering ; illustrated booklet free. 
ARTHUR BULI. & CO., Owners, 

1202 Chamber of Commerce, Chicago. 
Or Ontario, Cal. 




You will find plenty of originality on our 

SHOES 

But what is of more importance, comfort and 
durability. The prettiest shoe is not always the 
weakest. The makers have found a way of 
combining beauty and strength, and we pick the 
best of their products. 

For I^adies. Men or Children we have footwear 
to fit. Our readies' and Men's $3 00 shoes are 
the best. 

BLANEY'S 

352 South Spring, near Gor. Fourth St. 



We Sell the Earth-- 



BASSETT & SMITH 

We deal in all kinds of Real Estate. 
Orchard and Resident Property. 
Write for descriptive pamphlet. 

Y. M. C. A. BUILDING 
LOS ANGELES, CAL. 



PRESS or 







123 

SBroadmay 

losilnqeles, 

Cal. 



I)pintit\^^ i^lnGll^j 
JUn|pavl^| 



Telepmone 

Main 4 l 7 



PRINTCRvS ^? BlNDCf^.5 TO THE 

Land op 5un^mine 



F. B. Silverwood's best Hats are $3; regular $5 qualities. 



When answering advertisements, please mention that you "saw it in the Land of Sunshine.' 




ALL EFFORTS 

TO EQUAL THE 

^emuigW 

Standard Typcwrif^ 

(i|^YCKOFF,SEAMANS 6f BE|MEDICT^-^B^^^^ 

147 South Broadway, Los Angeles, Cal. 
211 riontgomery St., San Francisco. 



REDLANDS— 



^^^ Ranches, Residences and all 
kinds of Real £state in Redlands at reasonable 
rates. See Redlands before buying. Call upon 
or address JOHN P. FISK, 

Rooms I and 2 Union Bank Block. 

Redlanda» Cal. 



TYPEWRITERS.... 

Sold on monthly payments. Shipped any- 
where, C. O. D., with privilege of examina- 
tion. All kinds of Typewriting Machines 
Bought, Sold, Rented and Exchanged. Rib- 
bons, Carbon, Stationery. 

Typewriter Exchange, 319 TTilcox Bldg, 

Tel . Black 1608 . I,os Angel es , Cal . 




Concert Pbonograpb 

Mr. Edison has perfected the Phonograph. 
This is the instrument. 



It perfectly reproduces the human voice 
—JUST AS I^OUD— just as clear— just as 
sweet. 

It duplicates instrumental music with 
pure-toned brilliance and satisfying in- 
tensity. Used with Edison Concert Re- 
cords, its reproduction is free from all 
mechanical noises. Only the music or the 
voice is heard. It is strong and vibrant 
enough to fill the largest auditorium. It 
is smooth and broad enough for the parlor. 

The highest type of talking machine 
ever before produced bearsnocomparison. 
with the Edison Concert Pbooograph. 
The price is *125. Full particulars can 
be obtained from all dealers in Phono- 
graphs, or by addressing The National 
PHONOGRApiH Co., New York, asking for 
Concert Catalogue No. 109. 

Six other styles of Phonographs, in- 
cluding the Edison Gem, price ^7.50. 
PETER BACIGALUPI, 933 Market St., 
San Fraccisco, Cal., Pacific Coast 
Agency for National Phonograph Co., 
New York. 

NONE GENUINE WITHOUT THIS 




i^ovu. 



When answering advertisements, please mention that you "saw it in the I<and of Sukshikb.' 

Life 
Income Investments. 

BEARING 

CALIFORNIA ALMOND 

ORCHARDS 



In the South Antelope Valley, the Greatest Almond 
District in the World, on the 

Insurance ^Annuity Plan 

Safest and Most Remunerative Proposition Ever Devised. Cash or Time 

Payments. No Interest. Perpetual Income Assured to Investor 

if He Lives, to His Family if He Dies. 

DEATH OF INVESTOR 

Cancels all unmatured payments, beneficiary secures bearing five-year-old almond orchard and 
income from same fiee and clear, also $250.00 to $1,200.00 a year in cash, and $1,000.00 to $5,000.00 
residence erected on the property, or one-half the cost of residence in cash. Death of investor with- 
out other estate or insurance leaves beneficiary amply provided for for life. Property deeded in trust 
at the outset to the 

STATE BANK AND TRUST COMPANY 

Of L.08 Angeles, Paid-up Capital 9500,000.00 

Cash Benefits Guaranteed by the TRAVELERS INSURANCE CO. 

Of Hartford, Conn., and other old line companies. 

TWO PLANS. 

Sale of Individual Orchards. Sale of Undivided Interest in the American 
Almond Grower's Association, 

Requiring no personal attention now or in the future. Will pay 60 per cent net profit 
per annum, based upon the last 

United States Census Report as reproduced herewith 



Nuts and 
Citrus Fruit 


Acre- 
age 


Yield 
per 
Acre 


Total 
Yield 


SelUng 
Price 


Value 


Yield 
per 
Acre 


Land 
Value 
(b) (c) 


Almond 

Fig (a) 


6,098.00 
1,274.00 
3,834.00 
3,237.00 
13.096 50 


pounds 
2,501 

8,784 

3,600 

2,984 
boxes 

95 


pounds 
15,251,078 

11,190,816 

13,802,400 

9,669,208 
boxes 
1,245,047 


per lb. 
0.1000 

0.0233 

0.0900 

0.0400 
per box 

1.8200 


1,525,109.80 
298.421 76 

1,242,216.00 
386,368.32 

2,271,616.30 


250.00 
204.66 
324.00 
119.36 
172.90 


95.00 
110.60 


Madeira Nut.... 

Olive 

Orange 


111 43 
55.83 
186 00 



112 page illustrated book, rate tables on 2% to 80 acres from age 25 to 65, association plan where 
$1.25 a month will receive same proportionate profit as larger investtnents, free on application. 

Alpine Springs Land and Water Company 

1115 Stock Exchange Building, 220 Henne Building, 

108 LiaSalle Street, Chicago. 3d St. near Spring, lios Angeles. 

Lands, Orchards and Town Sites at 
Tierra Bonita, Palmdale and Little Rock, Los Angeles Co., California. 



tlummel Bros. & Co., Emplovment Agents, 300 W. Second St Tel. Main 509 



Bear Valley Resort 




Lies twenty-four miles from Redlands, out 
of sight and hearing of the usual haunts 
of men, among the peaks of the Sierra 
Madre, 6,000 feet above the sea. 

It is an ideal place for families, over- 
worked business men, or the lovers of rod 
and gun. 

HOW TO CJET THERE: Stage leaves Redlands for Bear Valley at 5 a.m. 
each Tuesday, Thursday and Saturday. Returning from Bear Valley, the stage leave':* 
each Morday, Wednesday and Friday, reaching Redlands in time to connect with 
the afternoon Santa F6 train for Los Angeles. 

ACCOMMODATIONS: At Gus Knight's Resort, Bear Valley, consist of fur- 
nished .single and double new log cabins and hotel apartments, or tenting privileges ; 
a music hall, store, postofiice, bath house with hot and cold water, and first-class dining 
room service, with fresh meat, game, fish, milk, cream and butter, and all the veg- 
etables and fruits of the season. Provisions are also sold to campers, and saddle 
horses, vehicles, guns, rods and tackle rented. The resort is provided with one of the 
best golf links in Southern California and other outdoor amusements. 

KATES : Round trip tickets can be purchased for $5 00, or one way for $3 00, at 
132 S Spring st., Los Angeles, or from the Santa F6 ticket agent at Pasadena or Red- 
lands. Toll for private conveyances is more reasonable than on any similar mountain 
road. Board and lodging at Gus Knight's Resort is $2.00 a day or $10.00 a week. Ex- 
cursion ticket, good for round trip from Mentone and one week's board, is $13.00. 

Address. GUS KNIGHT, Jr., 

Pine Lake P. O. Bear Valley, California. 



When answering advertisements, please mention that you " saw it in the Land op Sukshike." 

S^5^ M2HIS2 THE GEM 

CONCERT EVERY SUNDAY BY 

THE CELEBRATED LOS ANGELES 



MILITARY BAND ^ ^ ^ 



Good Bathing, Fishing, Eating, Walking ; in fact, everything 
to make a pleasant day. 

SEATS FOR EVERYONE 



CONVENIENT DEPOTS 
QUICK TIME 



Via Southern Pacific 



Trains leave Arcade Depot daily 9.00 a m.. 1.35 p.m., 5.15 p.m. Sundays from 8.00 a.m. every 
hour until 2.00 p. m., also 8.35 a. m., 5.15 p. m., G.30 p. m , 7.15 p. m., 7.45 p. m All trains leave River 
alation 15 minutes earlier, stopping at Naud Junction, Commercial and First Streets. 

Take "Judge's" Flyer at 8.35 a. m. 

Makes run in 22 minutes. 
I,ast train returning leaves Santa Monicr 9.35 p m. City Ticket OflSce. 261 South Spring St 



We Manufacture all kinds of 



RUBBER GOODS 



When you purchase and want 

The Best Rubber Hose 




See that Our Name is on every length. 
FOB SA1.£ BY Alil. DKAI.EBS. 



GOODYEAR RUBBER COMPANY 

673, 675, 677, 679 MARKET STREET 

B. H. PEASE, Vice-Pres. and Manager. 

SAN FBANCISCO. 




m BAIHi 



AT 



Is superior to any on the 
Pacific Coast. This ideal 
resort is superb in all its 
appointments, and is 
'$^\-' reached only by the 

LOnNmtnERfllNAl 
RAIIM 
me Picioresque line — cataunii, long beach, 

ALAMIIOS BEAim AND SAN PEDRO 

All delightful Ocean Resorts within a short ride 
of Los Angeles. 

EXCURSION RATES EVERY DAY 

For detailed information call on Terminal Agent 

S. B. Hynes, Gen'l Manager. 
T. C. Peck, Gen'l Pass. Agent. 



Hummei Bros. & Co., Largest Employment Agency. 300 W. Second St. Tel. Main 509 



When answering advertisements, please mention that you " saw it in the I,ahd of Sunshiitb. 



Always 
Cool 




The route of the Burllngtoa 
Excursions — through Salt 
lyake City and Denver — is 
the ideal summer route to 
the East. It is always cool. 
The scenery is indescrib- 
ably beautiful. For hun- 
dreds of miles you ride 
through the Wonderland of 
the World — past canons, 
mountains, rivers, water- 
falls and landscapes gay 

ith flowers. 

The Burlington Excur- 
sions leave Los Angeles 
every Wednesday; Sau Fran- 
cisco every Thursday. No 
change, California to St. Louis 
and Chicago. Only one change 
to Boston. Experienced excur- 
Bion manager in charge from 
coa,st to coast. 

Write for descriptive folder. 



W. W. ELLIOTT, Los Angeles 



GetRich 



Fortunes in STOCKJS. 
Shares S$1.00 a month. 
Safe an a Bank. Send 4c 
I for Gu Ida. A. H. >v i LCOX & CO. 
529 Broadway, New York. 



ACME 



BICYCLED 



Direct from the factory to the rider 
at WHOLESALE PRICES. 

WE HAVE NO AGENTS. 



If you want to save agent's profits 
and secure a High Grade Bicycle at 

MANUFACTURER'S PRICE, 

write for catalogue showing eight 
beautiful models with complete spec- 
ifications. GUARANTEE: REPAIRS 
FREE AND NO QUESTIONS ASKED. 



Acme Cycle Co., Ell<hart, lad. 




Leave Los Angeles every Tuesday via the Denver 
& Rio Grande" Scenic Line," and by the popular 
Southern Route every Wednesday, Low rates ; 
quick time ; competent managers ; Pullman up- 
holstered cars ; union depot, Chicago. Our rars 
are attached to the "Boston and New York 
Special," via Lake Shore, New York Central and 
Boston & Albany Railways, arriving Boston 8:00 
p. m., New York 1 p. m. 
For maps, rates, etc.. call on or address. 

F. W. THOMPSON, Gen. Ag't. 
214 S. Spring St. Los Angeles. 

Personally Conducted 

REDONDO BY THE SEA 

17 Miles from Tios Angeles 

Redondo Railway Time Table 

In eflfect June 4, 1899 
Leave Los Angeles Leave Redondo 

9:30 a.m daily 8:00 a.m. 

1:30 p.m daily 11:00 a.m. 

5:80 p.m daily 4:15 p.m. 

11:30 p.m Saturday only 6:30 p.m. 

8:10 am Sundays 7:00 a m. 

9:30 a.m Sundays 8:00 a.m. 

10:45 a.m Sundays 9:30 a.m. 

1:30 a.m Sundays 11:00 a m, 

5:30 a.m Sundays 4:15 a.m. 

7:00 p.m ..Sundays 5:45 p.m. 

L. J. PBRRT Snp«rintendent, Grand Are. and Jefferson St 
City office, 246 S Spring St. Telephone West 1. 







CEANIC S. S. CO.— nONOLULl 
APIA, AlCKLAND and SYDNEY 




HONOLULU 



SAMOA,TAHiTi. /Oceanic Steamships 



NEW ZEALAND, 
AUSTRALIA. 



(SPRCCKtlA LlNC) 

(My StcaiHirlinetDltHWiinderluiilstfac hdRc 

T^ StJUTH Sea Islands. 

SPECIAL RATES 

fOB INaUSIVt TRIPS TAKIM* IN 
, SAMOA. FUl.TAMtn. £TC. 



" Send 10 cents postage foi 
" Trip to If await," with fine 
photographic illustrations. 
20 cents for new edition of 

same, with beautiful colored plate illustrations ; 

20 cents postage for " Talo/a, Summer Sail to 

South Seas," also in colors, to Ocbanic S. S. Co., 

114 Montgomery St., San Francisco. 

Steamers sail to Honolulu twice a 
month, to Samoa, New Zealand and 
Sydney, via Honolulu, every 28 days. 

J. D. SPRECKELS BROS. CO., 

114 Montgomery Street, San Francisco. 

HUGH B. BICE, Agent, 

330 S. Spring St., I^os Angeles, Cal. 



Underwear a Specialty at Silverwoods. 



When answering advertisements, please mention that you " saw it in the Land of Sunshink. 



Santa Monica ^ i 

Where coolest breezes blow -^ *"% »^ 

on warmest days ^i 

%. 
combines the attractions of the seashore with /^ 

proximity and frequent electric and steam 
railway facilities to the metropolis of South- 
ern California. 

Its Modern Tourist Hotel 
the Arcadia offers 



■f 



/ ^ tr 




t 



Gls^ 



- ^MW^ 

marine and mountain views and adjacent 

drives, hunting, boating, fishing wharf, warm ^"■'^ ^''^^'''^ **»« y^*"" '"""^ 

salt water plunge, broad walk along the surf, and the longest wharf in *^ 

the world, and other attractions unsurpassed. 

For convenient and enjoyable headquarters from which to visit all 
points of interest, go to 

The Arcadia Hotel 

Santa Monica, Cal. FRANK A. MILLER, Prop. 




TROLLY PARTIES 
A SPECIALTY 



EVERYBODY GOES 

^^^TO SANTA MONICA 
Via Los Angeles Pacific Electric Ry. 

It provides one of the most modem equipments and the 
coolest and most scenic route in Southern California. 

For Santa Monica: Cars leave Fourth and Broadwav, Los Angeles, via Hill and 
16th streets, every half hour from *6:30 a. m. to 7:30 p. m., and hourly to 11:30 p. m. 

Via Bellevue Ave., Colegrove and Sherman, every hour from *6:15 a. m. to 11:15 p. m. 
4:45 p. m., 5:45 p. m. and 11:45 p. m. to Sherman only. Cars leave Plaza lo minutes later. 

For I.08 Angeles : Cars leave Hill Street, Santa Monica, at *5:50, *6:10, *6:40 a. m., 
and every half hour from 7:10 a.m. to 7:40 p. m., and hourly thereafter to 10:40 p. m. 
Sundays, every half hour from 7:10 a. m. to 7.40 p. m., and hourly to 10:40 p. m. Leave 
band stand, Ocean Ave., 5 minutes later. 

Cars leave Hill Street, South Santa Monica, 40 minutes after each hour from 6:40 a. m. 
to 9:40 p. m. Connect at Morocco cars via Sherman and Colegrove. 

*Hxcept Sundays. Offices, Chamber of Commerce BIdg., 4th and Broadway, Los Angeles 



For = = = Horton House 

A home-like place «w.^~vx^05 r^ r^» 

A cool retreat ^V^^^ 3&tl UiegO 



A pleasant room 
Good things to eat 




Cal. 



Our Hotel Rates cannot be beat W. E. HADLEY 

Proprieto 

F. B. Silverwood carries the largest stock of Neckwear in Los Angeles. 



When answering advertisements, please mention that you "saw it in the Land of Sunshinb.' 



Santa Fe 
Route 



Grand Canon of Arizona 

Two Hundred Miles Long, Over a Mile Deep, and 
Painted Like a Flower. 

Reached only by the SANTA FE ROUTE 

Stage Leaves Flagstaff Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays. 
Returning, Arrives at Flagstaff Tuesdays, Thursdays and Saturdays, 




ALTA VISTA. 



Copyright, 1898, by Oliver Lippincott. 



SIX-HORSE STAGES MAKE THE TRIP IN TEN HOURS 

Excursion Rates 

from all points on the Santa Fe Route 
JNO. J. BYRNE, General Passenger Agent, Los Angeles 



When answering- advertisements, please mention that you " saw it in the Land of Sunshine." 




i8km 



Anita Cream makes a dark 
skin lighter, clearer, purer. It 
removes all discolorations. It is 
a medical preparation which cures, 
it actually coaxes a new skin to the 
surface. The removing of tan is 
the least important of its accom- 
plishments. It removes blotches, 
pimples, moth and liver patches, 
and restores the clear, transparent 
beauty of youth. 



ANITA CREAM CO., "VAN NUYS." 

Los Angeles, Cal. September nineteenth. 

Gentlemen : During my recent trip from New York to Los Angelej 
the dust, wind and exposure so tanned my face and hands that upon ai 
riving here I was urged by my friends to use Anita Cream. In so short 
time it has entirely removed every vestage of my long trip and the resul 
is most satisfactory. Very truly yours, 

Los Angeles, Cal. BLANCHE BATES. 

All druggists can supply Anita Cream, or you can send 50 cents to us. For 10 cents t 
ly postage and package we will send a free sample and a 9x16 lithographic art stud 

Pree suitable for framing. No printing on picture. 
" J ANITA CREAM. Adv. Bureau, 

ample 213 Franklin Street, Los Angeles, Cal. 




THE JONES 
UMBRELLA' ROOr 

A NEW UNION TWILLED 5ILK"R00f "$ l.q 



RE-COVER YOUR OWN UMBRELLA. 

The Adjustable " Roof" fits any frame, requires 
no sewing, and can be put on in a minute. You 
can re-cover your own umbrella without the sligh 
est trouble or moments delay. 

Take the measure (to the fraction of an inch) oi 
your old umbrella; count the number of outside 
ribs ; state if the center rod is steel or wood ; send to us with $i.oc 
and we will mail postpaid, a Union Twilled Silk 25 or 26 inch Ad- 
justable *' Roof" (27 or 28 inch, $1.25 ; 29 or 30 inch, $1.50). Um- 
brella "Roofs" all sizes and prices from 50 cents to $8.00 each, 
accordingto quality. If yor. are not absolutely satisfied in every 
particular, send the "roof" back, and we will refund the 
money at once, including ^tamps you have used for post- 
age. Over a quarter of a million " Roofs " sold. 
Booklet, "Umbrella Economy" with simple instruc- 
tions necessary with your order.. 
All first-class dealers sell Jones Umbrella "Roofs." 



'e. 



The Joncs-MuIIcn Co.. 396-398 Broadway, New York. 

Manufacturers of the highest grades of Umbrellas to t6e largest stores in the world. 



>THE BIG BONANZA 
THE CITY OF THE SAINTS 
MY BROTHER'S KEEPER 



vol. Al, INO 

Ivavisbly 

Illustrated 




THE MAGAZINE OF 

CALirORNIAAH-THEWEST 



WITH A SYNDICATE 
OF WESTERN WRITERS 



EDITED BY 

CHAS.f.LUMMIS 

A$$OflArt EOirOR 

.ORACEELLERYCnANNIKft;, 



>Y«iCMTEO 189* BY LAND OF SUMSHINE PU8.CO 



IQA 



% nENTS ■^IB ^^ SUNSHINE PUBLISHING CO. #h i A 

■ . ri.u INCORPORAT.O ^ ■«■?;■» 



When answering advertisements, please mention that you " saw it in the Land op Sunshinb. 




CaliforniaCream OF Lemon 

Nature's Food for the Skin. 



D 



emon, the wholelemon, and noth- 
ing but lemon, is used in mak- 
ing this wonderful California 
product. 

cleanser and beautifier— better 
than soap. No fats, no grease, 
no alkali. Makes the skin soft, 
smooth and healthy, 
o you want a clear and healthy 
complexion ? Use Cream of 
Lemon and you have it. 
t prevents and cures pimples, 
chapped hands and face, and al! 
skin irritations. Prevents and 
removes tan. sunburn and 
freckles. Restores faded com- 
plexions and banishes wrinkles. 
Everybody should use Cream of 
' Lemon instead of soap. Cleans- 
ing, refreshing, invigorating— a 
delight for men after shaving, 
old by all dealers in toilet soaps at 
15c. for 3 oz tube, and 25c. tor 6 
oz. tube. If your dealer cannot 
supply it, we will mail either 
size prepaid to you on receipt 
of price. 



't^ The California Cream of Lemon Co., Los Angeles, CaL 






''American Home Furnishings" 

Is the title of our 16- page illustrated booklet which we want to get into the 
hands of all in Southern California and Arizona who are interested in the 
beautifying of home. It's free. Your name and address on a 
postal card will bring it. 

Niles Pease Furniture Co, 

439-41-43 S. Spring St*, Los Angeles 



Order from 
the " Big Store. 



has for sale 
the largest 
collection 



F.H.MAUDE 

OF PHOTOGRAPHS of the GRAND 
CANON, INDIANS and CALIFORNIA 

IWA S. SPRING ST. lOS ANGELES, CAL 



PAYS 



to write for our 256 page 
book free. Tells how 
men with small capital 
can make money with a 
MAGIC I.ANTERN or STEREOPTICON. 

MCALLISTER, MiO. OpIiGlon, 49 N08SQU St., New YOfk. 




6EUCUS 
ACETYLENE 
GAS 
GENERATORS 

are in hundreds of resi- 
dences, business places, 
chuiches. halls, etc Ac- 
cepted by the Board of 
Fire Undtrwriters. We 
are offering 

Special inducements 
to Agents 

and nserb who first intro- 
dtcethe Beucus in their 
locality. For particulars 
address H. & B., 746 S. 
Main St., Los Angeles. 



F. B. Silverwood's bent Uats are $3 ; reg-ular $5 qualities. 



When answering advertisements, please mention that you " saw It In the I^and of Sunshine.' 

In the Heart of Los Angeles«£«i^j^«««>i* 



49 

♦J 
« 

49 
49 
49 
49 
49 
49 
49 
49 
49 
49 
49 
49 
49 
49 
49 
49 



The Hollenbeck, on Second 
and Spring Sts., is the most 
centrally located of all the 
Los Angeles Hotels. 

Electric cars pass its doors 
to all points of interest. 

It is headquarters for Tal- 
ly-ho and Railway Excur- 
sions, commercial men and 
tourists. 

It is run on both Amer- 
ican .and European plans. 

Has first-class Caf6 and 
rooms with bath and other 
conveniences. Rates are 
reasonable, its 
courteous. 



W^^m^^r^^^L-^^ 




conveniences ample and its service orompt and 



HOLLENBECK HOTEL 



A. C. BILICKE & CO. 
Second and Spring Sts. 



Props. 

Los Angeles, Cal. 






ar¥¥¥¥¥¥$¥¥¥tF¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥$¥¥¥¥¥^$$¥¥^ 




REAL COMrORT 



can be had with one of our Turkish 
Easy Chairs. 
For modern stock, large selection and low prices in 

Furniture, Carpets, Mattings, Rugs, Curtains, Etc., 

Call on or write 

Southern California furniture Co., 

312-14 S. Broadway, Los Angeles. 



BOSTON 



DRY 
GOODS 



STORE 



THE Ji W. ROBINSON COMPANY 

839 and 241 South Broadway, lios Angeles. Opposite City Hall. 

THE exclusiveness of the Boston Store stock is manifested 
in all of the 32 departments, is an integral part of the 
largest, best appointed, most exclusive dry goods store 
in the Southwest. 



EXCLUSIVE STYLES 



\lf' 



E show exclusive styles in silks, dress goods, tailor 
suits, waists, skirts, jackets and capes. All the latest 
trimmings and novelties. 



MAIL ORDER 
DEPARTMENT 



Agents for Butterick Patterns 

Now Ready— early autumn Septem- 
ber Delineator, also September 
fashion sheets and patterns. 



SEND FOR 
SAMPLES 



When answering advertisements, please mention that you " saw it in the Land of StTNSHiNB. 



LOS ANGELES FURNITURE CO. 

CARPETS, RUGS, CURTAINS 

225-227-229 S. BROADWAY Opposite City HatI 
LOS ANGELES, CAL. 



Solid M Roii Top De$l(, $22.00 

Hand polished antique oak, 
exactly like illustration, fitted 
with large drawers for papers, 
receptacles for bill and letter 
files, Yale lock cash drawer, 
pigeon holes, etc. Of course 
we have all kinds of desks 
from $io to $150.00, but this 
one at $22 is extra good for 
the price. Flat top desks, 
high* standing desks, oflSce 
tables, office chairs, and file cabinets. If you need a new piece of 
office furniture, we are sure to have just what you are looking for. 




|_^..^^ 





Drink.... 

Puritas 
Carbonated 



PUREST 

AND 

BEST 



Waters 

( In Siphons— Pints and Quarts ) 



PURITAS, PURALARIS, LITHIA, SELTZER, 
VICHY, KISSINGEN 

...Puritas Ginger Ale... 

Special and Extra Dry 
All Bottles and Corks Thoroughly Sterilized 

The Ice and Cold Storage Co. of losAngeies 

TELEPHONE MAIN 228 



All kinds of Outing: Shirts a-t Silverwood's. 



The Land of Sunshine 

(incorporated) capital stock $so,ooo. 

The Magazine of California and the West 

EDITED BY CHAS. F. LUMMIS 

The Only Exclusively Western Magazine 

AMONG THE STOCKHOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS ARE: 



DAVID STARR JORDAN 

President of Stanford University 

THEODORE H. HITTELL 

The Historian of California 

MARY HALLOCK FOOTE 

Author of The Led-Horse Claim etc 

MARGARET COIyUER GRAHAM 
Author of Stories of the Foothills. 

GRACE ELLERY CHANNING 

Author of TTie Sister of a Saint, etc. 

ELLA HIGGINSON 

Author of A Forest Orchid, etc. 

JOHN VANCE CHENEY 

Author of Thistle Drift, etc. 

CHARLES WARREN STODDARD 
The Poet of the South Seas. 

INA COOLBRITH 

Author of Songs from the Golden Gate, etc. 

EDWIN MARKHAM 

Author of The Man 7vilh the Hoe. 



JOAQUIN MILLER 

CHAS. FREDERICK HOLDER 

Author of The Life of Agassiz, etc 

GEO. HAMLIN FITCH 

Uterary Kdltor S. F. Chronicle. 

CHARLOTTE PERKINS STETSON 

Author of In This Our IVorld. 

WILLIAM KEITH 

The greatest Western painter. 

DR. WASHINGTON MATTHEWS 
Ex-Prest. American Folk-Lore Society. 

GEO. PARKER WINSHIP 

The Historian of Coronado's Marches. 

FREDERICK WEBB HODGE 

of the Bureau of Ethnology, Washington. 

CHAS. HOWARD SHINN 

Author of The Story of the Mine, etc. 

T. S. VAN DYKE 

Author of Rod and Gun in California, etc. 

CONSTANCE GODDARD DU BOIS 

Author The Shield of the Fleur de Lis. 



ETC., ETC. 

CONTENTS FOR SEPTEMBER, 1899: 

A California Caiiada Frontispiece 

Morn on the Pacific (poem), Herbert Bashford 195 

Summer Dusk (poem), Nora May French 195 

A New Mexico Sheep King, illustrated 197 

The Bird of Paradise Flower, illustrated, Juliette E. Mathis 198 

The Zapote Blanco, illustrated, Dr. F. Franceschi 199 

The City of the Saints, illustrated, Annie Getchell Gale 201 

My Brother's Keeper, illustrated, by Chas. F. Lummis 207 

The Big Bonanza, illustrated, Theodore H. Hittell 217 

The Quarry Foreman (story), Cloudesley Johns 22,4 

Early California — the Viceroy's Report 227 

In the Lion's Den (by the editor) 235 

That Which is Written (reviews by the editor) 235 

The Land We Love, illustrated 241 

California Babies, illustrated 243 



Entered at the r.os Angeles Postoffice as second-class matter. 



Land of Stinshiine Publi»hiing Co. 

F. A.' PATTEE, Bus. Mgr, 121 1^ S. Broadway, Los Angeles, Cal. 

Directors;— W. C. Patterson, Pres.; Chas, F. I^ummis, Vice-Pres.; F. A. Pattee, Sec.; H.J. 
Fleishman, Treas.; E. Pryce Mitchell, Auditor; Chas. Cassat Davis, Atty., Cyrus M. Davis. 

Other Stockholders :— Chas. Forman, D. Freeman, F. W. Braun, Jno F. Francis, E. W. Jones, 
Geo. H. Bonebrake, F. K. Rule, Andrew Mullen, I. B. Newton, S. H. Mott, Alfred P. Griffith, 
E. E. Bostwick, H. E. Brook, Kingsley-Bames & NeunerCo., L. Replogle, Jno.C. Perry, F. A. Schnell, 
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WARNING, 



The IvAND OF Sunshine Publishing Go. has nothing to do with a concern which 
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Vol. 11, No. 4 



LOS ANGELES SEPTEMBER, 1899. 



Morn on the Pacific, 



BY HERBERT BASHFORD. 



Asleep lie the waves on the black, winding beaches, 
The peaks to the west are dim shadows afar . 

A gull drifts high over ; the sacred dawn reaches 
A wan, holy hand to the pale morning star. 

A -bird thrills the silence ; the eastern sky flushes ; 

Now comes the fair Morn with a rose on her breast, 
While the great sea awakens and trembles and blushes. 

Then dons a gold garment to welcome his guest. 



Taeoma, Wash. 



Summer Dusk. 

BY NORA MAY FRENCH. 

Earth's parched lips 
Drink coolness once again, for daylight dies, 

The young moon dips 
A threaded gleam where sunset languid lies. 
And slowly twilight opens starry eyes. 

Low in the west 
Day's fading embers cast a last faint glow 

Behind a crest 
Where curving hills on primrose paleness show 
Sharp-lined in jet. Dusk stillness broods below. 

A first long sigh 
Stirs from the broad and dew-wet breast of night ; 

The leaves reply 
With soft small rustlings ; moths take ghostly flight, 
And waking crickets shrill long-drawn delight. 



La Canada, Cal. 



Copyright 1899 by land of Sunshine Pub. Co. 



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197 



A New Mexican Sheep-King. 



yCf^UW MEXICO was the first "sheep country" in 
^l^ the United States. Juan de Onate, the founder of 
Santa Fe and first colonizer of the territory, brought 
fine Spanish merinos with his costly expedition, and sheep 
have never since failed in New Mexico in spite of the wild 
beasts and nomad Indians. Coronado, by the way, had 
brought sheep to the territory in 1540 ; but they were killed 
by the savages as soon as he returned to Mexico. 

In time sheep became almost the only wealth of the lonely 
and harrassed territory. A few wealthy men had enormous 
herds ; and though the Apaches and Navajos swept ofif some- 
times as many as 30,000 sheep in a single raid, the wool indus- 
try has remained through so many adverse centuries the chief 
reliance of New Mexico. In 1822, Francisco Xavier Chavez, 
then governor, better known as El Guero('*The Blond"), 
owned over a million sheep. These were let out on shares to 
men all over the territory. A later governor, Bartolome Baca, 
had nearly as many. An old Mexican is still living who used 
to be one of Gov. Baca's mayordomos and had charge of 500,- 
000 sheep, with seven hundred shepherds under him. All the 
shepherds were armed with flintlock muskets, and frequently 
had to use them against the savages, as well as in keeping 
down the bears, cougars, wolves, coyotes, and other animals. 

This old Spanish governor of New Mexico before the United 
States had fairly heard of the territory, was not a bad sort of 
millionaire, and neither wealth nor power spoiled him. Be- 
sides his enormous holding of sheep, he owned a great propor- 
tion of the whole territory, and had mortgages on a large part 
of the remainder. The little hamlet of Cebolleta was for 
twelve successive seasons devoured by the grasshoppers, which 
left no green thing. The people would have perished but for 
Don Bartolome. He gave them 10,000 sheep ; and the whole 
town turned shepherd. They drank the milk and ate the lambs 
and wethers, and in fine lived oiF the sheep. When the 
plague of grasshoppers ceased and good times came again for 
Cebolleta, the whole ten thousand sheep and their natural in- 
crease had been devoured, and not one was left to repay Don 
Bartolome. Nor did he ever ask a reckoning. 

When this gallant old czar of the Southwest was upon his 
death-bed, his sons begged him to arrange his affairs — which 
were all at loose ends. He bade them bring all the papers; 
and after a grand ransacking of the house the expectant heirs 
brought him in a Navajo blanket several bushels of mortgages 
and notes. The veteran said : 

" They who have given me these papers are poor people. 
That they shall not suffer, and to avoid litigation, there is an 



198 



LAND OF SUNSHINE. 



easy settlement' ' — and crawling from bed he flung the great 
mass of papers into the blazing fire-place. It was^ the fitting 
last act of a cavalier's life. 

Don Bartolome's daughter lyUgarda, by the way, married 
Don Jose Luna, uncle of the ex- delegate to Congress from New 
Mexico. Both were immensely wealthy, but put all their 
money in sheep — and lost them all by Indian depredations. 
The last I knew of them, this aged couple — he over one hun- 
dred and she in the nineties — were living in abject poverty 
in a little adobe room, and would long before have starved but 
for their daughter-in-law. A strange irony of fate for the 
heirs of the big-hearted Don who had been for a generation the 
practical king of a territory 300 miles square ! C. F. L. 




C. M. Davis Eng. Co. 



THE BIRD OF PARADISE FI^OWER. 



199 

The Bird of Paradise Flower. 



BY JULIETTE ESTELLB MATHIS. 



J^rtHIS is the familiar name by which is designated the 
\ flock of golden wings, touched with a glint of bright- 
est blue, poised butterfly-fashion on the tips of their 
tall green perches and scientifically christened Strelitzia Regi- 
nae, whose glittering groups conspicuously promote the gayety 
of Southern California gardens. Wanderers from the distant 
Cape of Good Hope, and originally destined to occupy con- 
servatory cages, they have come here to open-air freedom. 

The plant is classified botanically as a member of the ba- 
nana family, and its long leaf-spears suggest, if they do not 
betray, its near relationship to the banana palm and tropical 
canna, from which the principal difference of foliage lies in the 
absence of a leaf-stalk, all the leaves starting near the ground, 
forming a general cluster. The flower-bearing scape rises 
reed-like and naked, tipped at each apex with an oblique or 
horizontal and rigid, conduplicate spathe from which several 
large and most extraordinary blossoms successively unfold. 
The three outer divisions of the perianth are from three to four 
inches long and brilliantly yellow in color, one of them con- 
duplicate, tapering to a point and resembling the two larger of 
the vivid blue inner set, which are the true petals and united, 
covering the stamens. The remaining petal is small and un- 
obtrusive. There is a rare variety whose blossoms are white 
and larger than the Strelitzia Reginae ; of this I have seen 
only one specimen. 

The Strelitzia is never a wall-flower, but invariably success- 
ful as a candidate for floral honors, never failing to arrest at- 
tention and elicit admiration not only for its splendid coloring, 
a sunbeam incarnate, but also for the strangely animated qual- 
ity of its bird-like bloom, literally creatures with wings, appar- 
ently threatening to cleave the upper air if approached incau- 
tiously or too near. 

The Zapote-Blanco. 

BY DR. F. FRANCESCHI. 

OUND and vigorous, although nearly a centenarian, the pioneer of 
exotic trees introduced into California stands in the very heart of 
_ Santa Barbara, on West De la Guerra street, two blocks from State 
street. Casimiroa Edulis (this being its botanical name) is a native of So- 
nora and other temperate regions of Mexico, and belongs to the order of 
Rutaceae, which comprises also the so-called ** Citrus fruits." It has a 
huge warty trunk, dense spreading crown, evergreen trifoliate leaves, 
and bears small greenish flowers followed by globular yellow fruits, very 
sweet, and endowed with very remarkable narcotic power, so that they 
are said to be used in Mexico for the treatment of insomnia. Our tree, 
most likely a seedling, happens to bear very small fruits, which prob- 
ably accounts for its not having been more widely propagated. A few 
feet only from the tree, almost hidden among the weeds, the foundations 
are to be seen of an adobe building where Colonel Fremont estab- 
lished his powder magazine in the early times of the occupation of Cali- 
fornia. In the absence of an appropriate tablet, the large Zapote 
watches as a sentinel these old memorials, a much older evergreen 
memorial itself. (See next page. ) 

Santa Barbara, Cal. 



20I 



The City of the Saints. 



BY ANNIE GETCHELL GALE. 




HUT in by a more than 
half circle of mountains 
— masses of splendid 
violet, bronze, coppery reds, 
glints of green, broken by en- 
chanting caiions, with the wil- 
low-fringed Jordan at the west, 
and beyond it the rocky shores 
of the incomparable lake — Salt 
Lake City has a setting which 
appeals to all who have eyes to 
see. 

It is a matter of history (in 
Utah) that Brigham Young, 
who did not lack eyes where- 
with to see, emerging from the 
canon which he named "Emi- 
gration," into the valley of the 
Jordan, on the 24th day of July, 
1847, in quest of the "promised 
land," declared that he would 
look no further for a site upon 
which to build a city — and it is 
said that then and there he 
had a vision of what would be. 
Whether this is true, or whether 
in this spot where Nature has 
done her perfect work he 
builded better than he knew, no 
one can say. He proceeded to 
build a city upon a plan of his 
own, and although many changes have occurred with the coming in of 
a large number of Gentiles it is still significantly quaint, curious and 
picturesque. Tourists come, spend a day in driving about the city and 
go again, with the complaint that they see nothing, unless it be the tab- 
ernacle, that is distinctly " Mormon;" yet the element they seek is on 
every street and corner where the people stand and talk, but recognition 
of it comes only with some familiarity with them and their ways. 

As originally laid out, each lot contained one and one-quarter acres, 
land enough for a small farm ; steeets were 100 feet wide, not including 
sixteen-foot sidewalks, and to this division of land into large lots and 
wide streets is due the village-like appearance which the city still pre- 
sents. 

The only building material available in the early days was adobe brick, 
and in the old parts of the city, where fashion in architecture is as yet un- 
known and cabbages instead of grass grow in the front yards, one can 
see old houses, built in 1848-9. Honeysuckle and English ivy climb 
over gray, crumbling walls, and lilacs, roses and fruit trees grow close 
around them. The poverty-stricken people — the lowest class of Swedes 
and Norwegians — spend the most of the daylight hours out of doors, 
gossiping over fences or drawing their numerous children about the 
streets in baby wagons of their own construction. A rough wooden box 
or basket fastened to a sled answers the purpose. The Norwegian 
mother, when dressed for a promenade, has a thick, dark veil tied over 
her ears, and on the top of it an antiquated, high-crowned brown straw hat, 
brought from Norway years ago. She wears short, stiffly starched skirts 



App Eng. Co. 

BRIGHAM 



young's statue. 



THE CITY OF THE SAINTS. 



OFTHB 




and the coarsest shoes. But even the least progressive among them are 
becoming Americanized ; wooden shoes are not often seen on the street, 
and a woman with a load of firewood on her back is not an every-day 
sight. 

Whatever Brigham Young's taste may have been in regard to clothes 
— and it is said that he was in the habit of tying a red handkerchief 
over his head when he went to the theater accompanied by from ten to 
eighteen Mrs. Youngs — he had a fine sense of proportion and color in 
building in stone or adobe. Fortunately, in the early days, he set men 
not otherwise employed to building walls of cobble stones, cemented to- 
gether with adobe mud, and these walls, from twelve to twenty feet 
high, are today a delight to every artistic eye. 

A massive, grey, pillared wall shuts in the lower story of the ancient 
Lion House, the former home of Brigham Young, from the gaze of the 
public. In this long, yellow, dormer-windowed house, with the iron 
figure of a lion above its front portico, some of the old wives still live, 
but they are seldom seen except as one has glimpses of them through 




App Eng Co. 



BEE-HI VK HOUSE AND EAGI^E GATE. 



the shining seven-by-nine window panes. Curious questioners now and 
then pick up bits of information as to their manner of life in former 
years when the great man with "the head of a god" regulated the aflfairs 
of his home, or homes, to his own liking. Each wife made herself use- 
ful according to her talents ; one was chief housekeeper, another cook ; 
another could darn socks quickly and well ; another was dexterous in the 
use of scissors, and cut out many of the ugly "endowment garments" 
which good Saints wear. Detesting idleness on general principles, he 
found work for all his family. 

Next door is the Beehive House, equally ancient and interesting ; 
here he had his office, and some living-rooms, and received calls from 
many distinguished people, among them R. W. Emerson, who was not 
favorably impressed with his host. The Beehive House is now owned 
and occupied by a wealthy Mormon who makes no pretense of sunder- 
ing any of his plural marriage relations. 

From the windows of his office in the Beehive House Brigham Young 
could look out at Eagle Gate, which he built in the early days, partly at 
least, in the interest of the church. Through it, up a winding road, past 
his walled garden, men went with ox teams to City Greek Canon for 



-m 



Mk. 








THE CITY OF THE SAINTS. 



205 



wood ; returning, they were required to leave a tenth of their load at 
Eagle Gate, as tithings. The present officers of the church use various 
methods to induce unwilling brethren to give up a tenth of their in- 
comes ; Brigham Young had but one : he commanded, and the tithings 
were paid. The tithing house is close by, but is scarcely visible from 
the street, and is uninteresting as seen from the outside. At the present 
day Eagle Gate is not a gate in fact, but an arch merely ; electric cars 
run under it to a steep hill beyond, turning there into First street — a new 
street, and no part of Brigham Young's plan. Following the line of the 
electric road one passes vacant lots where green things grow, the backs 
of fine, old Mormon mansions and the fronts of ugly new ones, reach- 
ing at last the only really beautiful spot on this incongruous street — a 
large, plain, green yard, in a comer of which is Brigham Young's grave, 
enclosed by an iron fence. In perfect order and taste, and in accord 
with his love of verdure, sunlight and space, it is worth a walk up the 
hill to see. It is a matter for thankfulness that the yard is not likely to 




AppEng.Co. THK IvION HOUSE, BRIGHAM YOUNG'S RESIDKNCE. 



be cut up and sold for building lots in the next forty or fifty years at the 
least. The gate is always locked, and the spikes on the top of the fence 
which encloses the yard are sharp enough to shut out relic hunters 
effectually . 

From the windows of the Beehive House one can look at a bronze 
statue of Brigham Young, by C. E. Dallin, now of Boston. In the mid- 
dle of the chief business street, it is, next to the temple, the most con- 
spicuous object in the city. The face is thoughtful, benignant and 
pleasing, and those who knew him well assert that it is very life-like. On 
another corner is the Gardo House — formerly known as the "Amelia 
Palace" — the exclusive home of the last Mrs. Young (of whom much 
might be written). 

Only a block away is the great, granite temple of the Latter- Day 
Saints, and the odd-looking, squat tabernacle in its shade. On its high- 
est pinnacle is a statue of the Angel Maroni — of whom much is related 
in the Book of Mormon — with a trumpet at his lips, as he is believed to 
have appeared to Joseph Smith. This is also by Mr. Dallin, of whose work 



206 



LAND OF SUNSHINE. 



the Mormon people are very proud, he having been born and brought up 
among them. Twelve feet high, and an exquisite work of art in every 
detail, it pierces the sky at too great a height to be seen distinctly from 
the street. 

The Temple, which was thirty-nine years in building, is in imitation 
of the Temple of Solomon, the architects following as nearly as possible 
the description given of it in the bible. It is not open to the public, and 
public meetings are never held in it. Marriages are performed there, 
privately, but with much ceremony. Those who have passed through 
the ordeal of a temple marriage are not disposed to be communicative in 
regard to the matter, except in the case of some loquacious individuals 
who cannot resist the inclination to enlighten their Gentile friends — but 
there is a very general belief among people on the outside that the cere- 
monies are quite spectacular. 

One may by chance hear a temple worker — one who goes there to be 




App En^. Co. 



BRIGHAM YOUNG'S GRAVE. 



baptized for the souls of the dead — speak guardedly of such portions of 
the interior as he or she may have seen — of white and gold rooms, im- 
mense paintings representing scenes in Mormon history, of the great 
baptismal font which rests on the backs of twelve bronze oxen. The old 
but well preserved wall which encloses Temple Block adds much to its 
peculiar beauty. As one looks at its pondrous gates and listens to the 
subdued tones of the thousands who pass through them every Sunday 
afternoon, one wonders if the astute disseminators of a new theology are 
not wise in maintaining at this Temple — their chief holy place, built for 
a habitation for Jesus Christ when he shall come a second time to earth — 
an appearance suggestive of seclusion, secrecy and remoteness. 

One of the most faithful temple workers in the city is a white haired 
woman — the mother of Mrs. Ann Eliza Young. Her aged father, on the 
contrary, will have nothing to do with the church. 

One can stroll through streets shaded by stately Lombardy poplars, 
and gaze at long, low-roofed houses with tiny windows and from three to 



MY BROTHER'S KEEPER. 207 

six front doors, and know that in the small, dark rooms there were once 
as many wives as doors, the husband spending a week with each in turn. 
In whose keeping he left his best pipe and Sunday clothes neither his- 
tory nor the gossip of the day has told us ; they may have been left 
with the one who cooked the best dinners. That these weekly visits to 
each family were then, as they are now in numerous instances, an occa- 
sion for the killing of the fatted calf, cannot be doubted. Of all this the 
tourist hears vague rumors but sees nothing. The mixed relationships, 
the felicities and infelicities, the tragedy and pathos as well as the irre- 
sistibly comic side of Mormon domestic life are not apparent to one who 
merely passes by. 

One who has the patience to stand at the gates of Temple Block for 
half an hour any Sunday afternoon will see the extremes of refined 
fanaticism, and the unthinking Norwegian animal — the bent backs and 
dull eyes of those who have struggled through many weary years for a 
bare existence, and narrow-browed, repulsive children. Nowhere else in 
the world, perhaps, can be seen so strange a crowd ; no one would ever 
mistake them for the members of any other church, orthodox or liberal. 
Their incapacity for reason — plainly stamped on their faces — is such that 
they see no difficulty in accepting as facts doctrines at which all the rest 
of the civilized world wonders. They believe in the efficacy of baptism 
for the dead, revelation direct from God through authorized revel ators, 
the gift of tongues — and its concomitant, the gift of interpretation — in 
prophecy, the resurrection of the physical body, obsession by devils, the 
renewal of this earth by fire, the conversion of all ** Lamanites," i.e., 
Indians, to Mormonism, and, generally, that polygamy was and is a di- 
vine institution, to be perpetuated eternally through the sealing of 
women to men as celestial wives. The practical side of polygamy is 
overlooked by those who condemn it as a thing of evil ; in the outskirts 
of the city women work in the fields with men, and also without them, 
for many men, possessors of farms (and wives) are absent on missions, 
and three or four wives do the work of an equal number of hired men. 
The wish to enlarge the kingdom of God is not (to judge from appear- 
ances) the only reason which impels men to become polygamists ; many 
a man has found that the easiest way to square an overdue account with 
his female house-servant was to marry her. 

But notwithstanding all this, and much more untouched through lack 
of space, and much more still that can be seen and felt, yet is too illu- 
sive for expression, the city called •* Zion," by thousands who believe it 
to be the fairest spot on earth, has a beauty and charm peculiarly its 
own, which, once known, is not forgotten. 




My Brother s Keeper. 



BY CHAS. F. LUMMIS 



URELY it is not un-American to love fair-play and education. 
There are many noisy persons, reinforced by a multitude 
of thoughtless ones, who disprize scholarship and glory in 
tyrannizing over everyone who is weaker. But I take it 
that the typical American does not deliberately prefer 
dunces nor bullies. It is the trade-mark of a cheap and 
ignorant mind to be afraid of learning and to distrust ex- 
perience ; and I do not believe that trade-mark belongs to 
the United States. We cannot all be scholars nor heroes ; 
but we can all respect heroes and scholars— and so we all 
shall so long as there is safety in our blood. The two first 
standards by which we judge men are courage and wisdom. By 



t'oitinued from August number. 



2o8 



LAND OF SUNSHINE. 



those standards, those who oppose ignorant injustice, even in the 
"name of humanity" have no fear to be measured beside those who 
practice it. So far as I know, they need not fear comparison by their 
classical education, their later study or their out-door manhood. They 
have learned as much English, arithmetic and I^atin as the people who 
think strabismic ; they know a good deal more of the higher studies, 
have traveled more (on the average) and dared more. For they are a 
considerable class in weight, if not in numbers. If you know a man's 




C. M. UavisEug. Co. 



A TIGUA WOMAN. 






Copyrighted by 0. F. Lummis 



scientific attainments and his experience, you can confidently predicate 
his notions as to the American Indian. And vice versa. Given the 
theory of an ** Eastern philanthropist*' or salaried "educator," it is im- 
mediately easy to gauge just how little he knows by himself and how 
little of what scholars have been learning (and proving to all who care 
to know) for some four hundred years. 

The ridiculous and unjust "system" now sought to be put in opera- 
tion is as brilliant as that of the persons who try to fell a pine-tree by cut- 



/ 





CM Davis Eng. Co. j^qN AMBROSIO ABEITA From an old Daguerreotype. 

The Pueblo Indian who lent the ^old coin to pay off the Unitfd Stales troops in New Mexico in 
the war of the Rebellion. 









i^ 

^ 



C, M. Davis Eng Co. 



AN INDIAN KITCHEN. 



Copyright by ('. F Lui 




M Davis Eng. Co. WHY NOT SEPARATE FATHER AND DAUGHTER? Copyright by C. F. Lummis. 



^li LAND OF SUNSHINE 

ting off the needles. It does not even pretend that it can, nor that it 
cares to, educate the Indian home. It does not remotely dream of any 
such common-sense and justice as trying to uplift the father and mother 
at least enough to enable them to understand and sympathize with their 
"educated" child. They are to be left in their blindness. All they 
amount to, with the block-builders, is to breed more children for the 
schools — children to be taken away from them and kept away from 
them. It is about as lofty humanity and statesmanship as "wolf-farm- 
ing"— where a squatter keeps his old wolves penned to breed pups for 
the bounty the State pays on wolf-scalps. 

That is anywhere and any-when a curious caricature of education 
which unfits the pupil for his environment. Thousands of Indian children 
have already been thus unfitted by the unread theorists. But now the 
systematists desire not to return them at all to their environment. The 
Indian child, wheedled from home to a distant school, is never to see his 
home again — if this precious project shall be carried out. Of course 
six years at Carlisle will teach this child all that an American child, 
empowered by centuries of heredity, can know, and there will be no 
inequality in the competition into which we will pitch him, after we have 
robbed him of home, parents and friends ! Meanwhile the deluded 
parents may console themselves by rearing more children to feed the 
machine. I say "deluded" by cold intention; because no Indian 
parent would knowingly surrender a child for life ; and I believe the 
Constitution of the United States does not permit parents to be de- 
prived forcibly of their children. 

Doleful pictures were painted in the convention of the dreadfulness 
of sending " educated" Indian children back to their homes in the New 
Mexican pueblos where several hundred natives died last year of small- 
pox. It never seemed to penetrate these blessed official intelligences 
that anybody but the Indians could be responsible for smallpox in 
places under the direct thumb of the government ! The government 
absolutely controls these Indian villages. It spends several hundred 
thousand dollars a year in salaries, and still more in other channels, to 
support a small army of place-holders whose livelihood depends on the 
fact that there are Indians. A small part of the money and care now 
devoted to educating Indian children off" the earth would sanitate every 
Indian camp and town in the United States, so there would be no more 
epidemics ; would maintain in each a good physician to stop the ab- 
normal mortality, and a good teacher to educate the Indians. The 
youngsters would learn more slowly, of course, than they do in the 
herd schools far Bast ; but the parents would learn too — for a good 
teacher would be a welcome friend in every home ; which I know, be- 
cause I have seen. Therefore the Indians, as a whole, would be educated 
faster. The man or woman who does not know, by this year of more 
or less grace 1899, that the soundest way in education and the only mer- 
ciful way in humanity to educate an "inferior race" is to educate it 
at home and altogether, confesses nakedness of science, history and 
statecraft. 

But these people are muddying our brook from down stream. An ex- 
cuse is always easy, when mutton and an appetite encounter. The In- 
dians have lands which we wish — though the sacred honor of the na- 
tion is pledged to their security in those lands. They beget children, 
whose education means a salary to several thousand persons — very 
many of whom would dislike greatly to do that educating on the 
frontier. It is better to take a son from his mother than to get away 
from '* all the modern conveniences" — for the teacher. I do not think 
a salary a sin. I honor any man or woman who truly earns a salary in 
the Indian service. But all human experience teaches us that a "job " 
is not conducive to logic and conscientiousness. Those who get their 
bread and butter by a system — not to mention their mince pie— are no- 



MY BROTHER'S KEEPER. 213 

toriously not;the coolest judges of that system's merits. Much as I re- 
spect several of the larger (and better paid) officials who are forming 
our Indian policy, I cannot forget that their money and their power 
come exclusively from their "job." You may forget it if you prefer. 
You may also forget that not one of them has the remotest weight as a 
scholar, even in the branch of human science which supports him. Or 
if you think this statement too sweeping, you can try to get him before 
a Civil Service Commission of scientists to be examined as to what he 
does know of all that scientists value. 

Because the aborigine is not expert on Jenner's discovery and on scien- 
tific sanitation, the civilized government which, upon the top of the ob- 
ligation of every decent man to the weaker, has taken as solemn vows "as 
any nation is able to take ; which knows how to spread civilization 
around the world but does not know enough to vaccinate its wards — 
that government will take his children away from its official smallpox ; 
and leave him to die in it ! 

The Convention did, indeed, resolve in favor of compulsory vaccina- 
tion, and so far so good. But if a competent person had drawn the res- 
olutions, it would have been " further resolved " that the job be en- 
trusted to no thick-headed Dogberry who would need a company of 
soldiers to back him, who would storm a little hamlet, and scare women 
and babies half to death to do what any person fit for th^ mission could 
do alone and with friendly feeling. Hard words ? If you say so, you 
do not know our recent shameful records at Zuiii and Moqui ; nor do 
you know how easily manlier and wiser men have done alone and with- 
out friction what ignorant timidity turned into a brutal disgrace. The 
record of these things is one long story of incompetetice ; often of 
brute force ; sometimes of tragedy. And never once was there the re- 
motest excuse. 

It is and has been — and, alas, I fear, will be — the trouble that this 
great, philanthropic, alleged Christian nation has sent people who 
didn't know anything about the mission they were sent on. Now a 
man may be a very honorable and wise person ; but if he doesn't know 
book-keeping his virtues will not impell you to put him in charge of 
your books. 

One of the few hopeful signs is that (for the first time in American 
history) a woman is United States Superintendent of Indian Schools. 
Miss Estelle Reel is a woman of charm. Her paper before the Conven- 
tion was sound and sane. It even advised patience in the attempt to 
make the Indian civilize himself ten times faster than our forefathers 
did. I have a good many hopes of Miss Reel. It does not seem prob- 
able that a woman can be so many kinds of a self-deceived brute as 
some of Miss Reel's predecessors have been ; and she seems to be not 
only a woman but a wise woman, and a good one. If she is what I 
hope, she can do a longer-enduring and a broader work than any woman 
has ever done in America. She cannot do it by becoming a cog in the 
machine ; nor need she wreck the machine to do it. Her only cue is to 
learn what she can and trust her instincts as a woman. And ten thou- 
sand homes that were American when your ancestors and mine ran 
naked in Europe will come upon her conscience one day, if there is 
a Judgment ; for she alone, in her day, can turn the scales for them, 
for good or for evil. 

[to be continued.] 




214 

' The Big Bonanza. 



BY THEODORE H. HITTELL. 



©p 




HERE is a race of giants among mines as well as among men ; and 
this race seems to be all of the same family, with distinct and 
well-marked features of relationship. They are all situated in 
the high mountains, about a mile above ocean level, along the western 
side of the American continents ; all bear both gold and silver ; all run 
in a general northerly and southerly direction ; all have a dip of about 
forty degrees, and all are contained within a foot- wall of diorite and a 
hanging wall of porphyry, or other hard rocks resembling them. The 
veins vary in width and quality and in the proportion of their gold to 
their silver ; but all are, or have been, so extensive in the production 
of the two precious metals that the mind can with difficulty grasp an 
adequate conception and calculation of their wealth. 

The largest, or at least the best producer, of these giant mines is that 
of Potosi in Bolivia, South America, which has been worked some three 
hundred years and has yielded about seventeen hundred millions of 
dollars. The next largest is that of Guanajuato in Mexico, which in 
about the same length of time has yielded twelve hundred millions of 
dollars. Next is that of Zacatecas in Mexico, whose yield has been 
about eight hundred and fifty millions of dollars. Next to that is San 
lyuis Potosi in Mexico, which has yielded seven hundred and fifty 
millions ; and, following that, the mines of Chihuahua, with a yield of 
five hundred millions. The last of these giant mimes — that is, the last 
to be discovered and developed — is the Comstock lolde of Nevada, which, 
though worked for only about thirty years as against the three hundred 
years of the others, has already yielded four hundred millions of dollars. 
There are a number of other mines, such as the Tajo at Rosario in Sin- 
aloa, and the Candelaria in Durango, which have turned out from 
eighty to a hundred millions each ; but enormous yielders as they are, 
they can hardly be counted in the family of the giants above men- 
tioned. Nor are the wide-spread, life-giving gold mines of California, 
which have poured out their hundreds of millions, nor those of Austra- 
lia, Venezuela, Montana, Utah, Colorado or Arizona, to be counted, be- 
cause they are of a different character, usually confined to one metal, 
and belong to a separate and distinct family. 

There can be no doubt that only a comparatively few of the great 
mines of the world have as yet been discovered, or in other words, that 
the unpenetrated bowels of the earth are richly lined with undreamed 
of treasures. Unquestionably between Potosi in Bolivia and Virginia 
City in the United States, and probably beyond them north and south, 
and in the same chain of mountains, which have been found so rich in 
special spots, there are multitudinous other deposits that it will be the 
business of future enterprise to explore, develop and turn into the lap 
of commerce. That this is so appears plain from the fact that nearly 
every one of the giant mines referred to was discovered by accident and 



Author of The History of California. 



THE BIG BONANZA 



215 



that, except in the few places where precious deposits have beeii found 
lying loose in out-croppings, nothing is known of what lies beneath the 
surface. 

It is of course well understood that most of the geological formations 
of the earth's crust and most of the strata, even in regions where mines 
are found, are not metalliferous. But within certain limits, and partic- 
ularly in the lines of similar upheaval and disturbance, between local- 
ities where great mines have been discovered, and also in places of anal- 
ogous formation where no deposits have as yet been unearthed, there is 
no good reason why there should not be bonanzas as great as, or even 
greater than, any so far reached. 







216 



LAND OF SUNSHINE. 



The story of the discovery and development of the " Big Bonanza " 
of the Comstock lode will illustrate how little was known, and how un- 
certain the prospect of finding anything of the kind, when Mackay 
drifted into it, and at the same time how richly repaid was plucky and 
persistent endeavor, guided and directed by good sense and practical in- 
telligence. It appears that searching for gold commenced on the east- 
ern slope of the Sierra Nevada in very early mining times. There were 
indistinct rumors that Jedediah S. Smith, the first American overland 
visitor to California, had found gold somewhere between the Sierra and 







CM Davis Eng. Co. THE BONANZA KINGS. 

Wm. S. O'Brien. J. C. Flood. 



Jas. G. Fair. 



J. W. Mackay. 



THE BIG BONANZA. 217 

Salt Lake, about 1826. But there was nothing definite on the subject of 
mineral-bearing ground in that neighborhood until about 1849, the year 
after the great discovery in California, when some of the Mormons, who 
contemplated settlement and sojourned for a while in Carson Valley, 
washed out a few golden grains from the gravel and sand of one of its 
gulches. This led to further examination, and it was soon found that 
there was gold, though in small quantity, in the gulches in almost every 
direction. In 1850 a few of the restless and roving miners of Califor- 
nia, known as " prospectors," who were never satisfied with ** good 
enough" but were continually hunting for ** something better," crossed 
over the Sierra summit and in the course of a year or two established 
mining camps on the southern and eastern slopes of what was after- 
ward called Mount Davidson. This famous mountain, which is situ- 
ated some ten miles a little north of east from the northern extremity 
of Lake Tahoe, rises to a height of seven thousand eight hundred and 
twenty-seven feet above sea-level and constitutes the dominating peak 
of a cluster of rough, bare and desolate highlands, known as the 
Washoe Mountains, lying a few miles east of the main chain of the 
Sierra Nevada and between the Truckee river on the northwest and 
Carson river on the southeast. From the summit of Mount Davidson, 
which is some six or seven miles from the nearest point on Carson river 
and elevated nearly three thousand feet above it, several deep, rugged 
and tortuous canons take their rise, the most important of which are 
one on the southerly side of the mountain, known as Gold Canon and 
two on the easterly side of the mountain, known as Six-Mile Canon 
and Seven-Mile Canon. 

All the prospectors and miners who had gone over from California in 
the earliest 'Fifties confined themselves chiefly to Gold Canon, in about 
the middle of which, and some four miles from its mouth at Carson 
river, they founded a little village called Johntown. These men were 
looking for placer gold — that is to say, gold that could be washed out of 
the gravels and sands of the ravines — of which they found enough to 
justify their sojourn in Gold Caiion ; but in the course of a few years 
others found considerable gold also in Six Mile Canon on the other side 
of the mountain. As a matter of fact the metal of both canons had 
been washed down from the decomposed outcroppings of the great 
ledges, then, as yet, undiscovered and unsuspected, near the summit of 
the mountain ; and the natural course of inquiry and investigation, if the 
miners of those regions at that time had been active, persistent and intel- 
ligent men, would have led them up the canons and toward the sources 
from which the precious grains of the ravines had been washed down. 
But as a rule those very early gold-diggers were not only a rough but an 
ignorant set, who spent most of their time in hanging around the 
saloons and gambling tables of Johntown. They seem to have been 
well represented by a couple of loud-mouthed and rather disreputable 
characters, one of whom, named James Fennimore, was usually known 
as ** Old Virginia," and the other, named Henry Comstock, after whom 
the great Mount Davidson vein was subsequently improperly called, 



2i8 LAND OF SUNSHINE. 

on account of his addiction to flap-jacks as much more easily made 
than bread, enjoyed the common sobriquet of " Old Pancake." Men 
of this class had no idea of silver. It is reported that soon after their 
advent in the region, a Mexican, who had wandered from some of the 
argentiferous provinces of the southern Cordillera, attempted to con- 
vince them that the mountain contained "mucha plata ; " but, if this 
was so, they either did not understand or did not believe him. As they 
scraped the caiions they found the auriferous gravel becoming darker 
and more difficult to work on account of what they sometimes called 
**sand of iron," sometimes " lead" and sometimes "heavy blue stufif," 
and in the course of cleaning out their sluices many an execration was 
heaped upon the ** accursed base metal" which clogged the riffles and 
with fierce maledictions was pitched out upon the reiuse piles. And 
even when they found that, in ascending the canons, the gold became 
of less and less value on account of the increasing percentage of silver 
that was mixed with it, they could not understand or appreciate what 
that significant fact meant. 

But there were a couple of Pennsylvania boys, named Hosea Ballou 
Grosh and Ethan Allen Grosh, who were of different caliber. They 
were brothers, sons of a Universalist clergyman, fairly well educated, 
intelligent, industrious, sober and honest. They had emigrated to 
California in 1849, settled and worked at mining in El Dorado county, 
and in 1851, in the search for something better than they had, 
crossed the Sierra and prospected in Carson Valley. Liking the general 
appearance of the mining ground, they returned in 1853 and camped 
in Gold Canon. There they found native silver, which showed itself in 
thin sheets, broken very fine, and resembling lead, which the ordinary 
miners took it to be. Following up the indications they discovered 
several veins of silver ore, one of which seems to have been at the 
forks of Gold Canon and another at Sugar Loaf in Six-Mile Canon. 
But, unfortunately, the Grosh brothers, having no capital, were com- 
pelled to rely for their necessary supplies upon such small quantities 
of gold as they could gather in their prospecting expeditions and thus 
barely eked out a living. In the autumn of 1854, on account of want 
of proper means to meet the rigors of another winter in the Washoe 
mountains, they went back to their old camp near Mud Springs, in El 
Dorado county, California, but in the spring of 1855, full of enthusiasm 
for their discoveries on Mount Davidson, they returned there and re- 
sumed investigations. In the course of the next two years they made 
several locations, all of which afterward proved to be on the Comstock 
lode. By the end of that time they were certain of the value of their 
discovery. Evidence exists in the shape of letters written in 1857 that 
one of their veins produced quantities of a soft, easily-worked rock, 
containing silver ores of violet-blue, indigo-blue, blue-black and green- 
black colors, and that a rough assay of it indicated a yield at the rate 
of thirty-five hundred dollars per ton — a value which seemed to them 
incredible, but which they were convinced proved beyond any doubt 
the great wealth of their discovery. But just as they were thus upon 



THE BIG BONANZA. 219 

the threshold, so to speak, of an unlimited fortune, Hosea, on August 
19, 1857, while at work prospecting, accidentally struck his pickaxe 
through one of his feet, and the consequence was that blood-poisoning 
set in, and on September 2 he died. His brother, Ethan Allen, after 
somewhat recovering from the sad blow he had thus sustained, at- 
tempted in November to return for the winter as usual to the milder cli- 
mate of California. But he was overtaken on the summit of the Sierra 
by a snowstorm. On account of the delay occasioned by the storm, he 
ran out of provisions. By killing his mule he managed to subsist, but 
he could not escape the terrible cold, and both his legs were frozen to 
above the knees. Though finally rescued, and though his legs were am- 
putated, it was too late. He died on December 19, 1857, only a few 
months after his ill-fated brother. 

After the death of the Grosh boys, little or nothing was for some 
time heard or known about silver on Mount Davidson. That they had 
been aware of a large argentiferous deposit in the mountain there can 
be no doubt ; but they were not talkative. On the contrary they were 
very reserved and kept their business strictly to themselves. Had they 
or either of them lived a year or two longer, the history of the Washoe 
mines would have been entirely different. But when they died, no one 
knew or appreciated their discoveries ; and mining affairs in the canons 
and gulches of Mount Davidson went on in the same slip-shod manner 
as they had gone on in the times of the first prospectors. It was subse- 
quently rumored that Ethen Allen Grosh, when he started on his fatal 
trip to return to California in November, 1857, left his cabin in charge 
of Henry Comstock, then a comparative newcomer in the mines, and 
that Comstock learned of the Grosh discovery from papers of the 
Grosh boys found in the cabin. But whether this was so or not (and ^ 
the probabilities are against the truth of the rumor), nothing was said 
about silver deposits and nothing was done indicating any knowledge of 
them for several years further. The old miners still devoted themselves 
to washing the gravels and sands of the bars and flats for gold, bewail- 
ing the deterioration of its quality as they ascended in their workings 
toward the higher ridges and cursing the ** heavy blue stuff" that inter- 
fered with their gains. 

One day in the spring of 1859, Old Virginia, in prospecting on the 
ridge east of Gold Caiion, upon casting his eyes across the deep gulch, 
was attracted by a peculiar looking mound, and upon going to it, with 
several others, a few days afterward, struck earth, some of it in a 
gopher hole, which, on being washed, proved rich in gold. It was still 
richer in the "blue stuff" that had bothered them so much lower down 
the mountain ; but, on account of the gold, they staked out placer 
claims of fifty feet each— the limit allowed by the mining laws of the 
district — and Old Virginia, as the discoverer, was allowed to take first 
choice. After working a short time they found that they had struck 
upon a rich locality ; and, as usual on such occasions, they com- 
menced hunting a name for it, and finally settled upon Gold Hill. It 
proved to be the wash and detritus of the south end of what was after- 



220 LAND OF SUNSHINE. 

ward known as the Comstock lode. Comstock himself subsequently 
claimed to have been the discoverer, and urged his claims with efifusive 
volubility ; but the facts seem to have been against him. However this 
may have been, most of the Johntown residents abandoned their 
shanties there and moved to Gold Hill, where the search for gold con- 
tinued to be rewarded with reasonable returns. 

About the same time, two Irish miners named Peter O'Reilly and Pat- 
rick McLaughltn, old residents of Johntown, who had been prospect- 
ing without any great success in what was known as Six-Mile Canon on 
the east side of Mount Davidson, some five or six miles north from Gold 
Hill, in a desperate effort to make enough to leave the region, selected 
ground higher up the mountain than all the other claims, and near a 
spring known as "Old Man Caldwell's," where they struck earth that 
paid reasonably well in gold, but carried more than common of the 
black and blue stuff that had caused so much trouble and disappoint- 
ment. As a matter of fact they had struck the top of the Ophir mine 
at the north end of the Comstock lode. It was an outcropping of the 
mighty fissure vein, which extended from the black mound of the 
Ophir to the black mound of the Gold Hill. The surface of it was 
composed of decomposed quartz, carrying a remunerative amount of 
free gold, which was all they were after, and a very large amount of 
the black and blue matter, supposed to be base metal, which 
was thrown out of the pans, cradles and sluices, and made long, black 
refuse heaps wherever claims were worked. While O'Reilly and Mc- 
Laughlin were engaged in washing out the first dirt at the spring, Com- 
stock, who happened to be in the neighborhood, rode up, and, noticing 
the find, at once laid claim to the spring and ground, stating that 
he and one Penrod had bought out Old Man Caldwell and that he had 
also located a stock range over all that part of the mountain. He in- 
sisted, therefore, that O'Reilly and McLaughlin should take Penrod and 
himself in as equal partners in their discovery ; and, after some contro- 
versy, in which Comstock very successfully played what is usually called 
the game of bluff, they, having no idea of the extraordinary value of what 
they had found, consented to his demands. As a matter of fact Com- 
stock does not appear to have had a particle of right to the ground ; he 
owned nothing ; he had found nothing; but to hear him talk, he was 
the owner of everything in sight ; and he afterward claimed that he 
had given Sandy Bowers, Joe Plato and nearly all the other old miners, 
who suddenly found themselves rich by having locations between Cald- 
well's spring on the north and Gold Hill on the south, their respective 
claims. He had so much to say about himself and made so much noise 
that people began to tell of him as the most important man in the re- 
gion ; and it was for this reason that the new discovery got to be known 
by his name. 

The auriferous earth struck by O'Reilly and McLaughlin was a streak 
only some six inches deep on the slope of the mountain. They fol- 
lowed it up hill, and suddenly, on June 10, 1859, found that the pay 
dirt turned and went into the mountain. It seems to have increased in 



THE BIG BONANZA. 221 

richness of free gold as they advanced, as it also did in the blue stuflf or 
supposed base metal ; but when the deposit was found to turn into the 
mountain their supposition was that the mine was about to come to an 
end and that they would have to seek elsewhere if they expected to 
keep up the supply of bacon and slap-jacks in their cabins. It is true 
they were each taking out several hundred dollars' worth of gold dust a 
day ; they had formed a camp which they sometimes called Mount 
Pleasant Point, sometimes Ophir Diggings and finally Virginia City. And 
the fame of the new gold find spread far and wide ; but no one had any 
idea of the magazine of wealth under their feet. They had on that 
June 10, 1859, when they found the pay dirt turning into the mountain, 
struck the greatest, richest, most extraordinary metalliferous vein in the 
United States and perhaps in the world. But it was much more as a 
silver vein than a gold vein ; it was, so to speak, a repetition of the 
marvelous veins of Mexico and not improbably as rich, and perhaps 
richer than any of the Mexican ** vetas ; " but there was not one among 
the miners there that had any idea of silver or knew its ores when they 
saw them. There was not a Grosh in the whole company, nor even a 
person of sufficient intelligence and energy to make inquiry as to 
what the obstructing blue stuff, that gave so much trouble and occa- 
sioned so many maledictions when pitched out among the tailings, really 
was. 

About the time that the streak of pay dirt before mentioned was found 
to turn into the mountain, or in other words, when the vein from which 
the pay dirt in the form of decomposed metalliferous quartz had been 
washed down, was struck, there happened to be present an old resident 
of Nevada City, in California, by the name of John F. Stone. Though 
he knew as little as the Mount Davidson miners about silver, his atten- 
tion was attracted by the hard, blue stuff that had given so much 
trouble and that lay around in great and ugly-looking, dark masses on 
every side ; and being of a somewhat inquisitive mind, he gathered up a 
bagful or two of specimens and carried them over to Nevada City. There 
they were subjected to the examination of two skillful assayers, one J. J. 
Ott of Nevada City and the other Melville Attwood of Grass Valley ; and 
both concurred in pronouncing them ore of extraordinary value, indicat- 
ing a yield of at least fifteen hundred and ninety-five dollars worth of 
gold and thirty-one hundred and ninety-six dollars worth of silver to 
the ton. The result of course was a tremendous excitement. A num- 
ber of enterprising men at once started over the Sierra Nevada on a 
race for the new mines, and they certainly let no grass grow under 
their feet as they pressed forward for first chances. On July 1, 1859, the 
first newspaper notice of the discovery was published in the Nevada 
Journal, and within a very short time afterward there occurred a 
regular mining ** rush," which spread to a great extent over all of 
California ; and it may be added that it was the first and only one of the 
great California rushes of the early days, including Gold Lake, Gold 
Bluff, Kern River and Fraser River, that was justified by the facts. 

The new adventurers who thus crowded into the Washoe mines im- 



222 LAND OF SUNSHINE. 

mediately commenced buying up claims, and it did not take long before 
all the old set not only disposed of their interests but chuckled over 
the manner in which they had palmed off what they considered the 
almost exhausted placers upon the gullible Californians. Old Virginia, 
for instance, sold out at Gold Hill for about fifty dollars a foot, and all 
his companions of that part of Mount Davidson at about the same rate. 
They all soon spent or lost the money they thus made, and died poor. 
Old Virginia, while on a prolonged spree, which seems to have been 
maintained on the proceeds of his sale, was thrown from a horse and 
killed. Of the discoverers on the other, or north end of the great vein, 
Mclvaughlin sold out for thirty-five hundred dollars, Penrod for eighty- 
five hundred, and O'Reilly, who held on longer, managed to get forty 
thousand ; but ail died paupers a few years afterward. As for Com- 
stock, or "Old Pancake," who claimed to have owned the whole coun- 
try, and subsequently boasted of having given the Savage mine to 
"Old Man Savage" and the Gould and Curry mine to "Old Daddy Cur- 
ry," sold out all his interests on Mount Davidson for eleven thousand 
dollars, which he soon lost. He then began prospecting again and 
wandered off into Montana where a few years afterward he committed 
suicide. A number of the very early adventurers, among them Sandy 
Bowers and Joe Plato, got rich in spite of themselves, as it were ; but 
in a few years their money was also dissipated in the most reckless and 
absurd extravagance, which very conclusively proved that for such men 
— and there are many others of the same kind in almost every walk of 
life — there cannot befall a greater misfortune than a great fortune. 

[to be conci^dded.] 



The Quarry Foreman 



BY CLOUDESLEY JOHNS. 



j^rtHK sun was still shining on the plain ; but the road, which 

\ wound in and out among the great sandstone bould- 

^ ers, was in the deepest shadow, for it grows dark early 
in Rocky Canon, where the black hills rise like walls on each 
side. 

From the distance came faintly the sound of an enormous 
brake-block scraping against the wheel. One of the quarry 
teamsters was making a late trip. 

A buggy coming from the opposite direction turned out 
among the rocks as the ponderous wagon, loaded with four 
tons of cut brown-stone, came in sight around a curve. 

" That you, Elliot ? " 

''Hello Jim; where to?" 

** Steve's. You're out late." 

** Yes, it'll be late when I get to the spur, but the Old Man 
wanted this rock down so's to ship tomorrow." 

' * Then it had to come ; I know Jackson. Remember when 



THE QUARRY FOREMAN 223 

he killed those two fellows ? He couldn't wait till they were 
down before he started the loaded car, ' ' 

** No, that was before I came ; I heard about it, though. 
Both good men they were, and married too ; had to die just be- 
cause Jackson was in a hurry." 

** Ever hear what he said when he found they were dead ? " 

"Don't believe I did." 

" * Short-handed again ; why the hell didn't they jump ? ' " 

" He ought to be shot! " 

" Hung, you mean ! But I mustn't keep you, Elliot, you'll 
be late enough anyhow ; good-bye." 

** So long, Jim." 

The buggy was soon out of sight, but the wagon hadn't 
gone far when a man came from the chaparral, which grew 
thickly along the road, leading a horse by the bridle. 

"Ought to be shot ! " he said, and smiled. Mounting, he 
rode after the buggy. 

Jackson sat in front of the boarding-house. He looked 
pleased, as if the world was being run to suit him that morn- 
ing. Suddenly his expression changed ; he had seen a horse- 
man coming up the trail. 

" What do you want here, Benton ? " he asked, frowning. 

" I would like to speak to you a few minutes if you have 
time." 

"I haven't time." 

"But it's important, Mr. Jackson ! " 

" To you, perhaps ; it wouldn't interest me." 

" One of your teamsters — " 

" Is something you will never be." 

" One of your teamsters is talking about shooting you. 

" Then I am in no danger from him." 

* * Do you want to know who it is ? " 

"No." 

"It's Elliot Spears." 

" Ah, ha ! you're a liar, I see, as well as a sneak and coward. 
Elliot might do it, so he is not the one who would talk about 
it. ' ' He picked up a shot-gun which leaned against the building. 

" Mr. Benton," he continued, "do you see that manzanita ? " 

"Yes, sir," answered Benton uneasily. 

"It is just out of range ; if your bronco's any good you 
have time to reach it, for I shall not shoot for ten seconds ; 
good-bye." 

Benton was well out of range, yet he gave a yell of terror 
when Jackson fired. 

Six miles down the canon he met Spears. "Good morning, 
Elliot," he said. 

" Yes, very nice ; been up to get some one fired, so you can 
get on?" 



224 LAND OF SUNSHINE. 

** You can put it how you choose ; I am going to drive that 
team tomorrow. Next time you talk about killing the foreman 
look out who you're talking to ; Jim Watson told me about it. 
Jackson said he was glad of a chance to get rid of you." 

While speaking he had got rather close to the wagon ; 
Spears' black-snake swung in the air and the buckskin lash 
drew blood from Benton's face. Again the whip whirled ; 
this time it struck the bronco which plunged wildly, threw its 
rider and dashed down the canon. 

"Good-bye, Benton," said Spears cheerfully; '*you can 
think up some lies to tell about that face of yours, while you're 
walking home." 

When Spears drove up to the piles of cut stone, Jackson said 
hurriedly : 

" Put on nine thousand, KHiot, and rush it through ; you've 
got to haul two loads again today ; " and he was gone before 
Spears had the time to protest. 

The wagon was loaded, and the teamster was about to start 
his horses, when the sound of a muffled explosion came from 
the quarries. 

"Blasting already!" exclaimed Spears; **he must have 
kept those drillers on the j ump. ' ' 

Jackson ran up, excited for once in his life. * ' That new 
man lit the short fuse first ! " he gasped. " Twenty sticks in 
the other hole ; fuse covered ; my best drillers in there. Come ! 
Those cowards won't go in." 

When the two men reached the cut they found that two of 
the drillers had crawled out. 

" We might do with these," said the foreman, looking at 
them doubtfully. "No, that's the new man," he added; 
"he's no good; let's get the others;'* and he went into the 
cut, followed by Spears. 

Several seconds passed ; the teamster came out of the smoke, 
carrying one of the unconscious men ; then he went back to 
where Jackson was working like a demon at the debris which 
covered another of the men ; he dragged him loose as Spears 
reached him. 

" Take him out. Hill's in there ; I must get him ; he's the 
best driller in the quarries. " 

Spears had started back to help the foreman with the last 
man when the second blast went oflF. There was no danger 
now, and the men ran into the cut. Jackson had come nearly 
out with Hill in his arms. Both were unconscious, but the 
cold air revived the foreman. 

"Where's that new driller ? " heasked, weakly. " Tell him 
to go to the office and get his time. Tell Halstead to try to 
get Hewett from Belton's quarries; he's the best man in the 
State now. Don't quit hauling; there's plenty of rock down 




EARLY CALIFORNIA. 225 

to last a week yet, and I want — " His head dropped back 
and his eyes glazed. He had saved three lives, and given up 
his own — all for the quarries — the quarries which were his only 
God. 

• Early California, 

UNPUBLISHED DOCUMENTS-THE VICEROY'S REPORT 
CONTINUED 

CONTINUATION of the report of the Viceroy of Mexico, the 
Count of Revilla Gigedo, on the history of California from 
1768 to 1793, follows : 

Sixth £xploration of duan de Fuca Strait. 

160. Although the reconnoisances of Juan de Fuca strait were begun 
in 1 789, very little was accomplished by the first made in the same year 
at the order of don Estevdn Martinez ; somewhat more by the second 
under the first ensign, don Manuel Quimper, in 1790, with the bilander 
"Princesa Real," and in the third expedition, made in 1791, the 
schooner ** Saturnina," which accompanied the dispatch boat **San 
Carlos," commanded by the lieutenant of the first class, don Francisco 
Eliza, penetrated as far as the great channel called Our Lady of the 
Rosary. 

161. These few facts were already known at the time I received the 
royal order of May 28, 1791, commanding me that a minute examination 
of said strait should be made under all circumstances, for the purpose of 
ascertaining if any of its channels communicated with either Hudson's 
or Baflan'sbay. 

162. To comply with this superior mandate, I issued instantly orders 
that one of the best schooners, which had just been built in San Bias, 
should be fitted out and start, well-manned, provided with tackle, gear 
and rigging, sails, arms, good provisions, medicines and anti-scorbutics, 
sufficient for one year's navigation. 

163. I placed the vessel in charge of the lieutenant of the second 
class, don Francisco Antonio de Maurelle, giving him clear instructions 
that he should begin his explorations in Juan de Fuca strait, keep them 
up following the coast to the South, and this with such carefulness that 
he should not leave a channel, river or bay without examining it scrup- 
ulously until he reached either the port of San Francisco or Monterey ; 
and that after having rested his crew and taken in fresh supplies, if this 
should be necessary, he should start out again, sailing up to 56° for the 
purpose of going from there down a second time to Fuca, verifying his 
reconnoisances, so that either the supposed communication between 
the two oceans should be found, or absolute proof furnished that no 
such passage existed on those coasts. 

164. At the time Maurelle was preparing to leave San Bias on his 
commission, the commander of the corvettes ** Descubierta " and 
"Atrevida," don Alejandro Malaspina, proposed to me sure measures for 
obtaining the desired object, which were to entrust the exploration to 
the frigate captains, don Dionisio Galiano and don Cayetano Valdes, and 
to use for this expedition the new schooners "Mexicana" and **Sutil." 

165. Malaspina informed me that it would be convenient to send 
both of these vessels to Acapulco, where the artisans of the corvettes 
could do what extra work might be required on them, and where the 
vessels could be fitted out with everything to satisfaction of their com- 



Begun in June number 



226 LAND OF SUNSHINE, 

manders. He also notified me, that some experienced sailors, forming 
part of the corvettes' companies, would be assigned to the schooners, 
and that everything, which might possibly be required for accomplish- 
ing the object in view, would be furnished. 

166. I at once agreed to these wise propositions ; they were carried 
out in due time, and March 9, 1792, the two schooners left Acapulco on 
their mission. The captains carried detailed instructions from the 
commander of the corvettes, which I transmitted to them with others of 
mine, wherein I ordered what should be done in case the communica- 
tion between the Pacific and Atlantic should be discovered, either by 
one of the channels of Fuca or by any of those indicated in the notices 
of the English captain Mears relating to the discoveries made by the 
"Lady Washington " and "Princess Royal." Finally I charged these 
officers specially with ascertaining the true limits of the continent and 
the extension to the Bast of the archipelago running from 48° to 56° 
latitude North. 

167. The schooners made their trip from Acapulco to Nutka in sixty- 
three days, without any other incident occurring than the breaking of 
the main mast of "La Mexicana" on April 14, in 28° lat. North and 271° 
long. (Cadiz). This mishap might have impaired the success of the ex- 
pedition if the activity, well known seamanship and spirited direction of 
the vessel's commander, don Cayetano Vald^z, had not immediately 
remedied this defect. 

168. It was necessary to repair the damage at Nutka, to clean and 
grease the bottoms of the schooners, for which purpose they were 
beached, and to make some other necessary repairs. This work lasted 
until June 2. 

1 69. On that day both vessels sailed for Fuca straits ; arrived there ; 
set sail again on the 5th of next month ; on the 1 1 th they already navi- 
gated in the great channel of Our Lady of the Rosary ; on the 1 3th they 
met the English vessels of Vancouver's expedition, which, however, did 
not join ours until the 21st. 

170. The two expeditions kept in friendly company until July 13th, 
when it was decided to continue the reconnoisances by different channels; 
then the English separated going to the South Sea in 51°, and our vessels 
in 50°52^ on August 25 without having abandoned the continent. 

171. A heavy storm compelled them to return to the coast and seek 
refuge in an excellent harbor discovered by "La Sutil '' and called 
Valdez. There they remained until the 29th, on which day, taking up 
again their course, the vessels were enabled to fix the coast between 
capes Scot and Frondoso. At 11 a. m., Aug. 31, the schooners entered 
Nutka, eighty-seven days having passed since they sailed out of the 
same port. 

172. This exploration and the one made by the English, proved abso- 
lutely that the channels, mouths and gulfs of Juan de Fuca do not lead 
to Hudson's or Baffin's bays ; that this strait is inhabitated by numerous 
Indian tribes which have the best mediums for the fur trade ; that sev- 
eral errors made in our first expeditions have been corrected, and that no 
necessity exists for again exploring the mentioned strait. 

173. The schooners set out on their return voyage Sept. 1st; ap- 
proached the coast in 47°20'' ; reconnoitered the mouth of Ezeta [Col- 
umbia river], crossing its channel in four and a half fathoms of water. 
They noticed three small inlets which seemed to be rivers, but owing to 
the heavy seas could effect no landing. 

1 74. On the 1 1 th they were off Cape Diligencia. The force of the con- 
trary winds drove the schooners from the coast; and although they sighted 
Cape Mendocino and the Farallones of the harbor of San Francisco, 
they could not approach until they finally dropped anchor in the port 
of Monterey, Sept. 23. There the schooners remained until Oct. 26, 
finishing their voyage Nov. 23 in San Bias. 



EARLY CALIFORNIA, 227 

175. With my letter No. 121, of Nov. 30, of the same year, I for- 
warded to the department in charge of Your Excellency, a copy of the 
extract of the reconnoisances made by the schooners in the Straits of 
Juan de Fuca until their return to Nutka, accompanying it with a chart 
which for the present is only useful for conveying a general idea, until 
the frigate captain, don Dionisio Galiano shall finish the general chart 
giving full details, in the preparation of which he is now engaged, and 
I shall transmit same to Your Excellency as soon as said ofl&cer delivers 
it to me. 

Seventh Exploration of the Bucareli Archipelago by don 
Jacinto Oaamauo. 

176. The frigate *' Aranzazu" which left San Bias March 20, 1792, 
loaded with supplies for Nutka, arrived there May 14, and sailed again 
June 13, for the purpose of repeating the reconnoisance of that part of 
the coast lying between Nutka and latitude v55°15' north. 

177. The vessel arrived within twelve days at Bucareli. There it re- 
mained reconnoitering different points, channels and gulfs of that 
archipelago, until August 31, date on which it started out on the return 
voyage, arriving at Nutka Sept. 7. 

178. The diary of this navigation contains many incidents which oc- 
curred with Indians who came to trade and barter with our people, but 
does not add any important fact to the exploration made in 1779, and 
although, owing to it, a few corrections were made on the chart, no ab- 
solute certainty was obtained in reference to the existence or non-ex- 
istence of a passage between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. 

Proposal of the Commander Cuadra to Repeat the 
Explorations to Hig-her Latitudes. 

179. For this reason and because the schooners " Mexican a " and 
** Sutil " did not have time to extend their explorations to higher lati- 
tudes, the commander of the department of San Blas^ don Juan Fran- 
cisco de la Bodega, proposed to me to send out a new formal expedition 
for the purpose of making a minute reconnoisance. 

180. I keep this matter in abeyance until a more convenient time, 
because I believe that for the present it is most important to make a 
very careful examination of the coastline from 48° latitude north down 
to the harbor of San Francisco, and to occupy formally the port of La 
Bodega, situated in the immediate vicinity of the first and in latitude 
38° 18^ 

Measures Taken for Occupying the Port of JjSl Bodega 
and for Reconnoitering the Coast up to Fuca. 

181. For the object of this occupation, the schooner " Sutil," under 
the command of the ensign of the first class, don Juan Bautista Matute, 
has already left San Bias, and I have issued explicit and exemplary 
orders to the governor of the Californias for opening an overland road 
between San Francisco and La Bodega, and for furnishing everything 
necessary so as to form this new establishment before the English try to 
do so, for even though it is rumored that they have already settled there 
I consider this news false. 

182. The barkentine " Activo" and the schooner "Mexicana" are 
being fitted out to leave at the latest in the coming month of April for 
an exploration from the southern mouth of Fuca to the ** presidio" 
of San Francisco, and next year the now suspended reconnoisance of 
higher latitudes will be completed. 

Explorations of the English Commander Vancouver. 

183. It is known that the English commander left London in April, 
1791 ; that he had been in Oaiti, New Holland and the Sandwich Is- 



228 LAND OF SUNSHINE. 

lands ; that he had begun his explorations on our northern coasts in 40°, 
continued same in Fuca, and sailed from this strait in 5 1>^° latitude 
North ; that afterward he had gone down to Nutka, and kept on recon- 
noitering the coast to Monterey. 

184. It is likely that he may persist this year in verifying his discov- 
eries and in making explorations to higher latitudes until acquiring un- 
deniable proof if there exists or not a passage between the two oceans, 
and also to reach, if possible, the true limit of the continent. 

185. We would already be in possession of this important knowl- 
edge, if in the repeated and costly expeditions undertaken by us since 
the year 1 774, a better system had been observed, and instead of recon- 
noitering the innumerable islands along the coast, preference had been 
given to a scrupulous examination of all the points, bays, channels and 
gulfs of the mainland. 

186. The worst of it has been (as I said in my letter No. 44 of Sept. 
1st, 1791) that these expeditions did not apply themselves to make an 
exact reconnoisance of those localities nearest to our establishments in 
the Californias, from 47° up, and this either because it was thought that 
such a minute examination would never be necessary, or for the reason 
that our crews, tired out by voyages to higher latitudes, afflicted with 
sickness and short of provisions, desired to reach port wherein to rest. 

187. Whatever the cause may have been, now we have no other 
remedy but to occupy the port of La Bodega, as I have ordered, and to 
make the new exploration for which I have detailed the barkentine 
*' Activo" and the schooner "Mexicana," this latter only in case that 
the bilander " Horcasitas," which I consider better fitted, could not be 
gotten ready in time. 

Instructions for the Minute Reconnoisance of the Mouth 
of £]zeta and the Columbia River. 

188. The vessels will go fully supplied ; the barkentine will take two 
extraordinarily strong hawsers ; at least four anchors ; one strong 
launch ; two boats ; the best of compasses ; and a sufficient quantity of 
beads, knives and other baubles to be given as presents to the Indians. 

189. They will begin their reconnoisances from the mouth south of 
Fuca straits and navigate so near to the land as to not lose sight of its 
gulfs, bays, rivers and creeks. 

1 90 These points will be examined throughout their entire extension ; 
at each the necessary observations will be taken for determining their lo- 
cation ; soundings will be made, and the special corresponding charts 
drawn ; so that in conformity with these rules laid down a reliable gen- 
eral chart, containing minute details of the whole coast, can be com- 
piled. 

191. Whenever the winds hinder from navigating at the shortest dis- 
tance possible, or when the weather threatens a cross wind, compel the 
vessels to stand out to sea, then they will try to lay to for a few days, so 
that when approaching again the coast, they will arrive, if possible, at 
the same point they left. 

1 92. Every night, no matter if clear, dark or foggy, the anchor will 
be held in readiness and alongside, according to circumstances and 
weather. 

193. The Columbia river, situated in 46° 12'' latitude, requires a long 
and minute reconnoisance until either its source or its outlet in the op- 
posite sea is reached, in case that this river should be the one crossing 
the continent and affording a passage between the two oceans. 

1 94. In conformity with these indications and others tending to the 
greater exactitude and full accomplishment of the important ends of this 
new expedition, I have formulated the instructions by which the com- 
mander shall be governed, and whose appointment I have left to the 
choice and at the discretion of the captain of the first-class, don Fran- 



EARLY CALIFORNIA. 229 

Cisco de la Bodega y Cuadra, so that this trust may be confided to the 
ofl&cer or pilot in whom he places the most confidence, and to assure in 
everything a favorable issue for this expedition. 

The exploration to higrher latitudes has been suspended 
until next year, for the purpose of discovering- the pas- 
sage between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. 

1 95. Until now neither we nor the English have been able to find the 
passage between the Atlantic and Pacific ocean, but the time is fast ap- 
proaching when all doubt will disappear, and in case neither party 
should accomplish the object this year, during the next one of 1794 I 
shall detail to a higher latitude one of the frigates of the department of 
San Bias, the barkentine "Activo" and a few smaller vessels, if His 
Majesty is pleased to approve this new expedition and sends me some of 
the officers of his royal navy, well versed in astronomy, so as to clear 
away all doubts and put forever an end to these costly expeditions. 

Reflections about the importance of not entering* into 
diflacult, distant, adventurous and cohtly expeditions. 

196. From now on every project which compels us to incur heavy 
expenses should be opposed, even if the most positive assurances are 
made of brilliant results, because it is always understood that these re- 
sults will be in the future, whereas the expenditures have to come out in 
cash from a treasury full of urgent necessities, and whose debts are in- 
creasing. 

197. Once the treasury funds and those of its money lenders ex- 
hausted, the projects cannot be sustained, their advantages will vanish, 
the recovery of the money expended will be difficult, and it even may 
become necessary to continue in other and larger outlays with the 
very nearly certain risk of obtaining still worse results. 

198. During the period of twenty-five years, many millions of dol- 
lars have been expended in establishing and maintaining the new set- 
tlements of Upper California ; in repeated explorations of its northern 
coasts ; and in the occupation of Nutka. But if we persist in other 
still more distant and adventurous enterprises, then there will be no 
funds left to carry these on, nor anybody who will dare to estimate their 
great importance. 

Compilation of the Propositions which trill be 
advanced. 

199. Therefore I repeat my opinion, that cutting oflf all costly and 
difficult projects we limit ourselves precisely to forestall the encroach- 
ment of any English or other foreign settlement on our peninsula of 
the Californias by occupying quickly, as has been decided, the port of 
lya Bodega, and, if necessary, the mouth of the Columbia river ; to 
properly fortify these two important points, as also the "presidios" of 
San Francisco, Monterey and San Diego, and even the one of Loretto ; 
to transfer as soon as possible the department of San Bias to Acapulco ; 
to take care of the conservation and development of the special 
funds (fondos piadosos) and of the Zapotillo salines, so that the new 
burden of providing for the missions of the Californias may not fall 
upon the royal treasury, and also that the net product of the salt may 
help to maintain the marine department. 

Preliminary Reflections upon the points of the 
propositions. 

200. These are the five points which I will propose and sustain, but be- 
fore beginning, I shall make some necessary reflections about the designs 
of foreign powers on our northwestern coast of America, the advantages 



230 LAND OF SUNSHINE. 

of the fur trade, and the just reason for preyentiug the illicit commerce 
which the English may carry on in the Spanish ports of the South Sea. 

About the RuHHian E8tabllHhmcntH.: SSS^ 

201 . Wc all know that the Russians have placed on a firm footing their 
old establishments in Onalaska, Kcxliac and Cook's river; that they in- 
sist on advancing their posts or that they may have already settlements 
on the continent ; that they carry on trade with the Indians from Port 
Prince William, the highest latitude, to Nutka or its vicinity ; and 
finally, that their ambition is to increase the number of vassals of their 
sovereign, a thing they have already accomplished by their first settle- 
ments. 

202. The English do not ignore these facts, but dissemble about 
them and wc must tolerate them, because we have neither sufficient 
troops nor war vessels in the South Sea, nor the necessary funds to dis- 
lodge the Russians, who, having built the necessary fortifications, 
occupy the extensive Northern coasts of the Califomias and the infinity 
of the immediate archipelagos. 

203. It is possible that the Russians may be able to carry into effect 
their intention, but to do this will require a long time ; whereas Spain 
has more than sufficient to place in a state of perfect defense the grand 
and opulent territories we occupy and may in the future acquire in New 
Spain, and to preserve dominion over them. 

About the DeMigiiM of the KngrliHh and the Fur Trade. 

204. We are also aware that the English nation, anxious to extend 
its commerce throughout the globe, listened with pleasure to the report 
of Captain Cook in reference to the fur trade on the Northwest coast of 
America; that it engaged immediately therein; that it gathered the 
first fruits thereof; that it still continues in this trade, but may be 
having in view more important objects. Even if the profits of this 
commerce may have decreased, there arc also strong reasons for believ- 
ing, that to acquire furs at present is becoming every day more difficult 
and expensive. 

205. Those waters are frequented by numerous vessels of different 
nationalities, all employed in the fur trade, and the constant intercourse 
with Europeans is fast awakening the cupidity of the Indians. 

206. Consequently this vice, more dangerous in i)er8ons inclined to 
steal and to commit the most infamous actions, will compel the exercise 
of greater care and precautions involving larger expenses, so as to 
enable merchant ships to approach the coasts and boats to enter the 
rivers and creeks for trading purposes. 

207. Besides this, the enormous export of furs and the multitude of 
covetous buyers will impart every day more value to the furs sold di- 
rectly by the Indians, as the second sale (which is made in Canton) 
is now strictljr prohibited by the Emperor of China, 

208. It might be inferred, as it is really assured, that the English 
are not included in this decree, and that they being the true masters of 
the fur trade in Canton, their profits will increase by imposing, at pleas- 
ure, premiums or taxes upon those who either desire or are compelled 
to avail themselves (for engaging in the same trade) of the services of 
the English ; but these suppositions depend upou a rumor, which has 
not yet been confirmed, as also the one having reference to the prohibi- 
tion. 

209. In case the prohibition is absolute, then it may also be said 
that this fact will increase the value and price of the furs due to the 
more or less limited importation, and therefore no doubt can be enter- 
tained that this commerce will become still more lucrative ; and this in- 
creased value will not be affected by the risk of confiscation to which 



EARLY CALIFORNIA. 231 

the smuggler exposes himself, losing l)oth capital and profits, ntul siif- 
feriujjf the corporeal punishment, imposed by the law, if hr has the mis 
fortune to be caught. 

210. liut whatsoever may be the case, I am convinced that it is not 
the profit to be derived from the fur trade which impels the Knglish to 
dispute our ownership of the port of Nutka ; to claim that the bound 
ary of the Spanish possession should be the harbor of San Francisco , 
that the territory to be jointly occupied by both should begin there ; 
and they should be at liberty to fish beyond a distance of ten leagues 
from our interior coasts of the Pacific ocean. It is clear that all these 
propositions have as object the carrying on of an illicit trade, which by 
clandestine importation of Kuropcan and Asiatic merchandise will de- 
stroy the commerce of New Spain and the Philippine Islands. 

211. This commerce, so much more injurious in case the su(}posed 
passage between the Pacific and Atlantic oceans shall be discovered, 
will in any event give impulse to the fur trade in which the English are 
engaged at Canton ; but, at the same time, it is within our power to 
diminish these profits (provided that the prohibition of said trade is not 
a fact or that the Emperor of China revokes it), and to |3;uard against all 
pernicious designs without incurring new difliculties with England. 

212. For the purpose of accomplishing the first object it is not neces- 
sary for us to embark upon enterprises of difficult and impossible exe- 
cution like that one which the brevet lieutenant, don I^stcvdn Josd 
Martinez presented in 1790, proposing to form in this capital [Mexico] a 
Free Trade Company, for engaging in a direct trade between Canton and 
the coasts of California, this company to be granted an exemption from 
duties for fifty years ; its principal commerce to consist of furs and tim- 
ber ; and the company to oblige itself to found, within the stated 
period, four " presidios " and sixteen missions on the frontier coasts of 
that peninsula. 

213. I shall not tarry in stating the defects and great difficulties of 
this project, because I have already sufficiently explained the matter in 
the report which I addressed to His Majesty, through the conduct of 
don Antonio Vald<?z, under number 192, January 31 of this year. But 
I will say, that to lessen the profit of the English in the fur trade, in 
which already American colonists, Russians, French and Portuguese 
frequently engage, it would be sufficient to give this privilege also to 
those Spaniards who desire to embark in this trade at their own free 
will and risk, granting to such the franchise of exporting furs without 
paying duty thereon, and imposing a moderate duty upon domestic 
products and timber, an equal or larger quota than the one required of 
merchandise imported at Acapulco from China. Still, to make the 
necessary arrangements in reference to these duties and new commerce, 
it would be necessary to consult the Mercantile Court (Tribunal del 
Consulado), the revenue officers and the fiscal of the Royal Treasury; 
the whole matter to be finally decided by the Superior Treasury Com- 
mission. 

214. In accordance with above rules this commerce might be estab- 
lished and the English could have no reason for complaining that the 
Spanish engaged in this trade, as all others do who so feel inclined. 
But, finally, I doubt that the merchants of New Spain will risk their 
money in so far away countries, when they have near at home the in- 
exhaustible wealth of innumerable mines, gold and silver diggings, and 
other safe investments or less exposed to loss wherein to employ their 
capital. 

215. In whatever else may have reference to guarding against the 
pernicious designs of England, I think that the measures which I shall 
state in my propositions will be sufficient. 



232 LAND OF SUNSHINE. 

First Proposition about Occupying" tbe Port of Bodega, 

and if Necessity should Require it, also the 

Entrance of £zeta. 

216. The first thing necessary is to occupy the principal or most im- 
portant points of the coast between our "presidio" of San Francisco 
and Juan de Fuca strait, but in section 181 I have already stated my 
dispositions in reference to the new establishment of the port of La 
Bodega, and in the paragraphs following, from 188 to 194, the measures 
I am taking for a most careful examination of the whole of said stretch 
of coast, and specially that part of the Columbia river at Ezeta entrance 
in 46° latitude north. 

217. If this river should be the passage between the two oceans, then 
we would have acquired all necessary information about the volume of 
water it carries, the rapidity or slowness of the current, the Indian 
tribes either nomadic or stable which live on its banks, and the place, 
more or less accessible, where the river empties into the Atlantic. In 
such case I will take all the possible and necessary measures to pre- 
serve the ownership and dominion of this admirable discovery, until 
Your Excellency informs me of the steps which His Majesty desires 
shall be taken. 

218. I shall not proceed exploring the Columbia river if its sources 
are discovered in the vicinity, unless a just motive existed, compelling 
me to establish a post for affording greater protection either to the port 
of La Bodega and the rest of the harbors of the Californias, or for the 
object of locating more exactly and with a better title, and also at a 
great distance from the territory common to English and Spanish, the 
boundary of our possessions. 

219. But if the sources of the Columbia river should be in the neigh- 
borhood of our province of New Mexico, or if it should be joined by 
any tributary stream immediate to said province, either flowing through 
same or near to it, then it will become indispensable to occupy the en- 
trance of Ezeta, and to establish for the greater security of the coast of 
the Californias at convenient localities the necessary "presidios" and 
fissions. For this object formal military expeditions must then be 
undertaken by the presidial troops, and with soldiers to be furnished by 
the General Commander of the Interior Provinces, beginning with 
those of the presidio of Santa F^ in New Mexico. These expeditions 
are to be in charge of competent commanders, and accompanied by 
officers versed in mathematics, and others having the qualifications in 
reference to which I consulted in letter number 34 of March 27, 1791. 

Second Proposition about Placing in an Adequate State 

of Defense the Ports of the Peninsula ot 

the Californias. 

220. In my letter, number 124, of November 30, 1792, I have already 
stated my second proposition as to fortifying properly the harbors of 
Monterey, San Diego and San Francisco, and to these ports I now shall 
add La Bodega and the entrance of Ezeta or the Columbia river in case 
it should be necessary to occupy same. 

221. I have made some inexpensive provisions, but my desire is to 
insure the success of the more important measures by a personal inter- 
view with the new governor whom His Majesty may appoint in substi- 
tution of the defunct lieutenant colonel of dragoons, don Jos6 Romero. 
This new appointee should be a talented officer, a military expert, of 
robust health enabling him to undergo the utmost hardships, disinter- 
ested, of quick action and real zeal in the service. All these qualities 
are required for inspecting frequently the extensive territories of the 
peninsula, insuring its defenses. Keeping the presidial troops well 
disciplined, and for overcoming either with diplomacy, or if this should 



EARLY CALIFORNIA 233 

not be sufficient, by force, the ideas, intrigues or prejudicial inroads of 
the English ; and, also at the same time, for improving the settlements 
and missions, and extending same to the Colorado river. 

222. This point and the mission of San Gabriel form the circle 
within which swarm pagan Indians, who may be persuaded to accept 
our holy religion and the mild dominion of our sovereign, and so con- 
tribute to the important object of making the peninsula of the Cali- 
fornias one of the most respectable colonies on the frontier of New 
Spain. 

223. I conclude this proposition with another, which is : that if the 
Dominican friars found their most advanced mission on the Colorado 
river, then it will also be necessary to establish a new "presidio" which 
is considered necessary on the limits of Sonora and California. Such a 
"presidio" to be located within the territory of this peninsula, to be 
under the immediate jurisdiction of its governor and absolutely inde- 
pendent of the General Commandancy of the Interior Provinces. This 
for the reason, that the object and purpose of the presidial company is 
to maintain the California Indians in peace, and together with the 
other presidial troops guard the peninsula against all encroachments 
either by those same natives or by European enemies. 

Third Proposition about Transferring- the Department ot 
San Bias to Acapulco. 

224. I have little to add about the third proposition beyond what I have 
said in my letters Nos. 193, 437, 230 and 44 of December 27, 1789, March 
27, 1790, January 15 and September 1, 1791, the first two of which were 
addressed to don Antonio Vald^z, the third to the Count de Lorena, and 
the fourth to the Count de Florida Blanca, but more particularly I refer 
myself to this last communication in reference to the importance and 
urgency of transferring the department of San Bias to Acapulco. 

225. The viceroy, don Antonio Bucareli, had received peremptory 
royal orders to take this convenient measure ; my predecessor, don An- 
tonio Flores, indicated this step in his letter, number 57 of December 
23, 1787, but its execution was suspended, due to contrary decisions, 
contained a heap of actuations not yet concluded (que constan en un 
cumuloso expediente que nunca lleg6 d concluirse) and which clearly 
prove the discord between the parties informing, the partiality and per- 
sonal ends of some, the ignorance of others, and the tenacity with 
which all contradict one another on account of personal likes and dis- 
likes, which caused many useless expenditures and interminable 
criminal and civil suits. 

226. Even yet, some individuals are opposed to the transfer of the 
department; but they are few and their opinion of little value, con- 
sidering that this measure has in its favor the unanimous vote o*^ the 
captains of the first-class, don Alejandro Malaspina and don Jos^ de 
Bustamante y Guerra ; of the commander of this department, don Juan 
Francisco de la Bodega ; of the captains of the second class, don 
Dionisio Galiano and don Cayetano Valdez, and of all intelligent offi- 
cers sailing in those vessels and employed in said department. 

237, No dry dock is required there for building ships. Eight large 
and small vessels can be assigned from Spain for service in this depart- 
ment (as I proposed in my letter number 44), and relieved every four 
or five years. 

[TO BE CONCLUDED.] 




^^^ The harvest is past (or as much of it as can pass in a land 

MARCH OF where there is harvest every day in the year) and the summer 

SEASONS. ended and our souls are still saved — in California. We have had 
no sunstrokes, no floods, no epidemics — and it is our perennial expec- 
tation, based on history, not to have. In place of death and disaster 
we have had a terrible earthquake which rattled several thousand 
glasses. It was not so terrible as the usual California earthquake, be- 
cause it came in the daytime and no Eastern visitor had to sally in his 
or her nightie. But it was enough to remind us that we are human — 
and that California is the best place to be human in. 

Meantime we go on harvesting our fifteen millions in gold, our 
twelve millions in fruit, our five millions in grain, and the various and 
diversified other millions which make California the richest State in 
the Union per capita. And despite the more money, we have enjoyed 
life better, on the average, than any other population anywhere. 

Soon, now, the winter of our content will be upon us. Not the cruel 
winter we knew back East where we were born ; but a gorgeous season 
where it sometimes rains and the great peaks are snow-crowned — yet at 
their feet are eternal roses — a hundred thousand sometimes on a single 
bush — and heliotrope to the second story window ; a season wherein we 
are out-doors every day, and sleep with oui windows open ; when our 
world is thick-carpeted with wild flowers, and fluttering with butter- 
flies. And as the Californian swaps perfect summer for perfect winter 
he never gets too hardened to be sorry for the poor cousins back yonder 
to whom both seasons are hostile — who want to get away from home in 
summer and have to shut themselves up in winter. The Californian 
has not much reputation for humility ; but if the East could realize his 
advantages, the only wonder would be that he is so little arrogant. 

^^ There is a general expectation that General Porfirio Diaz, 

CA8A, _ President of the Mexican Republic, is to visit the United 

8EN0R. States this fall ; and considerable special advertising is being 

done in this country by some exposition to which it is hoped he will 
give his presence. This is not wholly official, as yet. President Diaz 
writes the Lion, under date of Aug. 17, "si Men muy agradable me 
seria visitar ese hermoso pais, por ahora no me lo permiten mis numer- 
osas atenciones oficiales" ( although it would be very agreeable to me 
to visit that handsome land, at present my official cares do not permit 
me). 

Nevertheless, the Lion hopes that Prest. Diaz will make out to revisit 
the United States this year of grace. His official duties are indeed 
heavy — there is no power behind the throne, in Mexico, for the very 
simple reason that there is neither need nor room for any. Diaz is 
Mexico and needs no Hannas. But the same "hard hand" that could 
turn Mexico from chaos to a nation can sweep aside the atenciones ofi- 
ciales if it will. And it is to be hoped it will. Diaz knows and admires 
the United States ; the United States knows and admires Diaz. There 
is good in inter-visiting. The man of Mexico will get no harm by see- 
ing here more examples to follow and more to avoid ; and we shall get 



IN THE LION'S DEN. 235 

good by looking upon the noble face and figure of by far the greatest 
A.merican ruler of his day ; one of the large historic figures of all 
time ; a statesman and a patriot of the very first dimensions. And the 
United States would give a warm welcome to a man every educated 
American has learned to honor. 

We are all sorry for France, and a good deal ashamed of her — " the 
both of which feelings are always easy for us as toward foreign application 

lands. Things we know nothing about must be pretty bad, of on'T." 

course. Even to those who do know, France is now tolerably bad. It 
is also tolerably instructive. It is a republic fool enough to let its army 
get too influential. 

San Francisco (and incidentally the State) gave a noble wel- welcome 
come to the returning volunteers. There is no American, of home, 

any complexion (except the administration) who is not glad to brave men. 

have these brave boys home. They have done their duty as soldiers 
and done it magnificently, And they wanted to come home. Not be- 
cause they had no belly for fighting ; but simply because the motive 
of the fighting is not quite American enough to command their fullest 
sympathy. Even if some of them may not be quite ready to admit it, 
this is true. If the war were one for Americans to be proud of, these 
are the sort of boys that could not be coaxed or driven to the rear till 
the last gun was fired. The return of these volunteers is clinching 
proof of the Anti-Imperial argument. 

Know all men by these presents— and not men only, but the our 
sort of provincials of whom it is necessary to take something western 

like forty to get the groundwork of a Person — that California humor. 

has just passed through its second year of drouth hand-running. In 
this second dry year alone it has brought to light more water, and ap- 
plied it to the soil than is applied to the soil by all the United States 
east of the Mississippi ; and that its crops are worth more this year, 
per head, to every man, woman and child in California, Chinese and 
Indians included, than the crops of any other State in the Union. In 
his second consecutive dry year, the Californian is better off" than his 
Eastern cousin ever was. The Californian thinks there is a certain 
humor in this ; but whether it is funny or not, it is true. 

Several important newspaper reporters have declared that the the 
splendid ovation given in San Francisco to our returning vol- unbaked 

unteers ** proves that the people of California believe in the reporter. 

war," and is a rebuke to the wicked anti-tyrants. Sho ! If the 
people of California believed in the war, they would mob soldiers who 
came home before the war was over. California is glad that the boys 
are home, that's all. And she has good reason to welcome soldiers 
with such a record. 

A great many undrunken Americans wish to know " if we the 
can't do something." They are convinced, as the Lion is, that leaven 

in any fair vote of the people the iniquity and folly of Im- at work. 

perialism would be snowed under. It is, I imagine, absolutely true that 
there are more Americans who understand and value our national 
history and ideas than there are Americans who ignore both in their 
emotion ; and the dividing line between Imperialism and anti-Imperial- 
ism is precisely there. There are some mighty good Imperialists, 
entirely unaware of the cord the politicians have in their noses ; but 
Imperialism is wrong or else the United States is wrong ; as every man 
knows who knows United States history and is not temporarily daft 
with emotion. 



236 LAND OF SUNSHINE. 

The Lion has abiding faith in the American people. Like all humans, 
they may go wrong. They went wrong 100 years on Negro slavery. I 
can remember when Abolitionists were persecuted ; but every Ameri- 
can is an Abolitionist today. So it will be with our dream of foreign 
oppression. Every original Abolitionist is against it now. In another 
fifty years we shall forget that anyone disputed them. 

No, the Lion knows of nothing for patriots to do, except to keep on 
fighting, each in his own sphere. The leaven is spreading faster than 
most of us realize. Every day the Administration's unjust and silly 
war gets colder on the average heart. The chill may be deep enough to 
defeat a president of the Lion's own party in the next campaign, al- 
though everything else in the world is overwhelmingly in his favor. 

^OT It is easy and wise to discount the newspaper criticisms of 

FORCE Gen. Otis — the Major-General, of course, now in Manilla; 

ENOUGH, there never were any criticisms of Brig.-Gen. H. G. Otis. 

Every reporter naturally knows just how a war should be run, a good 
deal better than any Napoleon can know. It is the core of the news- 
paper business in general to be aware of wisdom by not acquiring it. 
Gen. Otis has probably done very well indeed with the force at his dis- 
posal. The only trouble is that he nominated the size of the force ; 
that it isn't big enough ; that everyone (Gen. Otis included) now knows 
it isn't. But Gen. Otis need not be smarter than his President ; and 
there is an alarming number of officials nowadays so stupid as to fancy 
that any force will whip the Filipinos out of all conceit of freedom. 
We can squelch the present fight for liberty ; but never, so long as 
there is a God in heaven (or in the human heart, which is perhaps a 
synonymous geography) can we quench the desire to be free. And we 
might be in better business than trying. 

rHE Would you know the neophyte ? Then watch him make 

GREEN " discoveries" in New Mexico — a bald, bare land, every foot 

EXPLORER " of which has been explored and mapped by scientists. Mor- 
gan, Jackson, Bandelier, Matthews, Hodge, Winship, Cushing, Simp- 
son, the Stephensons, the Mindelefis, and a score of others who were 
educated scholars, not raw freshmen — these have between them left no 
ruin unmeasured. Nowadays scientists make little discoveries in the 
Southwest; greenhorns make "startling" ones. The only difference 
is that the expert details last ; the kindergarten sensations pass away 
after one or two issues of credulous newspapers. But a novice, who has 
never seriously read any one of the several hundred books without 
which no one can wisely pretend to know anything about New Mexico, 
getting into that wonderland, with an imagination in place of learning, 
naturally goes "where no white man ever before trod," and "dis- 
covers wonderful and unknown ruins' ' which had been squeezed dry 
by science before he ever heard of New Mexico. And if you would 
know the first test of an unripe explorer, here it is : he always looks 
on the " Cliflf Dwellers" as a "lost race," and always discovers either 
that they were giants or dwarfs. As a matter of fact, it is as absolutely 
proved in science that they were Pueblo Indians, of the present Pueblo 
stature, as it is proved that La Salle navigated the Mississippi. And as 
a matter of vanity it is coming time for the unread and the untraveled 
to keep their heads out of the pillory. The world is growing smaller ; 
and not all of it is so ignorant as the people who discover New Mexico 
in 1899. 

The worst thing that can be said truthfully about Aguinaldo's appeal 
to the powers is that it uses the same logic our United States Senate 
used when it was aiming to liberate Cuba. Exactly the things that we 
said of Weyler and Spain are so soon come home to roost on the neck 
of the United States. 




There was never before in the world's 
history a time when so many things were 
worth writing, nor when it was so easy to write 
them. Yet never before was so scant a proportion of 
"literature" worth the paper and ink it consumes. We 
have grown unearthly smart — and have become the only persons of 
record so foolish as to believe that smartness is all there is to it. 



Another of the too small circle of American students of the 
America — one of the real ones^ one of the large ones — has narrowing 

gone from the field that could ill afford a much less loss. Dr. circle. 

Daniel G. Brinton, of the University of Pennsylvania, died July 31, at 
the age of 62. Dr. Brinton was one of the best of the "closet men." 
Except Gatschet he had no rival in accurate knowledge of Indian lin- 
guistics. His heel of Achilles was no more than lack of the Field, 
which even the foremost scholar must have to be complete. But he 
was a true scholar, a great linguist, an irreparable figure. Before just 
the man to take his place shall come, there will not be half the place 
left to take. Dr. Brinton 's works on American ethnology, and his 
editorial and contributive labors in scientific publications, were monu- 
mental in mass and in authority. Americans who know what scholar- 
ship is will always keep his memory green — perhaps most loyally those 
who best knew his limitations. 

It takes a good man to keep the unruffled love and esteem " teddy " 
of those who disagree with him in politics, religion or tailor- and his 

ing. That Gov. Roosevelt is such a one, it is now too late to "terrors." 

need to be said. "Our Teddy" is verily "good people," as they say in 
a part of the country where he is best understood and best beloved. He 
can fly in our faces and trample our special corns, and we subtract 
nothing from his standing in the place we keep for Men. This is be- 
cause we all know he is absolutely genuine. He looks to be at least a 
yard and a half wide ; but anyhow, he is all wool. 

His book The Rough Riders^ is not one of the solidest of books of 
the late war, but it is one of the manliest and most "taking." "Teddy" 
was too close to the firing-line to get any such philosophical perspec- 
tive as he has shown himself capable of measuring in less rampant 
fields. It is simply an unaflfected, well balanced, direct personal narra- 
tive ; telling of magnificent courage and practical sense, a narrative of 
human competency told with uncounterfeit modesty and with all the 
generosity of so brave a man. It is a very human document, and no 
reader, of whatever convictions, will dodge its charm. The volume is 
sumptuously made and very fully illustrated. Chas. Scribner's Sons, 
New York. $2. 

The University of Oregon is doing a commendable work in a making 
"Historical series" of which three numbers are already in Oregon's 

evidence. Two "Bulletins" beginning the Semi- Centennial history. 

History of Oregon deal with "Exploration Northwestward" (by F. G. 
Young), "The Hudson Bay Company's Regime in the Oregon Country" 
(Eva Emery Dye) and " Mile-Posts in the Development of Oregon" 



238 LAND OF SUNSHNIE. 

(Horace S. Lyman). These are all good papers in their class. More 
important is the publication of an original '* Source " — TAe Correspond- 
ence and Journals of Capt, Nathaniel J. Wyeth, 1831-36. Wyeth made 
two expeditions to Oregon at that early day, and his personal record is 
well worth saving. University Press, Eugene, Or. 

)F A The quaint and little-known epoch in American history when 

FORGOTTEN we had a ** New Sweden" on the western bank of the Dela- 

PERIOD ware, 250 years ago, serves as chief setting for Bmma Rayner's 
interesting novel In Castle and Colony. The story opens, indeed in old 
Sweden, with the breaking up of an ancient family ; but the little hero- 
ine "Agneta" is transferred, after sixty pages, to the New World col- 
ony ; and here we follow her fortunes. Peppery John Printz is Gov- 
ernor of New Sweden and in New Amsterdam is his greater rival, 
** Peter the Headstrong," alias Stuyvesant. The forgotten war in which 
the Dutch wiped out the Swedish colony is climax of the book. The 
story is well told and human ; with quite as much history as usually 
falls to the lot of the "historical novel," and quite as much impulse. 
The hero and heroine and presumptive villain are all well drawn charac- 
ters ; and old "Axel Bond" is an uncommonly taking one. The love- 
story is sedate and attractive, and the book altogether is one it is " no 
trouble to read." H. S. Stone & Co., Chicago. $1.50. 

iOOD There is always joy in reading Harriet Prescott Spofford. 

LOVE Whatever she writes has about it the certain witchery of 

STORIES. womanhood ; and her love-stories are among the soundest and 

sweetest. The Maid He Married is no exception to her rule ; an ex- 
quisite story of a real love. Norman Gale's A June Romance is of an 
entirely dififerent category ; but like in interest and the love that over- 
comes. Without Mrs. Spoflford's "eternal feminine," the book has a 
poetic temperament, and leaves a good taste in the romantic mouth. 
Both volumes are of the dainty "Blue Cloth Books." H. S. Stone & 
Co., Chicago. 75c each. 

HE 8IN8 Of an uncommon sort (which may be not a pity), a gruesome 

OF THE but a powerful story. The Maternity of Harriott Wicken is one 

FATHERS, of the marked books of the year. Mrs. Henry Dudeney, before 
heard from as the author of A Man With a Maid^ here takes the sins of 
the fathers and visits them upon the children in ghastly but accurate 
fashion. The story is indeed a story, and at the same time a strong 
monograph on heredity. It is a book to make one feel — and think. 
The Macmillan Co., 66 Fifth ave., New York. $1.50. C. C. Parker, Los 
Angeles. 

\ LITTLE The Lady of the Flag-Flowers^ by Florence Wilkinson, is a 

HURON somewhat jerky but interesting story of a willful little Huron 

MAID. maid and the lives that touched hers. The scene is mostly 
(and best) of French Canada, though with shiftings other-where. There 
is a good deal of attractive local color ; and enough of incident. H. 
S. Stone & Co., Chicago. $1.50. 

EVEN The Carcellini Emerald^ by Mrs. Burton Harrison, is a coUec- 

SHORT tion of seven short stories in the pleasant if slightly amateur- 

STORIES. ish way of that well known society lady, but normal good 

reading. Perhaps "An Author's Reading" is best of the collection, 

with its kind but knowing humor. H. S. Stone & Co., Chicago. $1.50 

Jerome A. Anderson, M. D., publishes a slim volume on The Evidence 
of Immortality, from the Theosophist standpoint. In some future rein- 
carnation it may be necessary to pursue a review further. In the pres- 
ent life it suffices to say that a book is theosophy. Few fields of liter- 
ature are so satisfactory and convenient of definition. A word is enough 
to instruct alike the believer and the unbeliever. I^otus Pub. Co., San 
Francisco. $1. 

Chas. F. Lummis. 



239 

The New Sunshine Offices, 

(glYTTR ACTIVE and comfortable as are the offices which 
>Mf the Land of Sunshine Publishing Company has for four 
years occupied in the Stimson Building, there has been 
daily and almost hourly inconvenience in having the business 
offices at so many blocks' distance from the mechanical de- 
partment. This inconvenience has grown steadily, as business 
increases — and the magazine is now forty per cent, larger than 
a year ago — and the wisdom of conserving all the time and 
energy lost between the two establishments has become con- 
stantly more evident. Being able, at last, to secure equally 
pleasant and comfortable offices under the same roof with its 
printing, binding and engraving departments, the company 
has removed its business offices to 121^ South Broadway, 
rooms 5, 7 and 9. This is in the " Printing House Square '* 
of Los Angeles ; within half a block of the Times, Herald, 
Express, Cultivator^ etc. Probably nine-tenths of the publish- 
ing business of Los Angeles is within a block here. 

This is one of several advantageous advancements the mag- 
azine is making. It is recognized everywhere, now, as the 
most typical and most competent magazine ever published in 
the West. Californians are proud and Easterners are glad to 
have a Western magazine whose knowledge is unquestioned, 
whose standards are high and absolutely unsubsidized, and 
whose independence rather pleases people who are Americans 
themselves, whether they agree with its doctrines or not. 

The magazine expects to continue to deserve the respect of 
competent people ; and even to progress, as it has, it believes, 
done steadily from the start. It is larger than ever, its stand- 
ards are steadily raised, and its repute in the East and at home 
is higher than ever. 



Competent Opinions Regarding The 
Land of Sunshine. 

"Replete with information and entertainment. . . . The pictures 
, . . will interest anyone. Those who go deeper will be most struck 
by the bold and independent tone of the editorial writing, especially on 
public topics. This is not a common characteristic of the press on the 
Pacific Coast or elsewhere ; but courage has a permanent berth in the 
office of the Land of Sunshine." — TAe Nation^ New York, 

" We have often had occasion to speak a good word for this brave 
little magazine, and to wish it success. The contents include much 
matter of permanent value, besides those sections in which the editor 
keeps up a running fire of comment on the literary and political hap- 
penings of the day. . . . Mr. Lummis has spoken many sober and 
fearless words, for which patriotic Americans cannot thank him too 
warmly." — The Dial, Chicago. 



240 



The Yuccas. 

BY ROBBRT MOWRY BELL. 

The wind is in the yuccas, like the roll 

Of mimic waves upon a hill- girt mere, 

Or storm of tossing boughs ; the night, star-clear, 
Shows yet unmoved each rugged branch and bole. 
As from a world unseen that murmur stole ; 

Weird in the gloom these outstretched arms appear ! 

Is night but the day's absence? Surely here 
There is a presence ; night has gained a soul ! 
Ah, 'tis the spell that this fantastic tree 

Has put upon the plain. Star 'speaks to star ; 

Northward to where the dusk-hid mountains are 
The gossip laden wind is coursing free. 

It is a goblin world, and faint and far 

Sound the spent echoes of reality ! 

Los Angeles. 



^Joaquin Miller's Monuments. 

jgrtHE Poet of the Sierras has a characteristic home, not 
\ exactly Sierran but high-perched and very Joaquin- 
esque, on the dominating **Hights'' behind Oak- 
land. Its oddities have been perhaps more impressive to many 
visitors than the truly magnificent outlook and the winey 
winds ; and now they will have still more to peck at. 

Since his return from the Klondyke, in July, '98, Joaquin 
has turned a good part of his nuggets to monument-building. 
On the bleakest of his hills he has set up of rough-cut stone 
his own funeral pyre — long be it before the Old Man (as he 
isn't, very) goes to it feet-first ! 

Near his celebrated Greek Cross of cypress and pine he has 
erected a great round tower of stone in memory of Robert 
Browning, who was good to him in lyondon in the early 
'Seventies, when the young poet was hunting for his own 
trail. 

Near the funeral pyre is a massive pyramid ; and graven on 
its base the simple appreciation '* To Moses." Joaquin likes 
Moses, and thinks it has been a long time between monuments 
to the most enduring, as well as the first, of lawgivers. 

Lastly, a fine square tower, big and battlemented on one of 
his pet ledges, is for Fremont. Joaquin cared for the Path- 
finder — as every large enough soul did. His peculiarly beau- 
tiful little poem on Fremont (published first in these pages in 
December, 1895) will be remembered ; and now he gives as 
fine a tribute, in perhaps more enduring stone, to the first big 
Californian. See next page. 







CM. Davis Enp. Co JOAQUIN MII^I^ER'S MONUMENTS. 

His funeral pyre— The Browning Tower— The Pyramid to Moses. 



CALIFORNIA BABIES. 



243 









C. M. Davis Enp. Co. 



OUT-DOORS IN JANUARY. 
A 15-nionths' old California Baby. 




C. M. Davis Eng. Co 



SAY, BOSSY ! 








f:. M. Davis Eng Co. 



AT PASADENA. 




SPRING ST., 1,08 ANGEI^ES, I.OOKING NORTH FROM THIRD, 




MAGNOI^IA AVENUE, RIVERSIDE. 



Condensed Information — Southern California 



IfiNDSlAHS 
JtRSLY, 



The section generally known as South- 
ern California comprises the seven coun- 
ties of IvOS Angeles, San Bernardino, 
Orange, Riverside, San Diego, Ventura 
and Santa Barbara. 
The total area of 
these counties is 
44 , 901 square 
miles. The States 
of Con necticut, 
Delaware, Massa- 
chusetts, New 
Hampshire, New 
Jersey, Rhode Is- 
land and Vermont 
could all be placed 
within the bound- 
aries of Southern 
California and still 
leave 1,154 square 
miles to spare. The 
coast line extends 
northwest and 
southeast a dis- 
tance of about 
275 miles. A 
13,000,000 deep-sea 
harbor is now un- 
der construction at 
San Pedro, near 
Los Angeles. 

Over $20,000,000 
are invested in 
mining. Thous- 
ands of dollars are 
brought here by 
tourists. 

The population 
in 1890 was 201,- 
352. The present 
population is esti- 
mated at 350,000. 
Los Angei^ES county has an area of 
4,000 square miles, some four-fifths of 
which is capable of cultivation, with 
water supplied. The shore line is about 
85 miles in length. The population has 
increased from 33,881 in 1880 to 200,000. 
There are over 1 ,500,000 fruit trees grow- 
ing in the county. Los Angeles city, the 
commercial metropolis of Southern Cali- 
fornia, 15 miles from the coast, has a 
population of about 115.000. Eleven 
railroads center here. The street car 
mileage is nearly 200 miles. There are 
over 175 miles of graded and graveled 
streets, and 14 miles of paved streets. 
The city is entirely lighted by electric- 
ity. Its school census is 24,766 ; bank 
deposits, $12,000,000; net assessed valu- 
ation, $61,000,000; annual output of its 
manufactures, $20,000,000 ; building per- 
mits, $3,000,000, and bank clearance, 
$64,000,000. There is a $500,000 court 




house, a $200,000 city hall, and many 
large and costly business blocks. 

The other principal cities are Pasa- 
dena, Pomona, Azusa, Whittier, Downey, 
Santa Monica, Redondo, Long Beach, 
and San Pedro. 

San Bernardino County is the larg- 
est county in the State, is rich in miner- 
als, has fertile valleys. Population about 
35,000. The county is traversed by two 
railroads. Fine oranges and other fruits 
are raised. 

San Bernardino city, the county seat, 
is a railroad center, with about 8,000 peo- 
ple. The other principal places are 
Redlands, Ontario, Colton and Chino. 

Orange County has an area of 671 
square miles ; population in 1890, 13,589. 
Much fruit and grain are raised. 

Santa Ana, the county seat, has a 
population of over 5,000. Other cities 
are Orange, Tustin, Anaheim and Fuller- 
ton. 

Riverside County has an area of 7,000 
square miles; population about 16,000. 
It is an inland county. 

Riverside is the county seat. 

Other places are South Riverside, Fer- 
ris and San Jacinto. 

San Diego County is a large county, 
the most southerly in the State, adjoin- 
ing Mexico. Population about 45,000. 
The climate of the coast region is re- 
markably mild and equable. Irrigation 
is being rapidly extended. Fine lemons 
are raised near the coast, and all other 
fruits flourish. 

San Diego city, on the ample bay of 
that name, is the terminus of the Santa 
Fe railway system, with a population of 
about 25,000. 

Other cities are National City, Escon- 
dido, Julian and Oceanside. 

Ventura County adjoins Los Ange- 
les county on the north. It is very 
mountainous. There are many profit- 
able petroleum wells. Apricots and 
other fruits are raised, also many beans. 
Population about 15,000. 

San Buenaventura, the county seat, is 
pleasantly situated on the coast. Popu- 
lation, 3,000. Other cities are Santa 
Paula, Hueneme and Fillmore. 

Santa Barbara is the most northern 
of the seven counties, with a long shore 
line, and rugged mountains in the in- 
terior. • Semi-tropic fruits are largely 
raised, and beans in the northern part of 
the county. 

Santa Barbara, t^ie county seat, is 
noted for its mild climate. Population 
about 6,000. Other cities Lompoc, Car- 
penteria and Santa Maria. 



249 

The *' Pacific' Wave Motor. 

|g^^HE last fifty years have very seriously modified our notions about 
VP^I ' "impossibilities," and the word is not so sweepingly or so com- 
X monly used as it once was. It was not very long ago that people 
laughed at the idea that it could be possible to make your voice heard hun- 
dreds of miles away; but today these same people are using the telephone, 
not as a mere curiosity or luxury, but as a business necessity. There was 
a time, not far back, when it was thought impossible to make electricity 
give a light steady enough to displace kerosene lamps ; or to make it a 
practicable motive force for transit ; yet coal-oil lamps and street car 
horses are gone out of fashion forever. 

The problem of harnessing the ocean waves, of saving and applying 
to the wheels of progress some part of that incalculable energy which is 
daily wasted on every sea coast — a power so vast that a tiny fraction of 
it if conserved and directed would suffice to drive the machinery of 
every industry on earth, is so important that it will not go unsolved for 
want of effort. 

Many inventions, designed to utilize this vast power have been tried ; 
and some have fallen but little short of success Yet so glittering a re- 
ward as awaits the successful wave motor will bring it, if it is within 
human power and ingenuity. The chief difficulties have been 1st, how 
to control the force of the waves so as to produce a steady and even 
power suitable for mechanical purposes ; 2d, to provide against storms ; 
3d, to devise an automatic adaptation to the tide, high or low ; and 4th, 
to protect the floats and wharf from damage. 

The Pacific Wave Motor Co. of this city has been granted a patent on 
an invention which is arousing decided public interest ; and believes 
that it has solved these knotty problems. The inventors have profited 
by the mistakes or shortcomings of other motors ; and are confident that 
they have overcome all these obstacles. 

DESCRIPTION. 

The plans of this wave motor consist principally of a wharf, floats, 
displacement hydraulic pumps, and a waterwheel. The wharf is con- 
structed so that the floats are located where the best average waves or 
ground swells are obtainable, which is out just beyond where the waves 
begin to break. There are two floats 20x16 feet each, fastened together 
in tandem by heavy rails 60 feet long. An open space is left between 
the two floats so that a double action is received from each wave. The 
float is connected with a 12-inch displacement hydraulic pump by 
means of cables passing up through the wharf and running over puUy 
wheels and fastened to the plunger. As the float rises with the waves 
a counter-weight, which is connected with the end of the plunger, 
keeps the cables tight and at the same time pulls the plunger out ready 
to be forced in again as the float lowers. 

Each float is loaded to the weight of about 25 tons. This produces 
a pressure of 440 pounds to the square inch in the pumps, forcing the 
water into a receiver containing air. This, being compressed to the 
same pressure, forms a cushion and produces a perfectly steady stream 
of water which is forced upon a waterwheel. From there the water 
drops into a supply tank, where a pipe leading direct to the pumps, 
furnishes the pumps with a supply of water. Thus, the same water is 
used over and over again ; and as fresh water is used it does not rust 
out the pumps as would be the case with salt water. 

The pipe leading from the receiver to the waterwheel is provided with 
a throttle valve which can be gauged to govern the action of the floats, 
so that they cannot lower faster than the water is released from the re- 
ceiver, thus giving perfect control of the floats in case of storms and 
heavy waves ; because the floats will be allowed to drop only at the 




rate of a certain number of feet per 
minute according to how high and 
fast the waves are coming in. As 
the swells vary from three to eight 
per minute, it is declared that this 
throttle valve will govern and pro- 
duce a perfectly steady power 
from the intermittent motion of 
the ocean. 

Many wave motors are able to 
work only when the tide is at a 
certain height. This motor claims 
to have overcome that feature by 
making the hydraulic pumps 
twent}' feet long, which allows 
the plunger to work at all tides, 
high or low. 

The improved plan adopted by 
this wave motor in guiding the 
floats is shown in the small illus- 
tration on the third page of this 
article, presenting an end view of 
the float in position between the 
piling. A traveler carried on an 
arm from the deck of the float 
runs on a heavy steel guide cable 
bridged out about a foot from the 
piles, thus forming a spring to take up the force of each blow and pro- 
tect the piles and floats completely. This arm is also provided with a 
traveler at the other end and allows the float to take its natural sway 
backward and forward. There is also a long guy cable, connected with 
the floats, and anchored one hundred or more feet from the floats as 
shown by the dotted lines in the large illustration, to relieve all strain 
from the wharf. 

The floats are ballasted with water and provided with valves by which 
they can be filled or emptied in a very short time, also partitions are 
constructed within the floats to keep the water from moving when the 
float is in motion. 

Engineers who have investigated and figured out the working capacity 
of this motor, say that a little more than one-horse power can be devel- 
oped for every foot of ocean frontage used, and that the cost to build 
and maintain a large plant will not exceed the cost of a regular steam 
plant. 

Fuel is the greatest item of cost in generating power, but a wave- 
motor has the advantage, because its fuel is furnished by the wave motion 
free of cost. 

OPINIONS. 

J. D. Mercereau, the well known wharf builder, says "The plan is 
perfectly feasible, and will guarantee to build a wharf that will carry 
the weight and withstand storms." 

Fred Baker, of the Baker Iron Works, says, "Your plan is entirely 
feasible, and, in fact, the only practical plan of a wave motor I have 
ever seen. The principle is all right and will work." 

E. M. Boggs, engineer for the Southern California Power Company, 
also for the Bear Valley Irrigation Company, says, " I am surprised, 
both at the simplicity and feasibility of the proposition. They have 
unlimited power and have it under perfect control." 

F. H. Olmstead, city engineer, says, " I have examined the plans of 
the Pacific Wave Motor, and am satisfied if they stay by it it will be a 
perfect success. It certainly is a feasible proposition." 

Chas D. Martin, engineer for the Southern Pacific Railway, and C.J. 
Goucher, city engineer for Long Beach, both say, "The plan of the 
motor is perfectly practical." 

R. C. Shepherd, machinist and inventor of a power-head for deep- 
well pumping, says, " I have investigated the proposition thoroughly, 
and it looks to me as though it would be a perfect success." 

Further information can be secured from the inventors, Messrs. H. T. 
Hollingsworth, A. Lee Perley and A. R. Hamilton, of Los Angeles, Cal. 



When answering advertisements, please mention that you "saw it in the I<and of Sunshink.' 




WILL develop or reduce 
any part of the body 

A Perfect Complexion Beautifier 
and 

Remover of Wrinkles 

Dr.JohnWilsonGibbs' 

THE ONLY 

Electric Massage Roller 

(Patented United States, Europe, 
Canada.) 
" Hs work is not confined to the 
face alone, but will do good to any 
Trade-Mark Registered. part of the body to which it is ap- 
plied, developing or reducing as desired It is a very prettj 
addition to the toilet-table." — Chicago Tribune. 

"This delicate Electric Beautifier remoTes all facial blemishes 
It is the only positive remover of wrinkles and crow's-feet. It 
never fails to perform all that is expected." — Chicago Times- 
Herald. 

"The Electric Roller is certainly productive of good results. 
I believe it the best of any appliances It is safe and effective " 
— Harbiet Hubbard Atsr, New York World. 

For Massage and Curative Purposes 

An Electric Roller in all the term implies The invention of a 
physician and electrician known throughout this country an<t 
Europe. A most perfect complexion beautifier Will remove 
wrinkles, "crow's-feet" (premature or from age), and all facial 
blemishes— POSITIVE. Whenever electricity is to be used for 
massaging or curative purposes, it has no equal. No chareing. 
Will last forever Always ready for use on ALL PARTS OF THE 
BODY, for all diseases. For Rheumatism, Sciatica, Neuralgia, 
Nervous and Circulatory Diseases, a specific The professional 
standing of the inventor (you are referred to the public press 
for the past fifteen years), with the approval of this country 
and Europe, is a perfect guarantee. PRICE: Gold, $4 00; 
Silver, $3.00. By mail, or at office of Gibbs'Company, 1370 
Broadway, New York. Circular free. 

The Only Electric Roller. 
All others so called are Fraudulent Imitations. 




Copyright. Copyright. 

"Can take a pound a day off a patient, or put it on." — New 
York Sun, Aug. 30, 1891. Send for lecture on "Great Subject of 
Fat." NO DIETING. NO HARD WORK. 

Dr. John Wilson GIbbs' Obesity Cure 
For the Permanent Reduction and Cure of Obesity 

Purely Vegetable. Harmless and Positive. NO FAILURE. Your 
reduction is assured— reduced to stay. One months treatment 
$5.00. Mail, or office, 1370 Broadway, New York "On obesity, 
Dr. Gibbs is a recognized authority.— N. Y. Press, 1899." 

REDUCTION GUARANTEED 

"The cure is based on Nature's laws "—New York Herald. 
July 9, 1893, 



How's This ! 

We offer One Hundred Dollars reward for any 
case of Catarrh that cannot be cured by Hall's 
Catarrh Cure. 

F. J. CHENEY & CO., Toledo, O. 

We, the undersigned, have known F. J. Cheney 
for the last 15 years, and believe him perfectly 
honorable in all business transactions and finan- 
cially able to carry out any obligations made by 
their firm. 

West & Truax, Wholesale Druggists. Toledo, O. 
Walding, Kinnan & Marvin, Wholesale Drug- 
gists, Toledo, O, 

Hall's Catarrh Cure is taken internally, acting 
directly upon the blood and mucous surfaces of 
the system. Testimonials sent free. Price 75c. 
per bottle. Sold by all druggists. 

Umbrella Economy. 
Umbrella covers wear out — the frame 
doesn't, but although it represents a 
large portion of the cost of an umbrella, 
it generally becomes useless when the 
cover is ruined. But now comes Jones- 
Mullen Co., 396 Broadway, N. Y., with 
a patent adjustable umbrella roof of all 
sizes, qualities and prices, which any 
one can fit to a frame. If interested, 
send for their artistic booklet entitled 
Umbrella Economy. Also, see adv. on 
outside cover of this magazine. 

Another Good Thing. 
The California Cream of Lemon Co., 
who have always known that they had a 
good thing, have reorganized in order to 
let the world also know it. Its general 
ofi&ces have been moved from San Diego 
to the Wilcox Bldg., Los Angeles, with 
Mr. C. R. Ming as president. The cor- 
poration still includes Mr. and Mrs. 
Grapewine, the inventors. 

CHAS. E. MARSHALL 

Wood Mantels 

TII.ES AND GRATES 

Tel. Brown 1821 Correspondence Solicited 

514 S. Spring St., Los Angeles, Cal. 



Manufacturer and 
Retail De»ler in 



Fine shoes 

5 There is not a shoddy pair of shoes in our entire stock.* Our 



ixruiJTruTJTj iJxnjxTLnjxnj TJTJiJ^iJxr UTJT^^ 



name is stamped on every shoe we sell, and we propose that our 
name shall stand for good quality, fine style and long service. 
We are building up a name, not excessive profits, and for that ^ 
reason you are sure of the best at the lowest price. 



Tel. Red 3441 

225 South Broadway 

Los Angeles, Cal. 



mjUTJTjarLTLnnjTj 



C. M. 5taub Shoe Co. 



Mail Orders Solicited 

ijTjTjxruiJxruuTJTJTJxnjiiT/irinruTJxnjTJiJ^^ 



uub 



F. B. Silverwood for Mackintoshes and Umbrellas. 



When answering advertisements, please mention that you " saw it in the Land of Sunshine.' 






Or 
it/ 
Hit 



H.JEVNE 






0/ 

ADVANTAGES ? LARGE STORE | 

at 

I.OS ANGEI^ES .\[^ 



WHOLESALE AND RETAIL GROCER 

THE 



Large purchasing ability, and consequently low prices to customers. 
Anything in edibles, beverages or smokes, and the best and the freshest. 

No Frelg-ht Charges on orders within a radius of seventy-five miles. 

Send for Catalogue. 

YOU ARE ALWAYS SAFE AT JEVNE'S 

210 SOUTH SPRING STREET 



208 

\f Telephone Main 99 



^j\^OXS, 







DESSKI.' ■ -^ 





BELGIAN HARES 



make the finest table 
meat. Can raise them 
yourself. See F. A. SCHNEIvL about it. 

424 N. Beaudry Ave., lyOS Angeles. 



FOR MEATS. FISH, GRAVIES. 

SOUPSA&C. THIS SAUCE 

HAS NO EQUAL 

Manufactured and Bottled only by 

GEORGE WILLIAMS CO.. , 

LOS Angeles^ Cal. ^ 

If this sauce is not satisfactory, retorn it to your tl 

grocer and he will refund your money. t^ 

Gkobqk Williams Co. L 

:-2^ Z^S-Z^STZ^STZ^ "Z^-Z^ 



••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••a* 



American 
Beet Sugar Co. 



FACTORIES AT 



Oxnard and Chino, California 



GUARANTEED 



To be the Finest Sugars •; 
And will Preserve Fruits :: 



F. B. Silverwood's big store is at 1:54: South Spring: St. 



When answering advertisements, please mention that you " saw it in the Land op Sunshins.' 



YOUNG 
OR OLD 



EVERY WOMAN 

Who Values Bargains 



Importers and Manufacturers 

OF 

DRESS SKIRTS 

UNDERSKIRTS 

SILK WAISTS 

SHIRT WAISTS 
MORNING ROBES 
DRESSING SACQUES 

WRAPPERS 

COLLARETTES 

JACKETS 

CAPES 
TAILOR SUITS 



in Stylish, dainty, 
serviceable goods, 
should call and in- 
spect our stock or 

Write 

for 

Catalogue 

Skirts Made to Order 



< NEW YORK SKIRT CO., 

C 341 South Spring St.» Los Angeles, Cal. 



SI "^ 





Satin Cerate 

Cleanses and beautifies the 
skin and creates a lovely 
complexion. Sold by the 
Boston Dry Goods Store and 
all druggists in Los Angeles 
and Southern California 
towns. 

PREPARED BY 

Mrs. Wcavcr-Jackson 

Manufacturer ot 

Toiet Luxuries and Specialties 

318 S. SPRING ST. 

Wig Making. Hair Store. Toilet Parlors 



Send for Booklet " Comfort and Beauty.' 




Tt looks lust like 
new. « « Didn't 
sbrink a bit. • « 



Perfect dry cleaning 

Eadies* Garments « Gentlemen's Garments « Also children's 

Clothing renovated by our dry cleaning process without 
fading or shrinkage. Send for our new fall price list. :: :: 

CITY DYE WORKS DURAND & JENKINS, props. 
245 SOUTH BROADWAY :: :: :: LOS ANGELES, CALIFORNIA 



PLEASK MENTION THIS MAGAZINE 



F. B. Silverwood'8 best Hats are $3; regular $5 qualities. 



Wlien answering adyertisements, please mention that you " saw it in the I.amd of tjunsHiirB.' 



AGENTS WANTED 

r\ In WASHINGTON 



In WASHINGTON 

OREGON 

ARIZONA 

NEW MEXICO 

COLORADO 
and CALIFORNIA 




The 
Greatest 

Disinfectant, 
Antiseptic 

and 

Microbe 
Destroyer. 

Kills Ants. 
Moths, Fleas, 
Roaches, etc. 



POTTER'S PERFECT PURIFIER 

Cures Eczema, Saltrheum, Mange, Ring- 
worm, Poison Oak and Ivy. 

Endorsed by Physicians, City and County 
Officials, Hotels, etc. 

Call or write for terms. 
S. CARDER SMITH, Gen'l Agt , 

116 S. Broadway, L.08 Angeles. 



FROM THE LAND OF FLOWERS 
PERFUiWES 

Orange Blossom, Carnation 
Violet 
LAUX, Los Angeles 




Buy Direct from tlie Producers 

California Ostrich Feathers 

FOR 55C. 

We will send prepaid a handsome demi-plume ; 
for $1.45, a bunch of 3 tips ; for $2.85, an 18-inch 
plume. Not woolly feathers, but fine black lustre. 
Being fresh from the birds will stay in curl and 
wear for years. Our handsome illustrated cata- 
logue mailed Free with each order, or for a 2c. 
stamp. 

OSTRICH FARM 

SOUTH PASADENA, CAL. 

Ind ependent of the Feather Trust. 




Anita Cream 

makes a dark skin 
lighter, cleaner, purer. 
It removes all discolor- 
atious. It is a medical 
preparation which 
cures, it actually coax- 
es a new skin to the 
surface. The removing 
of tan is the least im- 
portant of its accom- 
plishments. It removes 
blotches, pimples, 
moth and liver patch- 
es, and restores the 
clear, transparent 
beauty of youth. 



ANITA CREAM CO., " VAN NUYS." 

Los Angeles, Cal. September nineteenth. 

Gentlbmen : During my recent trip from New York to Los 
Angeles, the dust, wind and exposure so tanned my face and hands 
that upon arriving here I was urged by my friends to use Anita 
Cream. In so short a time it has entirely removed every vestige of 
my long trip and the result is most satisfactory. 

Very truly yours, 
Los Angeles. Cal. BLANCHE BATES. 



3mviPIvES FKSC All druggists can supply Anita Cream, or you can send 50 cents to 
us. For 10 cents to pay postage and package we will send a free sample and a 9 x 16 lithographic 
art study suitable for framing. No printing on picture. 

ANITA CREAM Adv. Bureau, 
215 Franklin Street, lios Angeles, Cal. 



F. B. Silverwood carries the largest stock of Neckwear in Los Angeles. 




Of=-ThE', 



30UTnWE5T. 

Telephone Green 1545 



When answering advertisements, please mention that you " saw it in the I, and of Sunshine. 




Men's Swell 
Clothing... 

Fall and Winter 1899-1900 

ORDER BY LETTER 



Out of town customers find it far more 
satisfactory to send to us for samples and 
get our ready- tailored suits and overcoats 
than to take chances with the traveling 
so called custom made fakes. Our goods 
are the finest and we are here to correct 
any errors made. We are agents for the 
best wholesale tailors in the world, in- 
cluding Rogers, Peet & Co., and Stein, 
Bloch Co. Send to us for samples of 
goods and instructions for self-measure- 
ment. 



Men's Suits 
Boys' Suits 



$10.00 and up 
2.00 and up 



Mullen, Bluett & Co., 

N. W. Cor. First and Spring Streets 
LOS ANGELES, CAL. 



e^x-z^s-z^^-z^ T^s-z^sT^s-T^-z^r-z^s-T^r^^-zjs-z^s-z^s-z^^z^-z^^^ 



Historical Salt Lake City... 



The historic interest attached to this peculiarly beautiful city and its 
wonderful " Dead Sea " makes it unusually attractive to the tourist. 
Lying nearly one mile obove the sea, its combined mountain and sea air 
is dry and^most invigorating. The great " Temple" and "Tabernacle" 
are the wonders of modern times and are worth miles of travel to see and 
enjoy. The large fire-poof and leading hotel is 



"1 



^ 



Etrfz. 



The New and Elegant KNUTSFORD 

known ;. throughout the United States as one of the best. Centrally 
located, near all points of interest, and comprises everything for the 
comfort and pleasure of its patrons. "THE KNUTSFORD ' will add to 
the general pleasure of a visit to this wonderful city. 

Ar v^y ^^ y^ rC-y y^ x^ ^1-7 T^ ^:^ v^r ^r^ y^ v^ ^.T^.. ^^^^^v^'^^v^v^7 -nU v^ 



^ 



Write F. B. Silverwood about Underwear for Men, 




Educational Department 



Occideiital College. 



POMONA COLLEGE 



CLAREMONT 
CAL. 



Courses leading to degrees of B.A., B.S.. and 
B.L. Its degrees are recognized by University 
of California. Stanford University, and all 
the Eastern Universities. 

Also preparatory School, fitting for all Col- 
leges, and a School of Music of high grrade 

Address. FRANK J.. FERGUSON, 

President. 



Pasadena. 

MISS ORTOK'S 
Boarding and Day School for Qirls 

Certificate admits to Eastern Colleges 

184 S. Knclid Ave. 

LASELL SEMINARY FOR Y0UN6 WOMEN 

AUBURNDALE, MASS. 

"In your walking and sitting so much more 
erect ; in your general health ; in your conversa- 
tion ; in your way of meeting people, and in in- 
numerable ways, I could see the benefit you are 
receiving from your training and associations at 
Lasell. All this you must know is very gratifying 
to me." 

So a father wrote to his daughter after her 
Christmas vacation at home. It is unsolicited 
testimony as to Lasell's success in some im- 
portant lines. 

Those who think the time of their daughters 
is worth more than money, and in the quality of 
the conditions which are about them during 
school-life desire the very best that the East can 
offer, will do well to send for the illustrated cat- 
alogue. C. C. BRAGDON, Principal. 



Occidental College 

I.OS ANGELES, CAL. 

Three Courses: classical, Literary, 

Scientific, leading to degrees of B, A., B. L., and 
B. S. Thorough Preparatory Department. 

Winter term began January 3, 1899. 

Address the President, 

Rev. Ony W. IVadsworth. 

CHAFFEY COLLEGE, ontan., cai. 

Well endowed. Most healthful location. 

Enter from 8th grade. 

Opens Sept. 29. $250.00 per year. 
Elm Hall, for young ladies, under charge of 

cultured lady teachers. Highest standards . 
West Hall, for boys, home of family of Dean, 

and gentlemen teachers. 

WHAT A FATHER THINKS .... 

An unsolicited opinion 
from the father of one of 
our boys : 

* * * "Our best thanks are 
due you for your unfailing kind- 
ness shown our son during his 
residence at the Academy, and 
while he seems to have done 
very well with his studies, what 
is of far more consequence is 
the influence which makes for 
manliness and character build- 
ings already apparent in this 
child after a single term." 

Fifth Annual Catalogue ot 

Los Angeles 
Academy 

Mailed to any address upon ap- 
plication to W. R, WHEAT, Bus- 
iness Manager. 

Fall term commences Septem- 
ber 26, 1899. 

SANFORDA. HOOPER,A. M., 

Bead Masster. 

GRENVILLEC. EMERY. A. M., 
EDWARD L HARDY, B. L.. 

Associate Masters 




GIRLS' COLLEGIATE SCHOOL 

1918-S2-24-26 

Sonth Orand ATenne, 
, Ii08 Ang^eles 

ALiCB K. Parsons, B. A«, 

JEANNB W. DbNNBN, 

Principals. 



When answering advertisements, please mention that you " saw it in the Land of Sunshine.' 



(g 



los j^/yge/es 




212 in^EST THIRD STREET 



Is the oldest established, has the largest attendance, and is the best equipped 
business college on the Pacific Coast. Catalogue and circulars free. 

DIFFERENT IN EVERY FEATURE 

The Brownsberger Home School of Shorthand and Typewriting 

903 SOUTH BROADWAY, 1.08 ANGEI^ES, CAI^IFOKNIA 

Large lawn and porches where pupils study, and dictate. Individual instruction only. Half day 
attendance all that is necessary. Only teachers of long experience do any teaching. This is the only 
Shorthand School on the coast that has a business oflBce training department. A new machine 
furnished each pupil at his home without extra charge. Send for catalogue. 

Corner Broadway and Ninth Street. Tel. White 4871. 







226 S. Spring St., Los Angei.es, Cai.. 

Oldest, largest and best. Send for catalogue. 
N. G. Felkeb., President 
John W. Hood, John W. I,ackbt, 

Vice-President Secretary 

Telephone Green 1848. 



A MODERN ART SCHOOL 

At the University of Southern. 
California. 
Directed by 

Prof. W. 1,. JUDSON. 

Offices, 415 Blanchard Art Building-,. 
Los Angeles, Cal. 




est Equipped Establish- 
ment in the Southwest 



ARTISTIC 
FURNITURE 

MADE TO ORDER 



Send for Designs and 
Estimates 



LOS ANGELES, 
CAL. 




TRADE MARK" 



ANTILENE 



The Guaranteed Ant, Bed 
Bug and Moth ^Exterminator* 

Evidence : Los Angeles, Cal., Aug. 18, 1899. 

The Antilene Co., Dear Sirs : We have been annoyed for a 
number of years by ants, and have used every known remedy we 
could hear of to get rid of them. It has now been two months since 
we commenced the use of your ANTIIiENE, and we have entirely 
rid ourselves of ants from our factory by the use of your preparation. 
Yours tru'y, BISHOP & COMPANY, 

Candy and Cracker Manufacturers. 
Price of Bottles 25c., 50c., $1.00. Sent on receipt of price. 



THE ANTILENE COMPANY, 316 SOUTH BROADWAY, LOS ANGELES, CAL. 



F. B. Silver wood's guarantee goes with every article he sells. 



Announcement of Books to be Issued This Fall by 

THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 



FICTION 



CASTIiE. — Young April. By EGERTON 

CASTLE, author of " The Pride of Jennico " 

Cloth, 12tno, $1.50. Illustrated by Wenzell. 

Ready in October. 

GIBSON. — My I.ady and Allan Darke. 

By CHARLES DONNEL GIBSON. Cloth, 
12mo, $1.50. Ready in October. 

A fascinating: picture of life on a last-century 
plantation, with a cleverly constructed under- 
current of love and mystery. 

HETTLETT.— I^lttle Novels of Italy. By 

MAURICE HEWLETT, author of "The Forest 
Lovers," etc. Cloth, 12mo, $1.50, 

Ready in September. 

MASON.— Miranda of the Balcony. By A. 

E. W. MASON, author of "The Courtship of 

Maurice Buckler," etc. Cloth, 12mo, $1.50. 

Ready in September. 

Scenes in Spain and Morocco, etc. 



SHERWOOD. — Henry Worthington. 
Idealist. By MARGARET SHERWOOD, 
author of "An Experiment in Altruism," etc. 
Cloth, 12mo, $1.50. Ready in September. 

A vigorous study of social and economic prob - 
lems, underlying which is a simple, attractive 
love story. 



ZANGWILI..— They That Walk in Dark- 
ness. Ghetto Tragedies. By I. ZANG- 
WILL, author of "Children of the Ghetto," 
etc. Cloth, 12mo, $1.50. Ready in November . 

ZOIiA. — Fruitfulness. By EJMILE ZOLA 
author of "Lourdes," "Rome," "Paris." etc. 
Two volumes, 12mo, $3.00. Ready in October. 

The first of a new series, of which the other 
volumes are to be "Work," "Truth," and 
"Justice." 



BIOGRAPHY 



HAPGOOD.— Abraham I^incoln. The Man 

OF THE People. By NORMAN HAPGOOD, 
author of "Daniel Webster." etc. Illustrated. 
Cloth, cr. 8vo. Ready in October. 

lilEBEB. — Francis liieber. His Life, 
Times, and Poiitical Philosophy. Edited 
by LEWIS R. HARTLEY. Cloth, cr. 8vo. 

Ready in September. 
Of interest to all, and pre-eminently to those 
who knew Professor Lieber as a distinguished 
member for fifteen years of the faculty of Colum- 
bia College. 



PEPYS — The Diary of Samuel Pepys. 

Edited by HENRY B. WHEATLEY, F. S. A. ♦ 
Vol. IX. Containing Pepysiana and Index, con- 
cluding the work. Cloth, 12mo. $1.50 net. 

Ready in September. 

SPAKKS The Men Who Made the Na- 
tion. By EDWIN E. SPARKS, University of 
Chicago. Fully illustrated. Cloth, 12mo. 

Ready in October. 
Practically an outline of the history of the 

United States in biographical pictures. 



HISTORICAL FICTION 



CRAWFORD Via Crucis. A Romance of 

THE Second Crusade. By F. MARION 
CRAWFORD, author of " Saracinesca," etc. 
Cloth, 12mo, $1.50. Illustrated. 

Ready in October. 

DIX. —Soldier Rigdale. How He Sailed 
IN THE " Mayflower ' ' and How He Served 
Miles Standish. By BEULAH MARIE DIX, 
author of " Hugh Gwyeth, a Roundhead Cava- 
lier." Cloth, 8vo, $1.50. Ready in September. 

CANATAN. — Ben Comee. A Tale of 
Rogers' Rangers. By M. j. CANAVAN. 
Cloth, 12mo, $1.50. Ready in October. 

With illustrations by George Gibbs. 



BARNES Drake and His Yeomen. A 

True account ok the Character and Ad- 
ventures of Sir Francis Drake, as Told 
BY Sir Matthew Maunsell, His Friend 
AND Follower, Wherein is Set Forth 
Much of the Narrator's Private History. 
By JAMES BARNES, author of " Yankee Ships 
and Yankee Sailors," etc. Illustrated by Carl- 
ton Chapman. Cloth, 12mo, $3.00. 

Ready in October. 
Based on a matter of absolute record in history, 
but such history as reads like a romance. 

FROISSART. — Stories from Froissart. 

Edited by H. NEWBOLT, author of "Admirals 
All," etc. With many illustrations after the 
early MS. Cloth, 12mo. Ready in September. 



HISTORY 



APPIAN.— The Roman History of Ap- 
pian of Alexandria. Translated from the 
Greek by HORACE WHITE, LL D. Two 
volumes. Illustrated. 

I. Foreign Wars. II. Civil Wars. 
Cloth, 8vo. Ready in September, 

MACDONAIiD. — Select Charters and 
Other Documents Illustrative of 
American History, 1606-1775. Edited, 
^ith notes, by WILLIAM MACDONALD, 
Bowdoin College, editor of " Select Documents 
Illustrative of the History of the United States, 
1776 1861." Cloth, Svo. Ready in September. 

SMITH.-The United Kingdom: A Po- 
litical History. By GOLDWIN SMITH, 



D.C.L., author of " 
litical History," etc. 



The United States : A Po- 
Two volumes, cr. Svo. 

Ready in November. 



WATSON.— The Story of France. From 
THE Earliest Times to the Consulate of 
Napoleon Bonaparte. By the Hon. THOMAS 
E. WATSON. 

Vol. II. From the End of the Reign of 
Louis XV. to the consulate of Napoleon 
Bonaparte. Cloth, Svo, $2.50. 

Ready in .September. 

" It will be the crown of the entire work. We 
have every right to expect it to be an exposition 
which will attract the notice of the world."— TA^ 
Evening Telegraph, Phila. 



The Macmillan Announcement List lor the coming season contains so many titles that but a few are 
named here. A similar list, a selection of Forthcoming Books on Literature, Archaeology, Education, 
Politics, Philosophy, and the Sciences will follow this very shortly. 

Send for the fuller and complete List, now in press, of the Forthcoming Publications of 

THE MACMILLAN COMPANY, NEW YORK 



when aiisweriilg advertisements, please mention that you "saw it in the Land 6lr SumsbInb." 

Life 
Income Investments. 

BEARING 

CALIFORNIA ALMOND 

ORCHARDS 



In the South Antelope Valley, the Greatest Almond 
District in the World, on the 

Insurance ^Annuity Plan 

Safest and Most Remunerative Proposition Ever Devised. Cash or Time 

Payments. No Interest. Perpetual Income Assured to Investor 

if He Lives, to His Family if He Dies. 

DEATH OF INVESTOR 

Cancels all unmatured payments, beneficiary secures bearing five-year-old almond orchard and 
income from same fiee and clear, also $250.00 to $1,200.00 a year in cash, and $1,000.00 to $5,000.00 
residence erected on the property, or one-half the cost of residence in cash. Death of investor with- 
out other estate or insurance leaves beneficiary amply provided for for life. Property deeded in trust 
at the outset to the 

STATE BANK AND TRUST COMPANY 

Of L.08 Angeles, Paid-up Capital S500,000.00 

Cash Benefits Guaranteed by the TRAVELERS INSURANCE CO. 

Of Hartford, i/onn., and other old line companies. 

TWO PLANS. 

5ale of Individual Orchards. Sale of Undivided Interest in the American 
Almond Growers Association, 

Requiring no personal attention now or in the future. Will pay 60 per cent net profit 
per annum, based upon the last 

United States Census Report as reproduced herewith 



Nuts and 
Citrus Fruit 


Acre- 
age 


Yield 


Total 
Yield 


Selling 
Price 


Value 


Yield 
per 
Acre 


Land 
Value 
(b) (c) 




6,098.00 
1,274.00 
3,834.00 
3,237.00 
13,096 50 


pounds 
2.501 

8,784 

3,600 

2,984 
boxes 

95 


pounds 
15,261,078 

11,190,816 

13,802,400 

9,669,208 
boxes 
1,245,047 


per lb. 
0.1000 

0.0233 

0.0900 

0.0400 
per box 

1.8200 


1,525,109.80 
298,421.76 

1,242,216.00 
386,368.32 

2,271,616.30 


250.00 
204.66 
324.00 
119.36 
172.90 


95.00 


Fig (a)> 


110.50 


Madeira Nut.... 

Olive 

Orange 


111.43 
65.83 
386.00 



112 page illustrated book, rate tables on 2% to 80 acres from age 25 to 65, association plan where 
$1.25 a month will receive same proportionate profit as larger investments, free on application. 

Alpine Springs Land and Water Company 

1115 Stock Bxchang^e Building, 220 Henne Building, 

108 LiaSalle Street, Chicago. 3d St. near Spring, Ijos Angeles. 

Lands, Orchards and Town Sites at 
Tierra Bonita, Palmdale and Little Rock, Los Angeles Co., California. 

F. B. Silverwood makes a specialty of Shirts of all kiuds. 



When answering advertisements, please mention that you *' saw it in the l,ANt> of Sunshinb.** 

LA JOLLA BY THK SEA 




HOUIvD you visit San Diego, you 
will have missed one-half your 
life if you fail to take a trip to 
!,& Jolla, the seventh wonder, with its 
seven mammoth caves. "La Jolla, the 
Gem," is fittingly named. Nowhere on 
the Pacific Coast can be found the varied 
natural scenery which is had here. The 
seven famous caves, hollowed out by the 
action of the mighty waves, in the huge 
cliflFs, over one hundred feet high and 
jutting into the ocean, can be explored 
at low tide. There are also other weird 
and fantastic freaks of nature formed along the rocky shore, which must be seen to 
be appreciated, such as Cathedral Rock, Alligator Head, Goldfish Point, etc. Fish- 
ing and bathing here are unsurpassed. Shells and sea-mosses, tinted with rainbow 
colors, are found here in great abundance. Every hour spent, when not fishing, 
boating or bathing, or viewing nature's marvelous work, can be enjoyed in various 
ways. lya Jolla is situated 14 miles from San Diego, on the ocean, and is reached 
only by the San Diego, Pacific Beach and La Jolla Ry. 
Three mail trains each way daily. 

For further information apply to GRAHAM E. BABCOCK, 
San Diego, Cal. President and General Manager. 



HAWLEV, KING & CO. £L Carriages and Bicycles 




==^^fe:S^ 



SPIDER PHAETON 
We quote you $200.00 on this fine Phaeton. 



Agents 

COLUMBUS 

BUQQY 

CO. 

H. A. MOVER 
Q.W. OSGOOD 
and 

CORTLAND 

WAGON 

CO. 

® • • 

Agents 

VICTOR 

FEATHER- 
STONE 

and 

WORLD 
BICVCLE 



Carriage Repository, cor. Broadway and Fifth St. 

Wholesale and Tarm Implement Store, 164-1^ N. Los Angeles Street 



F . B. Sllverwood makes a specialty of Shirts of all kinds. 



When answering advertisements, please mention that you " saw it in the Land of Sttnshimb." 




Directing, Acting.Steain Type. 



^THE DOWNIE D016LE-ACTING 
DEEP WELL PIMPS 

No Other Pump Can 
Furnish the Same 
Amount of Water 

At a recent test this 
type, No. 33, with an 
8-inch cylinder, in a 
1 2-inch well, delivered 
414 gallons of water 
per minute without 
jar or injury. 
We can furnish them 
up to 90 M. I. capac- 
ity from a 14-in. well. 



THE M. & E. CO., IS^'nts 

351-353 N. Main St. Los Angeles, Cal. 




A Different California 

Some of your ideas of California may be wrong. Especially you may not know that in Fresno 
and Kings Counties may be found some of the best land in the State on Laguna de Tache grant 
lately put on the market in ten-acre tracts, or larger, at $35.00 per acre, including perpetual water 
right, at 62Ji cents per acre annual rental, the cheapest water in California. Send your name 
and address and receive the local newspaper free for two months, that will give you reliable informa- 

*^°°- Address : NARES & SAUNDERS, 

1840 Mariposa Street, Fresno, Cal. 



Bundu's Elslnor6 Hot Sorlnos and Hot6l.... 

Bundy's Hot Sulphur and 
Mineral Water Springs at 
Elsinore, Riverside County, 
California, stand unrivaled in 
or out of California for their 
curative qualities to a wide 
raneje of diseases caused 
through impure condition ot 
the blood. Prominently so in 
cases of Rheumatism, Kidney, 
Bladder and chronic diseases 
of the skin. Bundy's Hot 
Springs possess these superior 
curative qualities because the 
water runs directly from the original source in the adjacent mountains into the Bath-house tubs and 
drinking fountains, thereby retaining all the natural heat (112°) and curative mineral solutions and 
gases, for external and internal uses. Bundy's Springs are the only ones in Elsinore so situated. 
Springs whose waters are pumped into tanks consequently lose the natural gases so essential to 
perfect cure, hence Bundy's Springs are not for "relief" only, but for complete cure. Analysis of 
Bundy's Hot Springs water mailed on application. Owning the springs, I am able to oflFer rates within 
reach of poor and rich alike, including first-class accommodations. Modern cottages with pleasant, 
sunny rooms. Guests at Bundy's Hotel use baths free of charge. The climate at Elsinore is warm, 
winter and summer, with cool nights. For complete information address E. Z. BUNDY, Elsinore, 
Riverside County, California. 




Underwear is a Specialty at Silverwood'g. 



When answering advertisements, please mention that you " saw it in the t,A»t> op duNSBitrs.'* 



««««««««ftit««««ii««itit«««itiiiiir««ititir«««ii9iit««««itiitit«iKitiiitititititft 



Something 
to 
Think About 



Our Laundry is thoroughly up-to-date. 
We have invested thousands of dollars 
in modern machinery in order to be able 
to give first-class service, and we give it. 
Our place affords some advantages en- 
joyed by no other laundry in this sec- 
tion — such as no saw edge on collars and 
cuffs. In our place family washings can 
be done separately. We give the most 
artistic and least destructive polish to 
linen. 

The safest and best is always cheapest. 



Telephone 



t 635 



Empire Laundry 



149 South ^ 
Main Street S 



% LOS ANGELES, CAL. J 



_J 



photographic '^ 

j^aterial | 



Our stock is complete, and we 
have a special department for 
finishing amateurs' work. 



DEWEY BROS., 

Wholesale and Retail Dealers, 

1 09 W. Second St. , I^os Angeles,Cal 

Tel. Green 1784. 



,-z^r-z^5r:z^5T^ :z^ ^z^s-z^sr^z^s-z^ 






I 



THE PUCE TO LIVE....! 

Where is it ? At the head of the San 
Gabriel Valley, eight miles east of Los 
Angeles and three miles sotith of Pasa- 
dena. Call at the office of 

GAIL BORDEN 

Room 433 Stimson BIdg., Los Angeles^ 
Cal*f and he will tell you all about the 
Garden Spot of the County. 



ABBOTSFORD INN 



inrLnnnjiruLruuiru 



Jinn 



The best appointed Family Hotel in the city. Electric Service. 

Steam Heating. Electric Cars pass the door to and 

from any part of the city and direct to all Depots. 



Rates, $2.00 per Day and up. $9.00 per Week and up. 
Special Rates to Permanent Quests. 



EIGHTH AND HOPE STREETS, ^ ^ ^ LOS ANGELES, CAL. 5 
g C. K. TKRGLE % 

oiJTjrLrinjiJXAJxnnjiJTjTJTmxnnjxrLnjTJij^ 

Fancy Fruits and Vegetables 

Largest and Best Selected Line in 
Los Angeles 



Berries 

California Olives, etc. 

Wholksalc and Retail 



l¥e Ship to All Points. 



LUDWIQ & MATHEWS 

Mott Market. Tel. Main 550 



Underwear a Specialty at Silverwoods. 



When answering advertisements, please mention that you " saw it in the I^and of Sunshine.' 



OLDB8T AND LARGEST BANK IN 80t THERN 
CALIFORNIA. 

Farmers and Merchants Bank 

OF LOS ANGELES, CAL. 

Capital (paid up) - - $500,000.00 
Surplus and Reserve - 925,000.00 

Total - - $1,425,000.00 

OFFICERS : 

I. W. Hbllman President 

H. W. Hbllman Vice-President 

Hbnrt J. Fleishman Cashier 

Q. A. J. Hbimann Ass^tant Cashier 

DIRECTORS : 

W. H. Perry, C. B. Thom, J. P. Francis 

O.W. CHILDS, Tt.W.HELLMAN.Jr., I. N. VANNUYS 

A. Glassbll, H. W. Hbllman, I. W. Hbllman. 
Special Collection Department Correspond- 
ence Invited. Safety Deposit Boxes for rent. 



W. C. Patterson. President 

W. GiLLELBN Vice-President 

W. D. Wool WINE Cashier 

E. W. COE Asst. Cashier 




CoR. First and Spring Sts. 

Capital $500,000 

Surplus and Undivided Profits 60,000 

This bank has the best location of any bank in 
Los Angeles It has the largest capital of any 
National Bank in Southern Califoruia, and is the 
only United States Depositary in Southern Cali- 
fornia. 



First National Bank 

OF I<OS ANOEIiES. 

Largest National Bank in Southern 
Catifornia. 



Capital Stock $400,000 

Surplus and Undivided Profits over 260,000 

J. M. Elliott, Prest., W.G. Kerckhoff, V.Pres. 

Frank A. Gibson, Cashier. 

W. T. 8. Hammond, Assistant Cashier. 



J. M. ElUott, 
J. D. Bicknell 



directors: 
F. Q. Story, 



J. D. Hooker, 
W. G. KerckhoflF, 



H. Jevne, 
J. C. Drake. 
All Departments ot a Modem Banking Business 
Conducted, 



-t«J-^C^ 




CORNER MAIN AND SECOND STREETS 



Officers and Directors. 

H. W. Hellman, J. A. Graves, M. I,. 

Fleming, F. O. Johnson, H. J. Fleishman, 

J. H. Shankland, W. I,. Graves. ^Q 

J. F. Sartori, President J 

Maurice S. Hellman, Vice-Pres. *55 

W. D. lyONGYEAR, Cashier , 

interest Paid on Ordinary and Term Deposits ^ 




^^^^XXXNXXXXVVVVVX,^^ 




=^t^=lft=t«==«^=^^=^^^^^=^^'^=^=^=^=^=^=^ 



^\ Investors... 

% 



You can find nothing better. 






g Our 6 per cent. "Coupon Bonds" 

g and 7 per cent. " Paid-up Income Stock' 

f Safe, Profitable, Standard Investments. 



Safe as Government Bonds.' 



Vvvv\v,vXX>88^ 



The Coupon Bonds run for five years on a 6 per cent ^ 

basis. The coupons are payable six months apart. m. 

The Paid-up Income Stock runs for one or three years ** 

on a basis of 7 per cent. ^ 

The above investments are secured by > u 

First Mortgage (held in escrow by trustee), Fire Insurance (upon improvements), W 

Life Insurance (upon the borrower's life). S 

The Protective Savings Mutual Building and Loan Association $ 



N. W. cor. First and Broadway, Los Angeles, Cal. 
Title Insurance and Trust Co., Trustee. 



$ 



^ =^^=^: =fefi==t^=^=^=^-^=^=%^'^^tA=t^=feft:=^=^=%^=%^'^^==%«==^ =^^ 



Pedigreed Belgian Hares 



A profitable and pleasurable business and one easily conducted by old or 
young is assured by the Belgian Hare. A ready market can always be found 
among those desirous of establishing choice herds, while its flesh is in 
great demand. A trio of Belgian Hares is as good as a gold mine, and the 
investment multiplies itself faster than a like amount invested in any other 
way. Call on or write to 

I F. A. SCHNELL, 424 N. Beaudry Ave., Los Angeles, Cal. \ 
Hummel Bros. & Co., CmploymentSAoents, 300;;W* Second St. Tel. Main 509 



When answering advertisements, please mention that you " saw it in the Land of Sunshine. 




'Barker brand-' 

^"l^l'CnUars & Cuffs Vf^- 

SACHS BROS & CO. 
San Franpisco Coast Agents 

To Cure a Cold in One Day- 
Take Laxative Bromo Quinine Tablets. All drug- 
gists refund the money if it fails to cure. 25c. 
The genuine has L. B. Q. on each tablet. 

^7^«»of Syrup Of Prunes 

NATURE'S 

GENTLE 

LAXATIVE 

The only genuine fruit lax- 
ative on the market. 
If your druggist does not 
sell it send us his name and 
address. 

25c. and 50c. a Bottle. 

California PruneSyrup CcT. 

LOS ANOELES, CAL. 




JUAN PICO 

A ROMANCE OF CALIFORNIA 

BY WILL R. HALPIN 
Decoratbd Cloth Prick $1.50 



Those who read critically will realize that the 
beauty and pathos of flower life is made insepar- 
ably effective in all the progress of the story. 

— Bookseller and Newsman. 

Of that delightfiil quality which marks a 
thoroughly well-written book — atmosphere — 
there is ■^XtnX.y .—Pittsburg Press. 

The story is pathetically told.— .V. Y. Times. 

The characters are few in number, but drawn 
with a masterly fidelity to nature and a rare 
delicacy of insight. 

—Bookseller, Newsdealer and Stationer, 

The book contains some beautiful bits of word 
■^zS.-o.Wn%.— Pittsburg Chronicle- Telegraph. 



Sold by all Booksellers, or sent 
postpaid by 

ROBERT LKWIS WEED COMPANY 

63 Fifth Ave., New York. 

We Sell the Earth -*- 

^*P* BASSETT & SMITH 

We deal in all kinds of Real Estate. 
Orchard and Resident Property. 
Write for descriptive pamphlet. 

Y. M. C. A. BUILDING 
LOS ANGELES, CAL. 



PRESS or 



i.n|pavl^| 




tclcfmone 

Main 4 1 7 



Ps^lNTEKsS ^? BlNDER.5 TO THE 

Land or 5u nomine 



Help— All Kinds. See ilummel BrQ$. % Co. 300 W. Second St Tel. Main 509 



wnen answering aavertisements, please mention tnatyou "saw it in tne IvAnd ofb&xjnshine." 




ALL EFFORTS 

TOEQUALTHE 

Standard Typcwriff 

147 South Broadway, Los Angeles, Cal. 
211 riontgomery St., San Francisco. 



90% OF AMERICAN WOMEN 

wash dishes three times each day. If yoii 
are one of these, wear a pair of " Good- 
year" Rubber Gloves and always have 
soft, white hands. Sent by mail, post- 
paid, on receipt of $1.50. Agents wanted. 
Address M. O. Dept., 
M. F. Reese Supply Co., Setauket.N.Y. 



Tents and Awnings 

Wagon Covers, and Cotton Duck Goods of every 
description. Oil Clothing and Horse Covers; Com- 
forts, Blankets, Twines, Hammocks, Flags, etc. 

J. H. MASTERS 

Tel. Main 1512 
136 S. Main Street Los Angeles, Cal. 




Concert Pbonograp!) 

Mr. Edison has perfected the Phonograph. 
This is the instrument. 



It perfectly reproduces the human voice 
—JUST AS LOUD— just as clear— just as 
sweet. 

It duplicates instrumental music with 
pure-toned brilliance and satisfying in- 
tensity. Used with Edison Concert Re- 
cords, its reproduction is free from all 
mechanical noises. Only the music or the 
voice is heard. It is strong and vibrant 
enough to fill the largest auditorium. It 
is smooth and broad enough for the parlor. 

The highest type of talking machine 
ever before produced bears no comparison 
with the Edison Concert Phonograph. 
The price is $1^5. Full particulars can 
be obtained from all dealers in Phono- 
grraphs, or by addressing The National 
Phonograph Co., New York, asking for 
Concert Catalogue No. 109. 

Six other styles of Phonographs, in- 
cluding the Edison Gem, price S7.50. 

PETER BACIGALUPI, 933 Market St., 
San Francisco, Cal., Pacific Coast 
Agency for National Phonograph Co. , 
New York. 

NONE GENUINE WITHOUT THIS 




i^oru. 



When answering advertisements, please mention that you " saw it in the Land of Sunshimb.*' 



OUR PREMIUM OFFER 



The Land of Sunshine 

AND 

Mission Memories 



Through a special arrangement with the publishers, we are enabled to offer 
the Land of Sunshine for one year, postage paid to any address, and a copy 
of "Mission Memories," containing 75 handsomely engraved full-page 
illustrations (6x45^) of the 24 California Missions, printed on heavy enam- 
eled paper — with either yucca or embossed cover, tied with silk cord. 

The '* I/and of Sunshine " will not only be kept up to its usual high stand- 
ard, but has added many new features. 

The magazine numbers among its staff the leaders in literature of the West, 
in itself a guarantee of future increased merit. 

"Land of Sunshine" one year, and one yucca cover "Mission Memories" $1.75 

" paper " " " 1.50 

The Land of Sunshine Publishing Co., 

501-503 Stimson Building, Los Angeles, California. 



A Unique Library, 

The bound volumes of the Land of Sunshine make the most interesting and 
valuable library of the far West ever printed. The illustrations are lavish and hand- 
some, the text is of a high literary standard, and of recognized authority in its field. 
There is nothing else like this magazine. Among the thousands of publications in 
the United States, it is wholly unique. Every educated Californian and Westerner 
should have these charming volumes. They will not long be secured at the present 
rates, for back numbers are growing more and more scarce ; in fact the June num- 
ber, 1894, is already out of the market. 

Vols. 1 and 2 — July '94 to May *95, inc., gen. half morocco, $3.90, plain leather, J3.30 
" 3 and 4— June '95 to May '96, " " " 
" 5 and 6— June '96 to May '97, " " " 
" 7 and 8— June '97 to May '98, " " " 
" 9 and 10— June '98, to May '99 " " " 

The Land of Sunshine Publishing Co., 

501 Stimson Building, Los Angeles, Cal. 



Hummel Bros. & Co., furnish best help. 300 W. Second St. Tel. Main 509. 



2.85, 


C( 


(( 


2.25 


3.60, 


(( 


<( 


3.00 


2.85, 


(( 


•' 


2.25 


2.70, 


(< 


<< 


2.10 



wnen uuwenng aaverusemenu, piease mennon uiai yon -saw u in me i<and of »UN8HufB."t 



Santa Fe 
Route 



Grand Canon o^ Arizona 

Two Hundred Miles Long, Over a Mile Deep, and 
Painted Like a Flower. 

Reached only by the SANTA FE ROUTE 

Stage Leaves Flagstaff Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays. 
Returning, Arrives at Flagstaff Tuesdays, Thursdays and Saturdays, 




ALTA VISTA. Copyright, 1898, by Oliver Lippincott. 

SIX-HORSE STAGES MAKE THE TRIP IN TEN HOURS 

Excursion Rates 

from all points on the Santa Fe Route 
UNO. J. BYRNE, General Passenger Agent, Los Angeles 



When answering: advertisements, please mention that you " saw it in the I,and op Sumsrihs." 

g anta ]\/[onica the gem 

CONCERT EVERY SUNDAY BY 

THE CELEBRATED LOS ANGELES 



MILITARY BAND ^ > ^ 



Good Bathing, Fishing, Kating, Walking ; in fact, everything 
to make a pleasant day. 

SEATS FOR EVERYONE 



CONVENIENT DEPOTS 
QUICK TIME 



Via Southern Pacific 



Trainsleave Arcade Depot daily 9.00 a. m., 1.35 p. m., 5.15 p.m. Sundays from 8.00 a.m. every 
hour until 2.00 p. m., also 8.35 a. m., 6.15 p. m., 6.30 p. m , 7.15 p. m., 7.45 p. m. All trains leave River 
Station 15 minutes earlier, stopping at Naud Junction, Commercial and First Streets. 

Take "Judge's" Flyer at 8.35 a.m. 

Makes run in 22 minutes. 
Last train returning leaves Santa Monica 9.35 p. m. City Ticket OflBce, 261 South Spring St 



We Manufacture all kinds of 



RUBBER GOODS 



When you purchase and want 

The Best Rubber Hose 




See that Our Nanae*[i8 on [every i,length.. 
FOR SAI.e:BY AI.I. DEAtEBS. 



GOODYEAR RUBBER COMPANY 

573, 675, 677, 579 MARKET STREET 

R. H. PEASE, Vice-Pres. and Manager. 

SA.N FRANCISCO. 




m eATHi «i 

IL 



-^i--. Is superior to any on the 

^ Pacific Coast. This ideal 

resort is superb in all its 

appointments, and is 

reached only by the 

LOS AN6a[S TERMINAL 
RAIlWAr 
ine wuresque Line — cataiini, long beach, 

AlAMIIOS BEACH AND SAN PEDRO 

All delightful Ocean Resorts within a short ride 
of IvOS Angeles. 

EXCURSION RATES EVERY DAY 

For detailed information call on Terminal Agent 

S. B. Hynes, Gen'l Manager. 
T. C. Peck, Gen'l Pass. Agent. 



nummel Bros. & Co., Largest Employment Agency. 300 W. Second St. Tel. Main 509 



When answering advertisements, please mention that you " saw it in the I^akd of Sunshikb.' 




A Panorama 
700 Miles Lon^ 




I^eave IvOS Angeles any 
Wednesday or San Francis- 
co any Thursday with the 
BurliaKton Overland Excursion 

and you see the most glo- 
rious scenery visible from 
r win,dows — mountains, 
nons, rivers and water- 
falls— 700 miles of entranc- 
ing scenery. 

Comfort and economy every 
foot of the way. Clean cars. 
Attentive portei's. Experienced 
excursion managers. No change 
—California to St. Louis and 
Chicago. Only one change to 
Boston. Write for folder giv- 
ing full information. 



W. W. ELLIOTT, Los Angeles 



EiGursioiis 




The company's elegant steamers SANTA ROSA 
and CORONA leave REDONDO at 11 a. m., and 
PORT LOS ANGEI.es at 2:30 p. m., for San 
Prandsco via Santa Barbara and Port Harford, 
Sept. 3, 7, 11, 15, 19, 23, 27, Oct, 1, and every 
fourth day thereafter. 

Leave PORT LOS ANGELES at 5:45 a. m., and 
REDONDO at 10:45^. m., for San Diego, Sept. 
1, f), 9, 13, 17, 21, 25, 29, Oct. 3, and every fourth 
day thereafter. 

Cars connect via Redondo leave Santa P4 depot 
at 9:66 a. m., or from Redondo railway depot at 
9:30 a. m. Cars connect via Port Los Angeles 
leave 3. P. R. R. depot at 1:35 p. m., for steamers 
north bound. 

The steamers COOS BAY and BONITA leave 
SAN PEDRO for San Francisco via East San 
Pedro,Ventura,Carpenteria,SantaBarbara,Galeta, 
Gaviota, Port Harford, Cayucos, San Simeon, 
Monterey, and Santa Cruz, at 6 p. m., Sept. 4, 
8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 28, Oct. 2, and every fourth day 
thereafter. 

Cars connect with steamers via San Pedro leave 
S. P. R.R. (Arcade depot) at 5K)3 p m., and 
rerminal railway depot at 5:05 p.m. For further 
information obtain folder. The company reserves 
the right to change without previous notice, 
steamers, sailing dates and hours of sailing. 
W. PARRIS, Agent, 

124 W. Second Street, Los Angeles. 
GOODALL, PERKINS & CO., 

General Agents, San Francisco. 



Leave Los Angeles every Tuesday via the Denver 
& Rio Grande" Scenic Line," and by the popular 
Southern Route every Wednesday. Low rates ; 
quick time ; competent managers ; Pullman up- 
holstered cars ; union depot, Chicago. Our cars 
are attached to the " Boston and New York 
Special," via Lake Shore, New York Central and 
Boston & Albany Railways, arriving Boston 8:00 
p. m., New York 1 p. m. 
For maps, rates, etc.. call on or address. 

F. W. THOMPSON, Gen. Ag't, 
214 S, Spring St. Los Angeles, 

Personally Conducted 

REDONDO BY THE SEA 

17 Miles from liOS An-geles 

Redondo Railway Time Table 

In effect June 4, 1899 
Leave Los Angeles 

9:30 a.m daily. 

1:30 p.m... daily. 

5:80 p.m daily. 

11:30 p.m Saturday only. 



Leave Redondo 

8:00 a.m. 

11:00 a.m. 

4:15 p.m. 

p.m. 



8:10 a.m „ Sundays 7:00 am. 

9:30 a.ra Sundays 8:00 a.m. 

10:45 a.m ..Sundays 9:30 a.m. 

1:30 a.m Sundays 11:00 a m. 

5:30 a.ra ^Sundays 4:15 a.m. 

7:00 p.m ..Sundays 5:45 p.m. 

L. J. PKRRT Sap«rintendent, Qrand At*. And J«ff«non Si 
City offlce, 246 S. Spring St. Telephone West 1. 







CEANIC S. S. CO.— nONOLltl 
APIA, AIGKLAND and SYDNEI 




Onty Sterner Line to tbeWimieriindsiif the PuiFit 

7W South Sea Islands. 

SPECIAL RATES 

fOR iKauSiVC TBIPS TAKIMS IN 

Hawaii. Samoa. f'M. Tahiti itc. 

Send 10 cents postage fo 
" Trip to Hawaii*'' with fln 
photographic illustrations 
20 cents for new edition c 
same, with beautiful colored plate illustrations 
20 cents postage for " Talo/a, Summer Sail t 
South Seas," also in colors, to Ochanic S. S. Co. 
114 Montgomery St., San Francisco. 

Steamers sail to Honolulu twice i 
month, to Samoa, New Zealand an( 
Sydney, via Honolulu, every 28 days. 

J. D. SPRECKELS BROS. CO., 

!14 Montgomery Street, ,San Francisco 

HUGH B. RICE, Agent, 

230 S. Spring St., Los Angeles, Cal 



tlummel Bros. & Co., "Help Center." 300 W. Second St. Tel. Main 509 



When answering advertisements, please mention that you " saw it in the I,and of Sunshimx." 




Our Gold Medal Wines commend themselves to those who 
require and appreciate Pure, Old Vintages. We are producers 
in every sense of the word, owning large Vineyards, Wineries 
and Distilleries, located in the San Gabriel Valley. For 
strength-giving qualities our wines have no equal. We SELI* 
NO Wines under Five Years Old. 



SPECIAL. OFFER • We will deliver to any R.R. station in the 
United States, freight free : 

2 cases Fine Assorted California Wines, XXX, for $9.00 

Including one bottle 1888 Brandy. 
2 cases Assorted California Wines, XXXX, for $11.00 

Including 2 bottles 1888 Brandy and 1 bottle Champagne. 

SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA WINE COMPANY 



Tel M. 332 



220 W. FOURTH ST. I,os Angeles, Cal. 



Sulphur Mt. springs r.T.T.;ri 

\ nia's beauty spots. Accommodations for ^ 

^ campers. Illustrated circulars may be had } 

) from Hugh B. Rice, agent for "Cook's ^ 

) Tours," 230 S. Spring St., Los Angeles ; ? 

\ FiSKE & Johnston, 707 State St., Santa Bar- ? 

S bara, or bj^ writing to c 

) HAwIeY & RICHARDS, Props , ;* 

I Santa Paula, Ventura Co., Cal. S 



RING UP MAIN 940. 

MerGhanTs Parcel Delivery Co. 

C. H. FINIiEY, Manager. 

Parcels lOc, Trunks 25c. Special rates to mer 
chants. We make a feature of " Specials " and 
Shipping. Ofl&ce hours 7:30 a. m. to 6 p. m. 
Saturdays to 10 p. m. Agents for Bythinia. 

No. Ill Court Street, Iiog Angeles, Cal, 



WHEN YOU VISIT 




SAN DIEGO 



REMEMBER 





ROOMS 

SI.OO Per Day 

AND UP 



American and European Plan. Centrally 
located, ^levators and fire escapes. Baths, 
hot and cold water in all suites. Modern 
conveniences. Km e large sample rooms for 
commercial travelers. 
Cafe and Grille Room open all hours. 

J. E. O'BRIEN. PROP. 



Reliable help promptly furnished. Hummel Bros. & Co. Tel. Main 509 



Wlieti answering: advertltemento, please mention that you "saw it in the Land of SmtSHmF/ 




FITTING EXPRESSIONS 

It's a feat to fit the feet but we can do it. Our 
customers will not have to break in the footwear 
we sell them. 

Well made Shoes, fitting perfectly, will be 
comfortable trora the fir«t. This is worth some- 
thing, but we charge only for the value of the 
leather. 

SCHOOL SHOES 

AT 

BLANEY'S 

352 South Spring, near Cor. Fourth St. 



IDEAL Steam Cooker 

Cooks a whole meal over one 
burner, on gasoline, oil, gas or 
common cook stove. 

Reduces Fuel Bills One-Half 
Makes tough, meats tender. 

Prevents steam and odors. 
Whistle blows when cooker 
needs more water. Dinner Sets 
Bicycles, Watches and other val- 
uable Premiums given with order for Cookers. 
Send for illustrated catalogue. Agents Wanted. 
TOLEDO COOKER CO., Box 110, Toledo, 0. 





Los Angeles Van, Truck and Storage Company 

Pianos, Furniture etc., packed, shipped and 
stored. 104^ S Broadway, Los Angeles. Tele- 
phone 872. R. H. DuNSTON and A. J. Roberts, 
Proprietors. 



Parquet floors 

Wood Carpet 

A permanent covering for floors instead of 
the health-destroying woolen carpets. 

Healthful, Cleanly 

and no Moths 



OAK FLOORS |1.25 per square yard and 
up. 

Try our •* Nonpareil Hard Wax Polish " 

for keeping floors in good condition. 



Designers j^of 

FURNITURE SPECIALTIES 

If you desire a unique and original table or chair, 
or a special piece of furniture of any kind, we 
can execute it for you at the least possible cost 
consistent with good work. 



Artistic Grille Work 

A decoration for doorways, arches, etc. 

JNO. A. SMITH 

707 S. Broadway Los Angeles, Cal. 

Ice Cream Frozen in Less 
Than a Minute. 




THE "UP-TO-DATE FREEZER" 

Makes superior, smoother, more compact, servicable creams aud 
ices quicker, »>asier and cheaper than anv other freezer. 

Physician* recommend it, so does economy, convenience and 
time. Simple of construction and easy of manipulation. Send 
for full informati'in or call »nd see it work. j,."; 

J. S. FRANTZ, 415 S. Broadway, Los Angeles 



If you want a present for a gentleRi^in, write F. B. 5ilverwood. 






LAND OF SUNSHINE 




COMMERCIAL BLUE BOOK 





New residents in a city or persons moving from one section to another are usually forced to learn 
by experience the best places to patronize. Our object in publishing a Commercial Blue Book is to 
point out to our readers a few of the leading stores, hotels, rooming houses, restaurants, schools, 
sanitariums, hospitals, etc.; also professional men, and the most satisfactory places in which to deal. 
As it is not our intention to publish a complete business directory, some firms equally as good as those 
we have listed may have been omited. Still, we believe that those who consult this guide will be satis- 
fied with the list submitted. The variety and class of goods handled, as well as the reputation of the 
merchant, has received careful attention in each selection made, with the idea of saving our readers as 
much time, trouble and expense as possible. 



ART, MUSIC, SCHOOI.S AND COL- 
Ii£GBS. 

Artists. 
J. Bond Francisco, 416-417 Blanchard 
Hall, 235 S. Broadway. 

Business Oollegres. 
Ivos Angeles Business College, 212 W. 
Third st., Currier Bldg. Tel. Black 
2651. 
The Brownsbcrger Home School of Short- 
hand and Typewriting, 903 S. Broad- 
way. 

Business Universities. 

Metropolitan Business University, W. C. 

Buckman, Mgr., 438-440 S. Spring st. 
Dancing Academy. 
W. T. Woods, 740 S. Figueroa st. Tel. 

Green 773. 

Dramatic Training 

G. A. Dobinson. Studio, 526 S. Spring st. 
(Training of the speaking voice a 
specialty. ) 

Marbelized Plaster Medallions, 
Busts, etc. 

Sarah B. Thatcher, successor to Alfred 

T. Nicoletti. 129 East Seventh st. 

Vocal Instruction 

Madame Genevra Johnstone Bishop. 
Studio, Blanchard Music Building. 

Mr. and Mrs. W. G. Cogswell, 1138 S. 
Flower st. Tel. Blue 2161 . 

Schools and Colleges. 

St. Vincent's College, Grand ave. 

Ivos Angeles Military Academy, west of 

Westlake Park. P. O. Box 193, City. 
Miss French's Classical School for Girls, 

512 S. Alvarado st Tel. Brown 1652 
Eton Preparatory School for Boys, 900 

W. Pico St., Horace h Brown, I^t-B., 

Principal. Tel. Blue_786. 



Musical Colleges 
Los Angeles Musical College, Bryson 

Blk., Second and Spring sts., Edward 

Quinlan, Director. Tel. Red 1083. 
Bernard Berg (pupil of Rubinstein),. 

Colonial Flat 16, Broadway and 

Eighth St. 

Architects 

Arthur Burnett Benton, 1 14 N. Spring st. 
Tel. Green 14. 



R. B. Young, 
Main 151. 



427 S. Broadway. Tel. 



John P. Krempel, 415-416 Henne Blk. 
Tel. Main 663. 

Architect Supplies 
Sanborn, Vail & Co., 133 S. Spring st. 

Acetylene Gas Generators and Calcium 
Carbide 

Hedden & Black, 746 S. Main st. 
Assayers, Refiners and Bullion Buyers 
Wm. T. Smith & Co., 114 N. Main st. 

Tel. Brown 1735. 
Anyvo — Theatrical Cold Cream Make Up. 
Bouge Gras 

Viole & Lopizich, 427 N. Main st., dis- 
tributing agents. Tel. Main 895. 
Banks 

California Bank, S. W* cor. Second st. 
and Broadway. 

German-American Savings Bank, N. E. 
cor. First and Mai a sts. 

Los Angeles National Bank (United 
States Depositary), N.E. cor. First 
and Spring sts. 

Security Savings Bank, N. E. cor. Sec- 
ond and Main sts. 

Southern California Savings Bank, 150- 
152 N. Spring St. 

State Bank and Trust Company, N. W. 
cor. Second and Spring sts. 



Lana ox r^unsnine L/ommerciai Diue dook, los Angeies, cai. 



Bakeries 

Ebinger's Bakery, cor. Spring and Third 

sts. Tel. 610. 
The Meek Baking Co. Factory and of- 
fice Sixth and San Pedro sts. Tel. 

main 322. Principal store 226 W. 

Fourth St. Tel. main 1011. 
Ahrens' Bakery, 425 S. Broadway. 
Mrs. Angel's Bakery, 830 W. Seventh St. 
lyos Angeles Bakery, Jean Dor^, Prop. 

(French Bread.) 846 Lyon st. cor. 

Macy. 
Karl A. Senz, 614 S. Broadway. Tel. 

Main 1411. French Pastry. 
Bamboo Ooods 
S. Akita, 504 S. Broadway 

Baths 
Hammam, 210 S. Broadway. Turkish 

and all other baths and rubs, 25 cts. 

to$l. 

Beach Pebbles, Moonstones, Agates, Sea 

Shells, etc., Dressed and Polished 

to Order 

J. A. Mcintosh & Co., L. A. Steam Shell 
Works, 1825 S. Main st. 
Bicycle Dealers 
Iv. A. Cycle and Sporting Goods Co., 319 

S. Main st. 
Central Park Cyclery, G. W. Williams, 
prop., 518 S. Hill st. Tel. Green 
1211. 

Bicycle Insurance. 

The California Bicyclists Protective As- 
sociation, Chas. J. George & Co., 
Mgrs., 208 Ivaughlin Bldg. Tel. 
Main 990. 

Bicycle Kiding Academy 

Central Park Cyclery, W. G. Williams, 
prop., 518 S. Hill St. Tel. Green 1211. 
Books, Stationery, etc. 

Stoll & Thayer Co., 252-254 S. Spring st. 

B. F. Gardner, 305 S. Spring st. 

Botanic Pharmacy 

Liscomb's Botanic Pharmacy, Main and 
Fifteenth sts. Tel. West 68. 
Breeders of Thoroughbred Belgians, 
Angoria and Kussian Kabbits. 

The Bonanza Rabbitry, Elmer L,. Piatt, 
930 Grand View ave. Circulars free. 

Enterprise Rabbitry, Ax & Peet, 1006 W. 
Ninth St. Tel. West 239. 

Building and JLoan Associations 

The State Mutual Building and L/oan As- 
sociation, 141 S. Broadway. 
Carpet Cleaning Works 

Pioneer Steam Carpet Cleaning Works, 
Robt. Jordan, Mgr.,641 S. Broadway. 
Tel. 217 Main. 

Great Western Steam Carpet Cleaning 
Works, H. Himelreich, Prop. Cor. 
Ninth and Grand ave. (.formerly 
Tenth and Grand ave.) Tel. White 
5511. 
Carpenter Work, Jobbing, Mill Work 

Adams Mfg. Co., 742 S. Main st. Tel. 
Red 1048. 



Carriage Works. 

J. U. Tabor & Co. (J. U. Tabor and G. 

N. Rookhout), cor. Seventh and ttos 

Angeles sts. Tel. Main 127. 
Cooperative Carriage Works, A. Sperl, 

Mgr., 337 E. First st. 

Clothing and Gent's Furnishings 

Ivondon Clothing Co., 117-125 N. Spring 

St., s. w. cor. Franklin. 
Mullen, Bluett & Co., n. w. cor. Spring 

and First sts. 

Confectionery, Ice Cream, Sherbets, etc* 
Wholesale and Retail 

Merriam & Son, 127 S. Spring st. Tel. 

Main 475. 
M. Broszey & Co., 727 W. Sixth st. Tel. 

Red 2033. . 

Coal Oil, Gasoline, Wood, Coal, etc. 

Morris-Jones Oil and Fuel Co., 127 S. 
Broadway. Tel. Main 666. 

Collateral Lioans 

G. M. Jones, 254 S. Broadway, rooms 1 
and 2 (Private ofl&ce for ladies). Tel. 
Main 739. 
Costumers, Theatrical Goods, etc. 
Mme. D. S. Corona De Weighs, 359 N. 
Main st. Tel. Black 2691. 
Curio Stores 
Wm. F. Winkler, 346 S.Broadway. 

Dentists 
Drs. Adams Bros., 239^ S. Spring st. 
Distilled Water and Carbonated 
Beverages. 

The Ice and Cold Storage Co., Seventh 
St. and Santa F^ Ry. tracks. Tel. 
228. 

Dry Goods 

Boston Dry Goods Store, 239 S. Broadway. 
J. M. Hale Co., 107-9-10 N. Spring st. 

Druggists 

Boswell & Noyes Drug Co., Prescription 
Druggists, 300 S. Broadway. Tel. 
Main 125. 

F.J.Giese, 103]N.Main st. Tel.Brown 310. 

Thomas Drug, Co., cor. Spring and Tem- 
ple sts. Tel. Main 62. 

H. C. Worland, 2133 E. First st. Station B. 

H. B. Fasig, 531 Downey ave., cor. Tru- 
man St., East I,. A. Tel. Alta 201. 

M. W. Brown, 1200 W. Washington st. 

lyiscomb's Pharmacy, cor. Main and Fif- 
teenth sts. Tel. West 68. 

Catalina Pharmacy, M. Home, prop., 1501 
W. Seventh st. Tel. Green 772. 

Edmiston & Harrison, Vermont and Jef- 
ferson sts. Tel. Blue 4701. 

E. P. Deville, cor. Sixth and Spring sts. 
Tel. Main 799. 

J. V. Akey, Central and Vernon aves. 
Tel. West 32. 

Chicago Pharmacy, F. J. Krueli, Ph.G., 
Prop. Central ave. and Twelfth st. 
Tel. West 132. 

W. A. Home, s. w. cor. Adams st. and 
Central ave. Tel. West 200. 



Land of Sunshine Commercial Blue t5ook, Los Angeles, Cal. 



Homeopatbic Pharmacist 

Boericke & Runyon Co., 320 S. Broad- 
way. Tel. Main 504. 

Delicacy Store 
Ahrens* Bakery, 425 S. Broadway. 
Dye Works, Cleaning 

American Dye Works, J. A. Berg, prop. 

Office 210>^ S. Spring St. Tel. Main 

850. Works 613-615 W. Sixth st. Tel. 

Main 1016. 
English Steam Dye Works, T. Caunce, 

proprietor, 829 S. Spring St. Tel. 

Black 2731. 

Door and Window Screens and House 
Repairing 

Adams Mfg Co., 742 S. Main st. Tel. 
Red 1048. 

ISlectricians 

Woodill & Hulse Electric Co., 108 W. 

Third St. Tel. Main 1125. 
Electric Supply and Fixture Co., 541 S. 

Broadway. Tel. Main 831. 
Electrical Commercial Co., 666 S. Spring 

St. Tel. Main 1666. 

Employment Agents. 

Hummel Bros. & Co., 300 and 302 West 
Second st. cor. Broadway, basement 
California Bank Bldg. Tel. Main 
509. 

Miss Day's Female Employment Office, 
121 >^ South Broadway, rooms 1 and 
3. Tel. Main 1179. 



Furnislied Rooms 



Rate 



The Seminole, 324 W. Third st. 

$3 per week and up. 
The Spencer, 316>^ W. Third st. Rate 

$3 to $5 per week. Tel. Red 335 1 . 
The Narragansett, 423 S. Broadway, opp. 

Van Nuys Broadway. Tel. Brown 

1373. Rate 50c per day and up. 
The Kenwood, 131^ S. Broadway. Rate 

$3 to $6 per week. Tel. Brown 1360. 
The Hamilton, 521 S. Olive st., facing 

Central Park. Rate $2 to $5 per 

week. 
Miss A. A. Ryan, 317 S. Main st. Tel. 

Red 2046. Rate $2 to $8 per week. 
Menlo Hotel, Fritz Guenther, prop., cor. 

Main and Winston sts., opp. post- 
office. Tel. Brown 1221. 
The London, 307>^ W. Second st. Tel. 

Green 1363. Rate $2 to $5 per week. 
The Rossmore, Mrs. M. J. Knox, prop., 

416 W. Sixth St. Rate $1.50 to $5 

per week. 
The Hafen, Mrs. M. J. Knox, prop., 344 

S. Hill St. Rate 1 1 .50 to $3 per week. 
Fish, Oysters and Game. 
(Family trade solicited) 
Levy's, 1 1 1 W. Third st. Tel. Main 1284. 



Fruit and Vegetables 

Marston & Co., 320 Temple st. Tel. 

Main 1622. (Shipping solicited.) 
Rivers Bros., Broadway and Temple st. 

Tel. Main 1426. (Shipping solicited.) 
Feather Works, Mattresses, Pillows, Etc. 
Acme Feather Works, Jas. F. Allen, 

Prop., 513 S. Spring st. Tel. Black 

3151. 

Furniture, Carpets and Draperies 
Los Angeles Furniture Co., 225-229 S. 

Broadway. Tel. Main 13. 
Southern California Furniture Co., 312- 

314 S. Broadway. Tel. Main 1215. 
I. T. Martin, 531-3-5 S. Spring st. 

Gas Regulators. 
Los Angeles Gas Saving Association, 666 

S. Spring St. Tel. 1666. 
Grilles, Fretwork, Wood Novelties, Etc. 
Los Angeles Grille Works, 610 South 

Broadway. 

Groceries 
Blue Ribbon Grocery, B. Wynns & Co., 

449 S. Spring st. Tel. Main 728. 
Despars & Sou, cor. Main and Twenty- 
fifth sts. 
H. Jevne, 208-210 S. Spring st. 
C. A. Neil, 423 Downey ave., East L. A. 

Tel. Alta 202. 
Marston & Co., 320 Temple st. Tel. 

Main 1622 
Electric Grocery, 1603S. Grand ave. Tel. 

Blue 2612. 
Geo. Williamson, 1436-38 S. Main st. 

Tel. White 2062. 
O. Willis, 690 Alvarado st. Tel. Main 

1382. 
J. C. Rockhill, 1573 W. First St., cor. 

Belmont ave. Tel. Main 789. 
T. L. Coblentz, 825 S. Grand ave. Tel. 

Brown 777. 
J. Lawrence, Cool Block, cor. Jefferson st. 

and Wesley ave. 
Rivers Bros. , Broadway and Temple st. 

Tel. Main 1426. 
Smith & Anderson, cor. Pico and Olive 

sts. Tel. Blue 3966. 
C. R. Robinson, 318 S. Broadway. Tel. 

Green 1962. 
J. H. Wyatt, 332 E. Fifth st. Tel. Brown 

973- 
J. H. Crew, Station F Postoffice, 523 W. 

Washington st. Tel. White 2614. 
The 99 Grocery, T. J. Coy, prop., 4402 

Central ave. Tel. West 32. 
Central Avenue Mercantile Store, Mrs. 

E. Botelio, prop., 1200 Central ave. 

Tel. Blue 2580. 
Power House Grocery, J. A. Fazenda, 

prop., 625 Central ave. Tel. Green 

813. 

Haberdasbierg and Hatters. 
Bumiller & McKnight, 123 S. Spring st. 

Tel. Main 547. 

ELaJr Bazaar and Beauty Parlors 
The Imperial, Frank Neubauer, prop., 

224-226 W. Second st. Tel. Black 

1381. 



Uana Ol dunsnine womnieri^iai diuc duuiv, i^us /^iij^cica, wai. 



Hardwood and Parquetry Flooring and 
Jb^uamei Faints. 

Marshall & Jenkins, 430 S. Broadway. 
Tel. Green 1611. 

Hay, Grain, Goal and Wood 

The P. J. Brannen Feed, Fuel & Storage 
Co., 806-810 a. Main St. Tel. Mam 
419. 
William Dibble, cor. Sixth and Los An- 
geles sts. Tel. Green 1761. 
Grand Avenue F'eed & Fuel Co., A. F. 
Cochems, 1514 Grand ave. Tel. 
West 227. 
A. E. Breuchaud, 841 S. Figueroa st. 

Tel. Main 923. 
Parker Seymour, 1528 W. Seventh St., 

Westlake District. Tel. Main 647. 
Enterprise Fuel and Feed Store, Ax & 
Peet, 1006 West Ninth st. Tel. West 
239, 
The M. Black Co., 306-308 Central ave. 

Tel. Brown 811. 
Dewey Fuel and Feed Yard, G. Divvor, 
prop., Twenty-third st. and Central 
ave. Tel. Blue 4046. 

Homoeopattiic Pliarinaclst 
Boericke &Runyon Co., 320 S. Broadway. 
Tel. Main 504. 

Hospitals 
The California Hospital, 1414 S. Hope 

St. Tel. West 92. 
Dr. Stewart's Private Hospital, 315 West 
Pico St. Tel. West 14. 
Hotels 
Abbotsford Inn, cor, Eighth and Hope 

sts. Rate, $1.50 per day and up. 
Aldine Hotel, Hill St., bet. 3rd and 4th 
^ts. American plan, j)1.50 per aay 
and up. European plan, ^3.50 to 
$10.00 per week. 
Hotel Locke, 139 S. Hill St., entrance on 
Second st. American plan. Rate 
$8.00 to $12 per week. 
Bellevue Terrace Hotel, cor. Sixth and 
Figueroa sts. Rate, $2 per day and up. 
HoUenbeck Hotel, American and Europ- 
ean plan. Second and Spring sis. 
Hotel Van Nuys, n. w. cor. Main and 
Fourth sts. American plan, |3 to 
$12 per day; European plan, $1 to 
$10 per day. 
Hotel Palms, H. C. Fryman, prop., 
Sixth and Broadway. American and 
European plans. 
Westminster Hotel, n. e. cor. Main and 
Fourth sts. American plan, $3 per 
day and up ; European plan, $1 per 
day and up. 
Hotel Gray Gables, cor. Seventh and 

Hill sts. Rates $1 to $2 per day. 
Hotel Lillie, 534 S. Hill st. Rate $8 to 

$15 per week. 
The Belmont, 425 Temple st. Rate $6.50 

per week and up. 
Hotel Grey, n. e. cor. Main and Third 
sts. European plan. Rate, $3.00 to 
$12 per week. 
Hotel Rio Grande, 425 W. Second st. 
Rate, $1.50 per day and up. 



Hardware 

W. A. Russell, 204 S. Broadway. Tel. 
Main 47. 

Japanese Fancy Goods 

Quong I,ee Lung & Co., 350 S. Spring st. 
Jeweler^ and Watchmakers 

S. Conradi, 113 S. Spring st. Tel. Main 
1159. 

W. T. Harris, cor. First and Main sts. 
Tel. Red 2981. 

Ladies' Tailor 

S. Benioflf, 330 S. Broadway. 
Laundries 

Acme Steam Laundry, 325-327 E. Second 
St. Tel. Main 531. 

Crystal Steam Laundry, W.J. Hill, Mgr., 
416-420 E. First st. Tel. Red 1932. 
Special prices to families ; all silks 
and flannels washed with distilled 
water ; no shrinkage, no fading. 
liiquor Merchants 

H. J. Woollacott, 124-126 N. Spring st. 

Southern California Wine Co., 220 W. 
Fourth St. 

Edward Germain Wine Co., 397-399 S. 

Los Angeles st. Tel. Main 919. 

Liivery Stables and Tally-hos 

Tally-ho Stable & Carriage Co., W. R. 
Murphy (formerly at 109 N. Broad- 
way), 712 S. Broadway. Tel. Main 
51. 

Eagle Stables, Woodward & Cole, 122 S. 
Broadway. Tel. Main 248. 

Eureka Stables, 323 W. Fifth st. Tel. 
Main 71. 

Millinery 

Maison Nouvelle, Miss A. Clarke, 222 W. 

3rd St. Tel. Main 1374. 
Meat Markets 
Norma Market, M. T. Ryan, 1818 S. 

Main St. TeL West 171. 
Crystal Market, Reed Bros., 2309 S. Union 

ave. Tel. Blue 3131. 
Model Market, R. A. Norries, 831 W. 

Sixth St. cor Pearl. Tel. 979 Main. 
Boston Cash Market, Jos. Oser, 1156 S. 

Olive St. Tel. West 126. 
Grand Avenue Market, J. A. Rydell, 

22 1 8 S. Grand ave. Tel . White 32 1 1 . 
Philadelphia Market, S. S. Jackson, 3304 

S. Main St. Tel. White 2063. 
Pioneer Meat Market, E. Rudolph, 514 

Downey ave.. East L. A. Tel. Alta 

208. 
Chicago Market, J. Wollenshlager, 410 

S. Main st. Tel. Main 779. 
Popular Market, J. J. Everharty, 205 

West Fourth st. Tel. Red 1289. 
Park Market, Chas. Kestner, 329 West 

Fifth St. Tel. Red 925. 
Superior Market, J.G. Young, 717 W. 

Jefferson st. Tel. West 50. 
Eureka Market, Jay W. Hyland, cor. 7th 

St. and Union ave. Tel. Main 1467. 
Oregon Market, Geo. N. Briggs, prop., 

525 W. Sixth st. Tel. Red 2032. 
Floral Meat Market, Frinier & Watkins, 

4404 Central ave. Tel. West 32. 



Land of Sunshine Commercial Blue Book, Los Angeles, Cal. 



Merchant Tailors 

O. C. Sens, 219 W Second St., opp. Hol- 

lenbeck Hotel. 
Brauer & Krohn, 1 14>^ S. Main st. 
A. J. Partridge, 125 W. First st. Tel. 

Green 13. 
M. C. Meiklejohn, 203 S. Main st. Branch 

E St., San Bernardino. 

Meu's Furnigliing Goods, Notions, Fancy 
Goods, etc. 

Cheapside Bazaar, F. E. Verge, 2440 S. 
Main st. 
Mexican Hand- Carved L.eatlier Goods 
H. Ross & Sons, 352 S. Broadway, P. O. 
box 902. 

Mineral Baths. 
hos Angeles Mineral Baths and Springs, 
A. Puissegur, Prop., cor. Macy and 
lyyon sts., and 851 Howard st. 
Modiste 
Miss H. M. Goodwin, Muskegon Block, 
cor. Broadway and Third st. 
Monumental Dealers 
Ivane Bros., 631 S. Spring St., I^os Ange- 
les, and 41 1 McAlister St., San Fran- 
cisco. 

Nurserymen and Florists 

Ivos Angeles Nursery. Sales depot 446 
S. Main st. P. O. box 549. (Special- 
ties, plant and cacti souvenirs. ) 

Elysian Gardens and Nursery, Ethel 
Lord, prop. City depot 440 S. Broad- 
way. Nursery corner Philleo and 
Marathon sts. 

Elmo R. Meserve. Salesyard 635 S. 
Broadway. Tel. White 3226. Nur- 
sery 2228 Sutter st. 

Opticians 

Adolph Frese, 126 S. Spring st. 

Boston Optical Co., Kyte & Granicher, 
235 S. Spring st. 

Fred Detmers, 354 S. Broadway. 
Osteopathy 

Pacific School of Osteopathy and Infirm- 
ary, C. A. Bailey, Pres., Tenth and 
Flower sts. Tel. West 55. 
Paints, Oils and Glass 

Scriver & Quinn, 200-202 S. Main st. 
Tel. 565. 

P. H. Mathews, 233-240 S. Main st. Tel. 
1025. 
Pharmaceutical Manufacturers. 

The Salubrita Pharmacal Co., Mrs. L. W. 
Shellhamer, lady mgr 122 West 
Third St., room 20. (P'ine cosmetics 
a specialty.) 

Pianos, Sheet Music and Musical 
Merchandise 

Southern California Music Co., 216-218 
W. Third st. Tel. 585. 

Fitzgerald Music & Piano Co., 113 S. 
Spring St. Tel. Main 1 159. 

Williamson Bros., 327 S. Spring st. Tel. 
1315 Brown. 

Geo. T. Exton, 327 S. Spring st. Tel. 
1315 Brown. (Agent for Regal Man- 
dolins and Guitars. ) 



Pawn Brokers 

ly. B. Cohn, 120-122 North Spring st. 
Photograpliers 

Townsend's, 340>^ S. Broadway, 

Photogrraphic Material, Kodaks, etc. 

Dewey Bros., 109 W. Second st. Tel. 
Green 1784. 

Picture Frames, Artists' Materials, Sou- 
venirs 

Sanborn, Vail & Co., 133 S. Spring st. 
Ita Williams, 354 S. Broadway and 311 
S. Main st. 

Pleating— Accordion and Knife 
Tucking, i;ording. Pinking and Braiding 

Mrs. T. M. Clark, 340>^ S. Hillst. 

Printing, Engraving, Binding 

Kingsley-Barnes & Neuner Co., 123 S. 
Broadway. Tel. Main 417. 

Restaurants 

Ebinger's Dining Parlors, cor. Spring 
and Third sts. Tel. 610. 

Saddlerock Fish and Oyster Parlors, 236 
S. Spring st. (Private dining par- 
lors.) 

Maison Doree (French Restaurant), 145- 
147 N. Main st. Tel. Main 1573. 

Seymour Dining Parlors, 318 West Sec- 
ond St. 

The Rival Lunch Counter and Restaur- 
ant, 115 W. Second St. 

Rubber Stamps, Stencils and Seals 

lyos Angeles Rubber Stamp Co., 224 W. 
First St. Tel. Red 3941. 

Ruberoid Roofing and P. & B. Roof 
Paints and Gravel Roofing. 

Paraffine Paint Co., 312-314 W. Fifth st. 

Safe Dealers. 

The Moser Safe Co., J. H. Britton, Agt., 

338 N. Main st. Tel. Main 1347. 

Seeds and Agricultural Implements 

Johnson & Musser Seed Co., 1 13 N. Main 

St. Tel. Main 176. 

Sewing Machines and Bicycles 
Williamson Bros. , 327 S. Spring st. Tel . 

Brown 1315. 

Shirt and Shirt Waist Makers 

Machin Shirt Co., 1 18^ S. Spring st. 

Bumiller & McKnight, 123 S. Spring st. 

Tel. Main 547. 

Sheet Metal Works, Galvanized Iron 

and Copper Cornices, Sky Liights, 

Roofing, etc. 

Union Sheet Metal Works, 347 to 351 
Central ave. Tel. Black 2931. 
Sign Writers and Painters 

S. Bros.-Schroeder Bros., 121 E. Second 
St. Tel. Main 561. 

lyouis Gaubatz, 234 E. Second st. 

Soda Works and Beer Bottlers 

I,os Angeles Soda Works (H. W. Stoll & 
Co.), 509 Commercial st. Tel. Main 
103. 
Sporting Goods and Bicycles 

L. A. Cycle & Sporting Goods Co., 319 
S. Main st. 



Land of Sunshine Commercial Blue Book, Los Angeles, Cal. 



Shoe Stores 

W. E. Cummings, Fourth and Broadway. 

Innes-Crippen Shoe Co., 258 S. Broad- 
way and 231 W. Third st. 

Waterman's Shoe Store, 122 S Spring st. 

Skinner & Kay, sole agents Burt & Pack- 
ard '• Korredt Shape " shoes, 209 W. 
Third st. 

F. E. Verge, 2440 S. Main st. 

Taxidennist and Naturalist 

Wm. F. Winkler, 346 S. Broadway. 
Teas, Coffees and Spices 

Sunset Tea & Coffee Co., 229 W. Fourth 
St. Tel. Main 1214. 

J. D. Lee'& Co., 130 W. Fifth st. 

Tents, Awnings. Hammocks, Camp 
Furniture, etc. 

Los Angeles Tent &' Awning Co., A. W. 

Swanfeldt, prop., 220^ S. Main st. 

Tel. Main 1160. 
J. H. Masters, 136 S. Main st. Tel. Main 

1512. 

Trunk Manufacturers,' Traveling 
Cases, etc. 

D. D. Whitney, 423 S. Spring st. Tel. 

Main 203. 
Upholstering, Polishing, Cabinet Work 
Broadway Furniture & Upholstering Co., 

521 S. Broadway. 



Transfer Co. 

(See Van and Storage Co's.) 

Undertakers 

Bresee Bros.. 557-559 S. Broadway. Tel. 
Main 243. 

C. D. Howry, 509-511 S. Broadway. Of- 
fice Tel. 107 ; Res. Tel. 541. 

Peck & Chase Co., 433-435 S. Hill st. 
Tel. 61. 

Van and Storage Companies 

Bekins Van and Storage Co. Office 436 
S. Spring st.; Tel. Main 19. Ware- 
house, Fourth and Alameda sts.; Tel. 
Black 1221. 
Wall Paper, Room Moulding, Decorating 
Los Angeles Wall Paper Co , 309 S. Main 

St. Tel. Green 314. 
New York Wall Paper Co., 452 S. Spring 
St. Tel. Main 207. 

Warehouse 

(See Van and Storage Co's.) 

Wood Mantels, Tiles, Grates, Etc. 

Chas E. Marshall, 514 S. Spring st. 

Tel. Brown 1821. 

Wood Turning, Grill and Cabinet Work. 

The Art Mill Co., 649 S. Spring st. Te . 

Green 1638. 
Wood Turning, Scroll and Band Sawing 
A. J. Koll, 335-337 E Second st. Tel. 

1242. 



PASADENA COMMERCIAL, BLUE BOOK, 

Pasadena is a city of beautiful homes. Its charming location near the Sierra 
Madre mountains, at the head of the beautiful San Gabriel valley, and its proximity 
and exceptional railway facilities to Los Angeles, make it at once popular both as a 
winter resort to tourists and a suburban residence for Los Angeles business men. 
It has good business houses, fine churches and schools, an excellent library, 
charming drives and the finest hotel in the section. 



Banks. 

First National Bank, cor. Fair Oaks ave. 
and Colorado st. 

Bakeries. 

C. S. Heiser, 22 West Colorado st. Branch 
128 Pine St., Long Beach. 

Confectionery and Christopher's 
Ice Cream. 

The Hawaiian. 35 East Colorado st. Tel. 
Black 1015. Manufacturer of Stur- 
devant's famous Log Cabin Candy. 
Coal. Wood, Hay and Grain. 

J. A. Jacobs & Son, 100 East Colorado 
St. Tel. Main 105. 

Druggists. 

Asbury G. Smith, n. w. cor. Raymond 

and Colorado sts. Tel. Main 171. 

Furniture, Carpets and Draperies. 

Chas. E. Putman, 96-98 East Colorado st. 

Brown & Sutliff, 99-103 South Fair Oaks 

ave. Tel. 99. 

Gymnasium,' Baths, Massage. 

Howland's Gymnasium, cor. Green and 

Fair Oaks. Tel. Black 673. 



Groceries. 

W. J. Kelly, 55-57 East Colorado st. Tel. 

86. 
Martin & Booher, 24 East Colorado st. 
Tel. Main 54. 

Haberdashers and Hatters. 

F. E. Twombly, 28 East Colorado st. 

Harness and Horse Furnishing Goods. 

H. I. Howard, 117 East Colorado st. 

(Fine custom work a specialty ) 

Hotels. 

Carlton Hotel, 25 East Colorado st. In 

business center and near all R.R. 

depots. European plan. Rates, 50c. 

to fl.OO per day. 
Hotel Mitchell, cor. Dayton st. and Fair 

Oaks ave. American plan. Rates 

$2.00 per day and up. 

Ice, Distilled W^ater, etc. 
Independent Ice Co., cor Raymond ave. 

and Union st. Tel. Red 672. 
Ijaundries. 
Pacific Steam Laundry, 254 South Fair 

Oaks ave. Tel. Main* 72. 



Pasadena Commercial Blue Book. 



Meat Markets. 

City Meat Market, John Breiner, 83 East 

Colorado St. Tel. 60. 
East Side Market, H. L. Flournoy, 184- 

186 East Colorado st. Tel. Black 314. 

Mexican Hand-Carved Tieatlier Goods. 

Leather Novelty Manufacturing Co., 
L F. Brown, mgr., 11 East Colorado 

St. 

Millinery. 

Knox & McDermid Millinery Parlors, 
No 9 Fair Oaks ave.. First National 
Bank Bldg. 

Opticians. 

Drs. F. M. & A. C. Taylor, 31 East Col- 
orado St. 



Restaurants (liunclies put up). 

Arlington Restaurant and Bakery, S.'F. 
Smiley, prop., 102 East Colorado st, 
second door west Santa F^ tracks. 

Mrs. McDermids Delicacy Bakery, 35 
East Colorado st. 

steel Kansres, 'House Furnishing Hard- 
ware, Refrigerators, etc. 

Pasadena Hardware Company, No. 13 

East Colorado st. 

TTnd*'rtalters. 
Reynolds & VanNuvs, 63 N. Fair Oaks 

ave. Tel. 52. Proprietors Pasadena 

Crematorium. 

"Wall Parser. Mouldinirs. "Window Shades, 
Paints. Oils, Varnishes. 

H. E Lodge, 172 East Colorado st. Tel. 
Red 401. 



Works of Chas. F. Lummis 



Published by Harper & Bros,, N. Y. 

The Awakening of a Nation ; Mexico today. 

Superbly illustrated from photc^^raphs made 
bv the author expressly for this work. $2.60. 

•• The best book on Ihe Republicof Mexico that 
has vet been publisheo." — Brooklyn Rag^le. 

" He is as complete a specimen of the American 
as could be found in a dav's journey. We can, in 
fact, scarcely recall a career that has been as 
wholly unique *as that of Mr. Lummis. Other 
men have been as extensive travelers, but none, 
unless we except some of the Arctic explorers, 
have seen and done such stran^re thing^s His 
name is an assurance that the task he has set 
himself here would be well done." — Philadelphia 
Telef:ra1>h. 

" Amonjr the few Americans who have made a 
specialty of the Southwest, Chas. F. Lummis 
stands nut bv reason of his gfraphic style, his 
power of putting things, his broad human nature 
and his co^mopolit- nism. If he had done noth- 
insf more than write his latest book on Mexico, 
he would deserve thanks. " — San Francisco 
Chronicle. 

" We commend most heartily the discrimination 
and the enthusiasm with which the author has 
written of the country concerning which, through 
years of the most intimate study, he has become 
so much of an authoHtv." — Boston Herald. 

" Unquestionably the most entertaining story 
of modem Mexican life and character which has 
been ytriXX^n." —Boston Journal. 

"Mr. Lummis's work has been approved so 
generally that it is scarcely needful to say that it 
oflFers us information obtainable nowhere else." 
— Philadelphia Bulletin. 

" As fascinating to read as any novel." — N. Y. 
Commercial Advertiser, 

" Not a somnolent line in it. Thoroughly 
grounded in Spanish- American history, with 
Spanish at tongue and pen's end and an extensive 
personal acquaintance with the lands to the south 
of us."— A^. Y. Nation. 



Published by Chas. Scrtbner's Sons, N. Y. 

The King of the Broncos, and other stories 

of New Mexico, Illustrated by V. Perard 
from photos, by the author. With portrait. 
J1.26. 
" A ma'ster of style." — N. Y. Pvangelist. 
" '^'oteworthv in strong style, dramatic force, 
hearty hnman nature and deep human interest." 
— S. P. Chronicle. 

Ktc. 



The Land of Poco Tiempo. illustrated. $2.50 

" A charming volume."— 7"A/» Academy, London 
" Uniformly and surpassingly brilliant." 

— Boston Traveller. 



Published by Herbert S. Stone & Co., Chicago. 

The Enchanted Burro; stories of New 

Mexico and Peru. 15 full-page illustrations 
by Chas. Abel Corwin from the author's 
photogn'aphs. $1.50. 

"We have today no storyteller who blends 
literary grace and scientific accuracy quite so 
acceptably."— Los Angeles Express. 

" Twelve short stories which are crisp and clear 
as gems. So vivid, so conyincing, that the reader 
feels that his own eyes have had glimpses of 
scenes remote but no longer unfamiliar." 

— The Bookman, N. Y. 

" These stories make a distinct place for them- 
selves in the annals of fiction," 

— Boston Herald. 



Published by the Century Co., N. Y. 

Some Strange Corners of Our Country. 

Illustrated . |i .50. 

" He has written a great book, every page ol 
which is worth a careful reading." 

—Mail and Express, N. Y. 

"The mo.et unique and perhaps the most de- 
lightful and interesting book yet written on 
American history." 

— Thomas IVeniworth Higgtnson. 

The Man who Married the Moon, atid other 
Pueblo Indiati Eolkstories. Illustrated 
by George Wharton Edwards. $1.50. 

" Deserves to be classed with the best of its 
kind yet produced in our country." 

— The Nation, N. Y. 

" We can insist on the great pleasure some ol 
these stories must give the reader ; and one, ' The 
Mother Moon,' is as poetic and beautiful as any- 
thing we have ever read, in or out of folklore." 
—N. Y. Times, 

Etc. 



When aasw^Ting advertisements, please mention that you " saw it in the Land of Sunshinb.' 






-i At SANTA MONICA 



the climate is temper- 



ed in summer by ocean breezes, and in winter by sunshine. 



'^i It is therefore 



June the Year Round ^ 




THE HOTEL ARCADIA f 

1^ The great Summer and Winter Resort Hotel is modern and first-class ^ 

iJ in its appointments and service, and affords fine marine and mountain rr 

views, hunting, fishing, the longest wharf in the world, warm salt water ^ 

plunge, surf bathing the year round, and convenient and enjoyable fr 

headquarters from which to visit all points of interest in Southern Cal- fr 

iforuia. Steam and electric cars every thirty minutes. n 



Frank A. fliller, Prop 



Santa Honica, Cal 



^^v^ 




EVERYBODY GOES 
TO SANTA MONICA 



Via 



Los Angeles Pacific Electric Ry. 



OIR fLYER 

Leaves 
Los Angeles 
5:00, 5:30 and 

6:00 p. m. 
reaching Santa 

Monica 
without, stops 



It provides one of the most modern 
equipments and the coolest and most 
scenic route in Southern California. 
For Santa Monica: Cars leave Fourth and Broadway, Los Angeles, via Hill and 
16th streets, every half hour from *6:30 a. m. to 7:30 p. m., and hourly to 11:30 p. m. 

Via Bellevue Ave., Colegrove and Sherman, every hour from *6:15 a. m. to 11:15 p.m. 
4:45 p. m., 5:45 p. m. and 11:45 p. m. to Sherman only. Cars leave Plaza lo minutes later. 
For Los Angeles : Cars leave Hill Street, Santa Monica, at ♦5:50, ♦6:10, ♦6:40 a. m., 
and every half hour from 7:10 a.m. to 7:40 p. ni., and hourly thereafter to 10:40 p. m. 
Sundays, every half hour from 7:10 a. m. to 7:40 p. m., and hourly to 10:40 p. m. Leave 
band stand, Ocean Ave., 5 minutes later. 

Cars leave Hill Street, South Santa Monica, 40 minutes after each hour from 6:40 a. m. 
to 9:40 p. m. Connect at Morocco cars via Sherman and Colegrove. 

♦Except Sundays. Offices, Chamber of Commerce BIdg., 4th and Broadway, Los Angeies 



For = = 



Horton House 



A home-like place 

A cool retreat 

A pleasant room 

Good things to eat 

Our Hotel Rates cannot be beat 




5an Diego 
Cal — 



W. E. 



HADLEY 

Proprietor 



F. B. Silverwood carries the largest stock of Neckwear in Los Angeles. 



When answering advertisements, please mention that you " saw it in the I<and oVsunshinb. 






W. 5. ALLEN.... 

Furniture 
Carpets 

rj^^^ RELIABLE 

II#lC« HOUSE 

Up-to-Date Goods 

New Styles, New Finish 

No Old Stock in any Department 

Always the Lowest Prices. Oar reputation for Courtesy well known. 

Come in and see us. 

345 and 347 South Spring Street 

B LOS ANGELES, CAL. 







THE JONES 
UMBRELLA' ROOE 

ANEW UNION TWILLED 5ILK"R00r"5 l.op 



RE-COVER YOUR OWN UMBRELLA. 

The Adjustable " Roof" fits any frame, requires 
no sewing, and can be put on in a minute. You 
can re-cover your own umbrella without the sligh 
est trouble or moments delay. 

Take the measure (to the fraction of an inch) of 
your old umbrella; count the number of outside 
ribs ; state if the center rod is steel or wood ; send to us with $i.oo 
and we will mail postpaid, a Union Twilled Silk 25 or 26 inch Ad- 
justable " Roof" (27 or 28 inch, $1.25 ; 29 or 30 inch, $1.50). Um- 
brella "Roofs" all sizes and prices from 50 cents to $8.00 each, 
according to quality. If you are not absolutely satisfied in every 
particular, send the "roof" back, and we will refund the 
money at once, including "tamps you have used for post- 
age. Over a quarter of a million " Roofs " sold. 
Booklet, " Umbrella Economy" with simple instruc- 
. ^.^^ tions necessary with your order. 
^•^^^^ All first-class dealers sell Jones Umbrella "Roofs." 

The Joncs-MuSlcn Co.. 396-398 Broadway, New York. 

Manufacturers of the highest grades of Umbrellas to the largest stores in the world. 



^ ART IN OBSIDIAN 
A LITTLE CURIO 
THE LEGEND OF XOCHITL 



I^avlshly 

Illustrated 



^^j^^M'Z^iten.OSJ'AISESDaSOLDIlATANaALMA 



s?si«imMr 




THE AA6AZIHE Of 

CALirORNIA*"»TtlEWEST 



WITH A SYNDICATE 
OF WESTERN WRITERS 



EDITED BY 

CHAS.f.LUMMiS 

AWOriATC tDIMR 

.CRAre CILERY CtlANNlji; 



:0PV«1CMTE0 189* ftV LAND OF SUNSHINE PUB.CO 



1^ 



CFHT« l^"!* 0^ SUNSHINE PUBLISHINB CO. 

llClllO INCORPORATBD 

A COPY 121^ SOUTH BROADWAY 



SI 



A 

YE 



When answering advertisements, please mention that you " saw it in the Land of Sunshinb.' 



W. S. ALLEN.... 




Furniture 

Carpets 

Etc. 



OLD 

v; RELIABLE 

^ HOUSE 



Up-to-Date Goods 

New Styles, New Finish 

No Old Stock in any Department 

Always the Lowest Prices. Our reputation for Courtesy well known. 

Come in and see us. 

345 and 347 5outli Spring Street 

LOS ANGELES, CAL. 



WRITE TODAY 

For our 16-page illustrated free booklet, American Home 
Furnishings. Every woman can find in it many helpful 
suggestions. 

Then, too, she can buy Good Furniture Cheaper here 
than anywhere else in the Southwest. 

order from ^^ Nilcs Pcasc Fumiturc Co. 

the'* Big Store." 439-41-43 S. Spring St., Los Angeles 




LOS ANGELES PHOTO ENGRAVING COMPANY 



TELEPHONE 
1545 GREEN 




205>^ S. MAIN ST. 



CORNER SECOND AND MAIN STREETS 



When answering advertisements, please mention that you " saw it in the Land of Sunshinb." 

In the Heart of Los Angeles**«***«*g 






The HoUenbeck, on Second 
and Spring Sts., is the most 
centrally located of all the 
Los Angeles Hotels. 

Electric cars pass its doors 
to all points of interest. 

It is headquarters for Tal- 
ly-ho and Railway Excur- 
sions, commercial men and 
tourists. 

It is run on both Amer- 
ican and European plans. 

Has first-class Caf6 and 
rooms with bath and other 
conveniences. Rates are 
reasonable, its 
courteous. 




conveniences ample and its service prompt and 



HOLLENBECK HOTEL 

A. C. BILICKE & CO., Props. 
Second and Spring Sts. lUos Angeles, Cal. 



» 



PpAl rOMFORT *^*° ^ ^^^ ^'* °"^ "^ °"' Turkish 

For modern stock, large selection and low prices in 

Furniture, Carpets, Mattings, Rugs, Curtains, Etc., 

Call on or write 

Southern California Furniture Co., 

312-14 S. Broadway, Los Angeles. 




BOSTON 



DRY 
GOODS 



STORE 



THE Ji W. ROBINSON COMPANY 

239 and 241 Soutli Broadway, I-os Angeles. Opposite City Hall. 

NEWNESS is the word to best describe our store this month. 
Newness manifested in the latest dress goods and silks, 
the most charming ribbons and laces, and so on through 
the thirty-two departments. 

OUR WAITING ROOM 

offers every convenience to out-of-town patrons, where you 
may rest and read, write or telephone at pleasure. We make 
it just as useful to you as possible. 



MAIL ORDER 
DEPARTMENT 



Agents for Buttericl( Patterns 

Now Rkady— November Delineator, 
also November fashion sheets and 
patterns. 



SEND FOR 
SAMPLES 



When answering advertisements, please mention that you " saw it in the Land of Sunshine. 




#■ 



PUREST 

AND 

BEST 



Drink.... 

Puritas 
Carbonated 

Waters 

( In Siphons— Pints and Quarts ) 



PURITAS, PURALARIS, LITHIA, SELTZER, 
VICHY, KISSINGEN 

..•Puritas Ginger Ale... 

special and Extra Dry 
All Bottles and Corks Thoroughly Sterilized 

The Ice and Cold Storage Co. of Lo$Angeie$ 

TELEPHONE MAIN 228 



A Unique Library. 

The bound volumes of the Land of Sunshine will not long be secured at the 
present rates, for back numbers are growing more and more scarce ; in fact the June 
number, 1894, is already out of the market. 

Vols. 1 and 2 — July '94 to May *95, inc., gen. half morocco, $3.90, plain leather, $3.30 
" 3 and 4— June '95 to May '96, " " " " 2.85, '* " 2.25 

*• 5 and 6— June '96 to May '97, *' *' ** ** 3.60, ** " 3.00 

" 7 and 8— June '97 to May '98, " " " " 2.85, " *' 2.25 

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The Land of Sunshine 

(incorporated) capital stock $50,000. 

The Magazine of California and the West 

EDITED BY CHAS. F. LUMMIS 

The Only Exclusively Western Magazine 

AMONG THE STOCKHOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS ARE: 



DAVID STARR JORDAN 

President of Stanford University. 

THEODORE H. HITTELL 

The Historian of California. 

MARY HALLOCK FOOTE 

Author of T>ie Led-Horse Claim^ etc. 

MARGARET COLIylER GRAHAM 

Author of Stories of the Foothills. 

GRACE ElylyERY CHANNING 

Author of The Sister of a Saint, etc. 

ELIyA HIGGINSON 

Author of A Forest Orchid, etc. 

JOHN VANCE CHENEY 

Author of Thistle Drift, etc. 

CHARLES WARREN STODDARD 
The Poet of the South Seas. 

INA COOLBRITH 

Author of Songs from the Golden Gate, etc. 

EDWIN MARKHAM 

Author of The Man with the Hoe. 

JOAQUIN MILLER 

The Poet of the Sierras. 

CHAS. FREDERICK HOLDER 

Author of The Life of Agassiz, etc. 



WILLIAM KEITH 

The greatest Western painter. 

DR. WASHINGTON MATTHEWS 
Ex-Prest. American Folk-Lore Society. 

DR. ELLIOTT CODES 

The Historian of Lewis and Clark. 

GEO. PARKER WINSHIP 

The Historian of Coronado's Marches. 

FREDERICK WEBB HODGE 

of the Bureau of Ethnology, Washington. 

GEO. HAMLIN FITCH 

Literary Editor S. F. Chronicle. 

CHARLOTTE PERKINS STETSON 

Author of In This Our World. 

CHAS. HOWARD SHINN 

Author of The Story of the Mine, etc. 

T. S. VAN DYKE 

Author of Rod and Gun in California, etc. 

CHAS. A. KEELER 

A Director of the California Academy 
of Sciences. 

LOUISE M. KEELER 
ALEX. F. HARMER 

L. MAYNARD DIXON 



CONSTANCE GODDARD DU BOIS 

Author The Shirld of the Fleur de Lis 



Illustrators. 
CHAS. DWIGHT WILLARD 
BATTERMAN LINDSAY, ETC., ETC. 



CONTENTS FOR OCTOBER, 1899 : 

The Yucca Frontispiece 

Flower of the Desert (poem), Eugene M. Rhodes 251 

A California Goat Ranch, illustrated, Kate P. Sieghold 252 

Art in Obsidian, illustrated, H. C. Meredith 255 

The Legend of Queen Xochitl, illustrated, Owen Wallace 258 

My Brother's Keeper, illustrated, Chas. F. Lummis 261 

California in 1757 269 

A Little Curio (story\ Julia B. Foster 270 

The Big Bonanza, Theodore H. Hittell 275 

Early California (the Viceroy's Report, 1768-1793), concluded 283 

In the Lion's Den (by the editor) 290 

That Which is Written (reviews by the editor) 294 

The Land We Love, illustrated 297 

California Babies, illustrated ..'. 

Entered at the Los Angeles Postoffice as second-class matter. 



Land of Stinehiine Ptibli^liing Co. 

F. A. PATTEE, Bus. Mgr., 121^ S. Broa(:way, Los Angeles, Cal. 

Directors : — W. C. Patterson, Pres.; Chas. F. I<ummis, Vice-Pres. ; F. A. Pattee, Sec.; 
Fleishman, Treas.; ^. Pryce Mitchell, Auditor; Chas. Cassat Davis, Atty., Cyrus M. Davis. 

Other Stockholders :— Chas. Form an, D. Freeman, F. W. Braun, Jno. F. Francis, E. W. Jones, 
Geo. H. Bonebrake, F. K. Rule, Andrew Mullen, I. B. Newton, S. H. Mott, Alfred P. Griffith, 
E. E. Bostwick, H. E. Brook, Kingsley-Barnes & Neuner Co., I,. Replogle, Jno. C. Perry, F. A. Schnell, 
G. H. Paine, I,ouisa C. Bacon. 



H.J. 



WARNING. 



The Land of Sunshine Publishing Co. has nothing to do with a concern which 
has imitated its name as nearly as it dared. This magazine is not peddling town- 
lots in the desert. It is a magazine, not a lottery. Chas. F. Lummis. 



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Piso's Cure for Consumption is now a " Nos- 
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that it would ever go on the market as a proprie- 
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named it " Piso's Cure for Consumption," and be- 
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C. M. Davis Eog. Co. 



A BLOSSOM OF BARREN I,ANDS. 



Photo, by Graham. 




Vol. 11, No. 5. 



LOS ANGELES 



OCTOBER, 1899. 



A Blossom of Barren Lands. 



BY EUGENE M. RHODES. 



i^ 


f 


fe 





FLOWER grows in old Cathay 

Whose blood-red petals ease our woes, 
It lulls our haunting cares away 

And gives our weariness repose. 
When tortured heart and fevered brain 

Long for black slumber, dull and deep, 
The poppy's charm can ease our pain 

And bid us — sleep. 

And subtler Egypt's fabled bloom, 

The lotus of forgetful breath, 
Brings to remorse oblivion's doom 

And gives the shameful past to death. 
When bitter memories, fierce and fell, 

Scourge our dark hearts with wild regret — 
O for the flower whose languorous spell 

Bids us — forget ! 

But dearer, more divinely born, 

Amid the deserts desolate. 
The yucca blooms above its thorn 

Triumphant o'er an evil fate. 
Brave, stainless, waxen miracle, 

So may we with our fortunes cope, 
Who in life's burning deserts dwell. 

You bid us — hope ! 



JEngle, N. M. 



Copyright 1899 by Land of Sunshine Pub. Co. 



252 



A California Goat -Ranch. 



BY KATE P. SIEOHOLD. 



ALIFORNIA ranches vary in interest as their 
location and staple vary. The monotonous 
grain-ranches of the great valleys, with per- 
haps 5000 acres of wheat or barley in one 
field ; the fruit ranches of the smaller val- 
leys and their circumvallation ; the vine- 
yards and stock-ranches of the foothills ; the 
sugar-beet fields of the lowlands — all are 
interesting, but not all in like degree. Perhaps none, in all 
the wide classification is more remunerative (as per capital in- 
volved) less laborious or more picturesque, than a goat-ranch. 





The perpendicular lands are available for the beautiful Per- 
sian or Angora goat. Drouth has no terrors for a flock which 
can forage on bald hillsides and inaccessible ledges worthless 
for anything else ; which can subsist and multiply on scrub- 
oak, poison-oak, weeds, stubble, pine needles — even the as- 
tringent eucalyptus. 

It is traditional that the common goat's digestion is cast- 
iron ; and as much is true of the Persian. He can eat pretty 
much anything ; and I never saw, nor heard of, a sick goat. 

One boy can herd a flock of 500 the year round. The 
lambing season, from February to June, calls out everyone on 
the ranch, to hold the mothers while the kids nurse ; for 
(sheep-like) goats are parents either unnatural or hopelessly 



U&AKfi:^^ 




0>r A CAI.IFORNIA GOAT-RANCH. 



254 LAND OF SUNSHINE. 

Stupid. Every human mother knows the most wonderful 
child in the world ; but a goat does not. All kids are alike 
to her. In a flock of 500, not five per cent, will own their 
offspring or can recognize them. 

The young are kept in a corral, into which the mothers are 
driven at night. At evening and morning this corral witnesses 
a performance rivaling any circus. The ewes are "roped," 
thrown and held ; and the kids need no other summons to 
their meal. The "table seats two," but perhaps seven or 
eight will crowd about, seizing any coign of vantage what- 
ever, nutritious or dry wool ; butting, tugging, and generally 
conducting themselves with so scant table manners that it is 
no wonder their mothers dread the ordeal. 

The kids are beautiful and graceful and of tireless activity 




(like youth in general). They are never at rest. They climb, 
jump, run, devour fences and ropes, and divert themselves with 
an ingenuity worthy of human imitation. They can utilize a 
see-saw as well as the boys who made it. A barrel left in their 
reach is welcome — they can balance on it and "walk the ball" 
with the dexterity of an acrobat. I have often seen one in- 
side the barrel, apparently enjoying the rolling process. 

No matter how many times a day you visit them, they are 
always friendly-inquisitive, sampling your raiment with sober 
faces. 

The thoroughbreds are pure white, with long, fine hair — a 
link between silk and wool. They are shorn twice a year, the 
fleece averaging in weight with that of a merino sheep ; but 



ABORIGINAL ART IN OBSIDIAN. 



255 



with no little the advantage of it in value. They are hardy, 
and less susceptible to diseases and parasites than sheep. 

The success of goat farming lies chiefly in feeding the kids 
up to the second month. After that, they shift for themselves. 

The flesh of the kids is a delicacy worthy of place on the 
most epicurean bill of fare ; and the milk of the ewes is par- 
ticularly rich and nutritious ; and as a cosmetic is unsurpassed. 
All in all, there is much to be learned and much to be enjoyed 
on a California goat-ranch. 



Salinas, Cal. 



Aboriginal Art in Obsidian. 



BY H. C MEREDITH. 




S in the Indian woman of certain California tribes 
the art impulse found expression in- the ornate 
basket which has made her famous, so in the In- 
dian man it found outlet in some equally extraor- 
dinary artifects of obsidian. This is particularly 
true of the aborigines who once peopled the lower 
San Joaquin and Sacramento valleys. Their ideals 
found more perfect expression in form, line and 
color, in textiles and in stone, than did those of the Coast Range and 
Sierra tribes. They were less given to the warpath and the hunting 
trail. Tliey had more leisure and more comfort ; and the art instinct 
had among them a better chance of development. Theirs were the un_ 
dying streams, the abundance of fish ; the countless water- fowl with eggs 
and young ; the swarms of crickets ; the vast bands of elk and deer that 
our American pioneers still found in these valleys ; the acorns on 
thousands of burdened oaks. What the mountain Indian gained by 
the long journey, the swift chase, the armed raid, indulgent Nature 
dropped in the lap of the valley Indian. He was neither invader nor 
invaded. Hunting was so tame that it took little of his vitality. He 
had time and content to think. And he did think — and feel. The 
women wove baskets that it is no absurdity to call poems — the most ex- 
quisite baskets known to man. The men chipped stone as I believe it 
was never chipped elsewhere in America. 

The resultant workmanship in these lines was art, even by the white 
man's canons. His artifects not only ministered to his utilities ; they 
fulfilled his esthetic tastes. As compared with other ancient village- 
sites in central California, those of this locality show a far smaller pro- 
portion of broken or ilL-made specimens, chips 
and the single finds which indicate the loss of an 
arrow, in hunting or otherwise. 

In 150 arrows taken from a local site, only 10 
were ordinary and but three crude. Among 100 
carved obsidian objects from the same site, none 
were crude, though a few were doubtless unfinished. 




Barr Collection ; actual size. 




C M. Davis Eng. Co. 

All actual size. Arrowheads from writer's collection. Two lower "'curves" from 
Barr collection ; rest from writer's. 



ABORIGINAL ART IN OBSIDIAN. 



257 



#..^: 



The serrations are a striking feature of all the specimens shown, save 
one which is not of obsidian. 
These Indians did not attempt 
serration, so far as I know, 
except in obsidian. Artistic 
arrows of jasper, agate and 
fossil wood are found along 
with these curious "curves" 
but never serrated. In the 
series of six arrows, the four 
smaller are from near Sacra- 
mento, the two larger from 
near Stockton. The "spears" 
are of a series of eight in the 
writer's collection and were 
found all together 20 miles 
west of Stockton. The other 
arrows are from an ancient 
burial place within the limits 
of this city. 

The curved artifects are 
found at Stockton, and here 
only.* Some of them have 
not only the simple curve, 
shown by the illustration, but 
a compound or lateral curve. 
No. 16, for instance, is bent 
to the left till its point is far out 
of line. 

A more exact acquaintance with the 
miscalled " Digger Indian " will make 
him a more interesting creature than 
he has been. Instead of the most de- 
based of Indian culture-types, he may 
yet appear not only the most harmless q m, Davis Eng. co. 
of American Indians, but among the writer's collection 

most artistic and the most amenable to civilization. 



two-thirds natural size. 



Stockton Cdl. 



•Mr. Meredith's "curves" have made considerable trouble among unread or untraveled collectors. Asa 
simple matter of fact, they are merely artifects made of that shape, because that shape is the natural cleavage of 
the nodular obsidian accessible to those Indians. As they couldn't depend on its breaking straight, they worked 
it as it did break, and made their knives thus sickle-shaped. As every expert knows, this shape is peculiarly 
effective for certain kinds of cutting ; but the Indian adopted it simply because his material forced him to. 
Like most discoveries, it was purely empiric As to serration, the reason the Indian serrated obsidian and no 
other stone is merely that obsidian is the only stone that can be serrated, practically. There is no doubt in my 
mind of the authenticity of any of the specimens shown in these cuts. " Curves " have also been found in inyo 
county, Cal. — Ed. 



OPTRB 



25« 



LAND OF SUNSHINE. 



ffffff 



Barr Collection ; actual size 




c. M. Davis Eng. Co. Collection of writer and J. A. Barr ; actual size. 



259 

The Myth of Queen Xochitl. 



ry OWEN WALLACE. 



0]f N the tenth century the Toltecs, according to ancient Indian chron- 
I iclers, were powerful and flourishing. During the "reign" of Tec- 
•^ pancaltzin there lived in Tollan an Indian named Papantzin, who 
was an extensive cultivator of the Mexican aloe, or ningt^ey. 

From the fiber of this remarkable plant the people made paper, rope 
and a coarse kind of cloth ; while its thorns served for pins and needles, 
and its roots when cooked formed nutritious food. 

Its crowning virtue (or evil) was yet to be exploited by this same Pap- 
datzin, who discovered that its milk-white juice, when slightly fer- 
mented, made a more or less palatable beverage. 

He resolved to send some of the liquor as a present to the war-captain ; 
and that his beautiful daughter Xochitl should be the bearer of the gift. 

Accordingly Xochitl, who was reputed to be the most lovely of Indian 
maidens, donned her finest attire, decked herself with flowers, and, at- 
tended by her father and her women, appeared before Tecpancaltzin, 
bearing in her hands a bowl of miel de maguey (honey of ?naguey). 

The war-chief, who was young and ardent, was equally delighted with 
cup and cup-bearer. 

He privately ordered his people to seize the maiden and convey her to 
his castle on the hill of Palpan. 

He afterwards made her his wife, and on her presenting him with a 
son, called the child Mecaiietzin. which signifies "sou of ?naguey.'" 

At the birth of the child certain signs and wonders were observed, and 
the sage Hueman was consulted as to their meaning. 

He declared, after much deliberation, that the boy would become war- 
chief but that during his reign would occur the destruction of Tollan. 

In spite of this evil augury Tecpancaltzin abdicated in the fifty-second 
year of his "reign" in favor of his son, in accordance with the law of 
the Toltecs. 

Mecanetzin was then forty years of age, and extremely noble and vir- 
tuous. 

For nearly forty years he governed wisely and well, but at their expi- 
ration the evils prophecied by the seer began to manifest themselves. 

The war-captain in his old age betame extremely profligate, and his 
vassals followed his example. 

Mecanetzin had his first premonition of disaster when, on going one 
morning to his garden, he encountered there a rabbit with horns like a 
deer, and a humming-bird with enormous spurs. 

Having learned that these were certain signs of impending doom he at 
once inaugurated a series of grand fiestas and sacrifices to placate the 
angry gods, but in vain. 

The calamities commenced the following year with fierce hurricanes 
which lasted 100 days at a time, destroying the harvests and laying the 
towns in ruins. 

Next year there was not a drop of rain, and the terrible heat dried up 
trees, plants and every sign of verdure. 




O 

h-l 

iz; 

w 

a 

a 

X 



THE MYTH OF "QUEEN" XOCHITL. 261 

In the third year came heavy frosts which destroyed as surely as did 
the winds ; and the fourth brought such intense heat, alternating with 
snow and hail, that the few remaining magueys and trees perished. 

When the plants commenced to grow again, great flocks of birds, lo- 
custs and other pests devoured them, and to add to the general misfor- 
tune the weevils ate all the grain in the store-houses. 

The barbarian allies of the Toltecs, seeing the plight of their once 
powerful neighbors, now began a war against them, which lasted twenty 
years. 

Then came the pest. An Indian wandering in the mountains found 
the body of a beautiful infant, pure white, with golden hair. 

He carried it at once to the war-captain ; but Mecanetzin, fearing that 
it was another omen of evil, ordered him to return it to the place where 
it was found. The body putrified and bred a pestilence, which spread 
like wildfire among the people, 900 in every 1000 dying of it. 

The "king" made a law, that in future every white child should be 
killed at the completion of its fifth year. 

In the meantime the enemy had advanced on many of the principal 
towns. 

Mecanetzin, to propitiate them, sent two of his chief men to their 
camp, bearing gifts of gold, rich cloths and ornaments. 

The barbarians were implacable, and advanced rapidly upon his army. 
A bloody battle ensued and a portion of his troops was vanquished. 

Mecanetzin fought personally, as did his aged father and many women, 
including Xochitl. 

Mecanetzin retreated with his forces towards Tollan, but was repeatedly 
overtaken by the enemy. His old father was killed, and his mother, 
Xochitl, fell bravely defending herself to the last. Mecanetzin escaped, 
and concealed himself in a cave. 

lie later placed himself again at the head of his remaining warriors 
and met the barbarians in a fierce battle in which he was killed and his 
army totally destroyed. 

Thus ended the great Toltec nation, whose ruin, according to the Tex- 
cocan "historian" Ixtlilxochitl, may be directly attributed to the beauti- 
ful but unfortunate Xochitl, and the introduction of pulque. The Indians 
of Mexico still cling to this seductive drink. 

The famous painting by Jose Obregon, from which the accompanying 
illustration is taken, shows the maid Xochitl, accompanied by her father 
and attendants, in the presence of the '* king " Tecpancaltzin. 

The last of her women carries the plant itself, from which was ex- 
tracted the fatal beverage destined, so runs the fable, to debauch a king 
and his people. 

City of Mexico. 



It is. of cours", understood that the "Toltec Nation" is an invention of Ixtlilxochitl and Fr. Duran ; and that 
the story of Xochitl is an Indian ayth of Mexico. It is not history.— Ed. 










r^Pfe 



m 



^63 



My Brother's Keeper 




BY CHAS. F. LUMMIS. 
III. 

jHATEVER may be our religious, political or social affiliations; 
however much or however little we may have studied of ethnol- 
ogy ; whether we know Greek, Latin, Hebrew, Sanscrit, Tigua, 
Aymard and a few more, or only English and not much of that ; whether 
we have read one or all of the several thousand necessary books on the 
subject ; whether we have lived near enough to Indians to care for them 
or far enough to despise them — every manly man and womanly woman 
(common sense and ordinary schooling being taken for granted, in this 
country) can agree to certain basic truths, which are as scientific as they 
are decent : 

1 . A mother is a good thing. 

2. A mother without a child is void. 

3. Likewise, a child without a mother. 

4. Item, fathers who have no sons and sons who have no fathers. 

5. Education is meant to be an enabling for the life of the person 




C. M. Davi-j Eng. Co. Copyright by C. F. Lumitiis 

MDTTON FOR SALARIED "PHILANTHROPISTS." 



BeKua.in August number 



264 



LAND OF SUNSHINE. 



0. H Davis Eng 



educated ; not for the person who does not get it ; nor is it designed 
simply as the easiest way for the teacher to make a living. 

6. Learning to read does not balance the loss of parents. 

7. Having smart children does not compensate for their death or dis- 
appearance. A live child who cannot read is worth more than two dead 
ones who could. 

8. The everlasting absence of a child is equivalent to its death. 

9. An estranged child is not as comfortable as a trusting one. 

10. No country is bettered by having citizens who have forgotten 
their fathers and mothers. 

11. A good son or daughter is as valuable to the nation as a good 
farm-hand or scullery maid. 

12. A republic is not benefited by the creation of a class of consti- 
tutional peons, 

1 3. American labor, which had fathers and mothers, will not welcome 
any competition from a class which, by government fiat, had none. 

14. People truly strong and brave are always tender to the weaker. 
Bullying, no matter in what name of "humanity," is left to cowards, 
who are strong only when they have the advantage. 

15. The American Indian occupied this land before we did. 

16. He numbers a quarter of a million; we are about seventy-five 
millions. 

17. No matter how poor his title to the land on which he was the first 

human being ; no matter how scant 
of land offices and deeds and sur- 
veyors he was — the fact that he was 
before us, and is one to our 300, is 
enough to make honorable people as 
considerate of him as they decently 
can be. 

18. He has a little land still — what 
we thought a few years ago so worth- 
less that no one else would ever take 
it as a gift — but we have all the land 
that is good for any 
thing. 

19. Thanks to the 
whisky, the vices 
and the diseases he 
never heard oflF till 
he met us, he is 
slowly but surely 
disappearing. A 
modest forbearance 
should lead us at 
least to ** let Nature 
take her course, "and 
not kill him off before 
his appointed time. 




MISSION INDIANA OF CAI,lFORNIA. 




C. M. Davis Eng. Co. 



ARE THESE SAVAGES,? 



Photo, by Wftite. 



266 



LAND OF SUNSHINE. 



20. If we wish to kill the Indian ofif we should go at it like men and 
risk our lives ; not like cowards sneaking behind the skirts of "philan- 
thropy." 

^ 21. If we must " educate" the Indian we should not educate him to 
death. We should adapt our curriculum to his capacities, and our de- 
mands to his humanity. We can gain nothing ourselves, and certainly 
give him nothing, by trampling upon his love for his mother and his 
child. 

22. If we are going to educate the Indian — or anyone else — we should 
give him an educated teacher. He cannot learn to read from a teacher 
who cannot read ; he cannot become a good American by an instructor 
who t hinks God was invented 

in ' 1899 ; that ^^^^^^^t_ motherhood 

an accident .^^^^^^^H^^^^ ^^^ family 

No M^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 

was ever yet hHI^^^^^^^^^^^K 

world by any- H^^^^^^^^^^^^^^H who 

know W^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 

about and ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ didn't care 

to^learn . • .^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^« 

^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^H| has come 

whenAmericans ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^Hy demand that 

man shall f^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^B^ know some- 



thing, and the 
ized world de- 



whole civil- 
m a n d s it. 




C. M. Davis Eng Co. 



A FAtHER WHO CARES. Copyright by C. F. Lun. mis. 



MY BROTHER'S KEEPER. 



267 



We dislike to have a congenital fool do our sanitary plumbing. Are the 
human souls of 250,000 prior Americans, upon whose lands we disport 
ourselves, less important than our sewer-gas pipes? 

25. The American people has troubles of its own. It does not care 
much for Indians, except in a tiny majority of it. But it cares for 
justice, fair play, honor, mercy. It cannot afiford — and it would not 
knowingly afford, even if it could — a cowardly oppression or injustice. 

26. The Ameri- 
can public does not 
yet believe that 
any class of peo- 
ple within its bor- 
ders has to be kid- 
napped from fath- 
er, mother, broth- 
ers and sisters. It 
does not yet be- 
lieve that any man 
is a better Ameri- 
can for having no 




C. M Davis Eng. Co. 



A MAN FOR a' THAT. 



Copyright by C. F. Lummis. 



home. It does not yet believe that the facility to spell ** c-a-t " is worth 
more than filial devotion. It has not yet discovered that a salary, little 
or big, entitles any man to break up an American home. 

27. These things it feels most vividly for itself ; but it also feels 
them for other people — the best test of the depth of its own conviction. 
I would very much like to see any person now making a living by the 



268 LAND OF SUNSHINE. 

Indian Service deny any of these heads as an abstract proposition. If 
true in the abstract, it is true in the concrete. As a matter of fact, all 
these things are true ; and every one of these truths our Indian Service 
is today violating in practice. It is depriving parents of their children 
and children of their parents on the notion that th? ability to stumble 
through a first reader outweighs the ties of family. That is the socio- 
logic fool of it. The ethnologic fool is in presuming that Indians have 
no family. They think that while God may have been so vulgar as to 
invent sex, it was reserved for our smartness to invent motherhood and 
fatherhood, the glory and the consummation of sex. This is, perhaps, 
a rough way of saying it ; but it is cold truth. 

But possibly those who are ex officio wiser than all human history 
(for history never got a salary) should not be blamed for being also 
smarter than their creator. A man who knows nothing of history — 
and " history " does not mean six-bit school-books, but some sober re- 
view of what man has done (and learned by the doing) between the 
time he was a shivering savage and the now of his wonderful wisdom — 
may fairly be expected also to suppose that the law of gravitation (or 
of maternity, which is as primal) was invented in 1898 and by an 
American. 

But the quality of mercy is not strained to the mesh of a Ph. D. We 
can be human without being savants. The love of parents and of 
children; of something like justice, of something from which philan- 
thropy flowered, is in every human heart. And all of us can love and 
do love fair play. If the salaried theorists — unread and untouched 
by Indians — who live on the Indian, will simply give their involun- 
tary feeders fair play, I for one will forgive them for lack of scholar- 
ship. And for an American, this is very forgiving ; since our scholars, 
whose judgment of Indians is now and will be through the genera- 
tions accepted by the serious world as authoritative, are in luck to get 
as much for a year's hard study— or rather for their maintenance 
through a year's hard study — as the lucky political persons get a month 
for taking Indian children away from home and teaching them useless 
lumber. 





CM. Davis Eng. Co. 



THE CAWFORNIA OF I757. 
From an old Jesuit map. (See p. 227.) 



270 

A Little Curio. 

BY JULIA B. FOSTER. 

►OME years ago, a pair of tourists in California chose another than 
the beaten track in the northern part of the State. They had 
traveled delightedly on mule back along the dashing current of 
the Salmon, and up the winding Klamath, beholding such marvels of 
mountain scenery and breathing such intoxicating atmosphere as made 
their past lives seem tame as unfermented wine. 

"Did you ever visit one of these Indian rancherees ?" their guide 
asked one day. 

" No," answered the lady, eagerly, ** no, no, no !" 

An hour later they rode into an oddly silent cluster of huts, barking 
dogs suddenly rendering the place vocal, and a strange, wild odor of 
earth and pines, and the birth-scent of a nomad race pervading it. 

The huts, or cabins, were set in an open space, yet near to the shade 
of pines, and were built of slabs, or puncheons, split from trees, one 
round hole cut near the bottom, sufficiently large for ingress and egress. 
From one of these huts the guide stirred an old crone, clad in a garment 
cast off from civilization ; her eyes rheumy with age and the smoke of 
green wood ; her face seamed with wrinkles ; her skin like leather. 

After a word or two with her, he turned again disgustedly : *' Blamed ef 
it ain't ration day, 'n they're all oflf thet c'n walk. Let's go to the reser- 
vation house ourselves." 

The clatter of hoofs at this place scarce disturbed the sleepy Indians, 
but a little girl of about ten years of age turned from a knot-hole, and, 
holding up her hands, began telling off her fingers to those in the back- 
ground. 

** Isa, one ; akh-uk, two ;" counted the guide: "kwi-rok ; pisi ; ter- 
a-oap ; kri-vik ; hok-i-ra-vik-y; nine ; ten, — she's sayin' they're cuttin' 
up ten sheep inside there." 

There was not a gesture made, nor a sign given, to denote the pres- 
ence of strangers, till this same little creature, making a swirling motion 
with her arm, called out: " Wo-hah !" 

At once a gleam lit up the faces of the company ; there was a glimmer 
of white teeth here and there ; more than a half-dozen score of black eyes 
danced for one brief instant ; then the luminous flash died out as light- 
ning dies. 

The guide smiled as he said, '• They're laughin' at ye. Thet's a smart 
little 'un, too ; she's caught on young. She give the nick-name fer the 
whites, *n* was makin' big fun. She was imitating a whip-lash, 'n' 
sayin' 'whoa', 'n' 'haw', 'n' how ridikulous the whites is, anyhow. 
She's cute, you bet." 

Then came the parceling out of the ration. One old makala^ took off 
her dirty skirt and tied up her quota of flour in it ; the bucks slung legs 



•The common name for Indian woman in California among such as know Indians. I believe the credit of 
identifying its etymology— inevitable when once thought of (a corruption of the Spanish mujer)— belongs to Eve 
Lummis.— Ed. 



A LITTLE CURIO. 271 

of mutton and smeary chunks of beef over their shoulders, and the old 
and infirm were laden with the heaviest packs of the company. 

" I would like an Indian child for a curio," suddenly announced the 
blonde-haired, blue-eyed lady, a dash of red in her cheeks and lips, 
♦'that little girl." 

Shades of the Yurok, the Karok, the Modok, what curios these tour- 
ists had already — beads, elk-horn utensils, bone brushes and combs, 
shells, obsidian, red- wood pecker scalps, a pair of tiny chipmunks, baskets 
of all sizes, shapes and patterns — and then baskets and more baskets ! 
How could they ever be got home ? And now, a human curio ! 

In five minutes more the bargaining was going on. How much al-li- 
co-chik would the white woman give ? No, the thing couldn't be done 
anyhow ; their tribe would scorn to sell children ; this one very smart, 
too. Many head shakings succeeded, with an occasional cluck from one 
of the women. 

" Where's Captain George ?" demanded the guide. 

A tall, middle-aged brave, with a coat buttoned across a shirtless 
chest, and an ugly scar reaching across one cheek from ear to mouth, 
was summoned from the spot where he was busy loading his family 
rations on his father's back, and directly engaged in a conversation so 
mixed in pedigree that no parent language could be distinguished. 

*'B'iled down, its just a question of how much?" said the guide, 
finally. "As it happens, this child don't belong to the tribe. When 
she was a pappoose, her mother was captured, cradle 'n' all, from the 
Upper Klamath people, and was one of their shamans, or holy prophet- 
esses. So these folks was afraid to kill either her or the young 'un ; 
bime by, the woman died." 

"How much?" reiterated the little lady in the saddle, anxious for 
fear she couldn't get the child, and then, again, anxious for fear she 
could. 

Evidently, Captain George understood the situation, for he stripped 
his coat sleeve up, and on his bared arm, began measuring off a string of 
dentalium shells — " al-li-co-chick," or Indian money — by the tattoo 
marks which extended under the skin, clear to the elbow. He was 
plainly but gaining time, and calculating what price the lady could be 
induced to give, while pretending to reckon up the child's value. 

" Twenty dollars ! " he hazarded, finally, and when the bargain was 
closed, without any haggling, the Captain turned away with a vexed 
look lurking a^out his scar, at not holding out for more. 

*•* * * * * * * * 

{Extract from Laura' s Journal :) August 1, 1870. My " curio" has 
attracted no little attention. Before I reached home with her, I con- 
cluded I might as well have secured a lizard, or a pet snake, or a bear's 
cub, the way people looked at her. 

Arriving at Eureka, I had her well scrubbed, especially her head, and 
hastily ran up some red calico with my needle, in which dress T thought 
her short, squat figure very picturesque. Her pudding-bag face, indented 
with its two, little, black, berry eyes, and ornamented with three tat- 



272 LAND OF SUNSHINE. 

tooed fern leaves on the chin, I thought very striking as it looked out 
from above that bright calico slip. But the other passengers on the 
steamer kept their distance ; and one coarse, frowzy woman, with dirt 
in her finger nails, said : ** You couldn't get an Injun clean ! *' 

The Stewart objected when I wanted her in my state-room, and then 
as the steamer began to roll on the bar, she turned a sickly yellow, and 
I realized that a little Indian girl's stomach was formed on the same 
plan as my own, after all, and consented that she should be taken 
below. 

Sept. 5. Well, here we are, in a furnished house in San Francisco, 
having had, I am persuaded, the most glorious honeymoon among the 
wild doves of the mountains that could have been planned. Besides, 
my health, about which they were all so foolishly worried, is quite re- 
covered, and I hope to stay here indefinitely. 

I have decorated my hall, dining-room, and parlor with my own bric- 
a-brac, including beads, baskets, and child. I am astonished to find 
that the latter has been homesick within her silent and swarthy breast ; 
yet, what wonder? It occurs tome, with some pricks of conscience, 
that I may have been rash or thoughtless, in thus transplanting her. I 
don't know what could have suggested to me the word, *' cruel,** in this 
connection ; but I indignantly repel the idea. 

Dec. 8. Captain George said her name was Mary ; but, sometimes, 
she chatters like the chipmunks, and then, if I choose to question her, 
her broken speech trickles on like] one of her own little mountain 
streams, on a summer day. 

Today she has been in the mood, and she gave me her Indian name — 
Mil-ch6i-mil — meaning *'Italk;" bestowed upon her because of her 
ready tongue. But her command of language is limited ; she cannot 
converse on "high" subjects — how could I expect it of such a little 
lizard ? Sometimes she makes me "creep," just to look at her. 

Feb. 11, 1871. Today I bought a dear [little English pug, so 
homely that he's pretty ; also, a harness with bells. Mary's nose matched 
his own, as she looked at his curly tail, his crushed strawberry ribbon, 
and his dainty blanket and basket. "Very good eat," she said, to my 
consternation, poking his fat sides with the finger of judgment. 

March 26. A lovely day, that suggests wet violets. 

Hearing loud voices on the sidewalk, this morning, I went to the win- 
dow, and, on the gate-post sat Mary, listless and blinking, surrounded 
by a dozen curious, teasing gamins. 

" Oh, what it is ! " exclaimed one, derisively. 

*' Shure, its a naygur ! " suggested another. 

" Naygur ! naygur ! " shouted the crowd, catching at the familar and 
democratic epithet. And then the spirit of persecution. abroad in the 
world condensed upon the lawless little horde : ** Twist her fingers i 
pinch her ! tear her dress ! pull her hair ! " they shouted. 

For one moment she bore their indignities, then with a jump she 
landed in their midst, suddenly alive ; her hands eager talons ; her eyes^ 
shooting fires ; and such a torrent of Indian invective pouring'from her 



A LITTLE CURIO. 273 

mouth, as reminded me of one of those rushing, northern cataracts. 
The effect of that wild-cat leap I need not describe ; but I heard the 
dishevelled " wash ladies " in the alley talking, an hour later, over their 
fences, about the '* little divil " in front. Evidently, their children 
had embellished the narrative as they carried it home. 

April 10. I have been teaching little Mil-ch6i-mil to sweep, and she 
asked me if the broom was a " woman-stick." Partly by words, partly 
by the clever way in which she seemed to take the broom unto herself, 
but more by the gleam of her face, I understood the * 'woman-stick" to be 
a badge of sex. She took me out in the back yard to illustrate its use, 
and, with the end of the handle, began turning over the ground for a 
little space. I was astonished to see the quantity of angle-worms that 
came squirming to the surface ; and these disgusting, wriggling things 
she caught deftly between thumb and finger, finally extending a particu- 
larly rich and corpulent one toward me, with the grave remark : *' Make 
soup; very good." Oh, has her diet really been pug dogs and angle- 
worms, or is she playing upon my credulity ? 

June 8. We have been having the third of three warm days that some- 
times attack cool San Francisco. 

I found Mary, about noon, going round the house almost entirely 
without clothing. I endeavored to explain something of the term mod- 
esty, but she looked at me with a perfectly blank countenance. She 
said that the new corsets I bought her yesterday got hot, and burnt her, 
as if that were quite enough to account for her action. 

July 4th. This morning, early, I wakened at a peculiar sound. Fire 
crackers and bombs were splitting the air outside, but ikis was no Fourth 
of July celebration ; it was evasive, ghost-like and intensely mournful. 
I threw on a shawl, and, bare-footed, ran down the hall. Was it ? Yes, 
it certainly came from Mary's room. Pushing her door gently I saw her 
squatting on the floor, with bent shoulders ; and, then, again, issued 
from her lips that strange, low cry, such as a wounded animal might 
have given. And, yet, again, great heavens ! it might have been the 
death note of a stricken hare or deer. 

I craned my neck forward, and over those bent shoulders I saw that in 
her hand she held the stiffened form of one of the chipmunks. Its 
mate, in fright and excitement, was frantically turning the little wheel 
in the cage ; but evidently Bunny was dead. Mary seemed that moment 
herself but little higher in the scale of creatures than the chipmunks, 
and, my foot-fall lost in the pile of the carpet, I stole away. 

Before night. Tricksy, most diminutive and sprightly of encaged 
spirits, had joined her fellow, Bunny, and would never tread her wheel 
again. They say you cannot keep these wild things long ; that they in- 
variably die when taken from their free life and mountain air. These 
two have been so cunning, and so bright-eyed, that I felt a tear drop over 
my cheek as I saw them stretched out, and all that pretty agile life gone 
from them. 

Mary looked at them, and at my tears, with stolid face ; but, as I went 
to bed, again I heard that mournful, evasive cry stealing out like a soft- 



274 LAND OF SUNSHINE. 

footed ghost about the house. It seemed to say : " Hwen-ne-ni-ny, hwen- 
ne-noo-o o, hwen-he-nu-u-u !" with an indescribable wail running all 
through the vowels on which her voice dwelt. 

Almost overcome with nervous t motion, I shuddered and sobbed as I 
drew the bed-clothes over my head, and I shall always remember this 
July Fourth, as the day the chipmunks died. 

Sept. 1 9. Mary is growing fond of me ; and I had thought she never 
would ! I wonder if she has a soul, too — why, yes, of course ! But she 
has never seemed human, as I, for instance, am, or mother, or the girls, 
in Boston. I am so used to being loved, that I miss it inexpressibly 
when I meet with one who seems to have no response in her soul. 

There it is again — I said soul ! 

Nov. ) 2. The fall of the leaf among the mountains ! I can fancy the 
leaves yellowing and dropping with that gentle, little, scraping sound, 
that seems almost like the rustle of a spirit in the woods. All the shrub- 
bery must be quite denuded now, but the pines still stand, dark and 
green, clad the winter through, 

I am trying to teach Mary to read, but she doesn't enjoy it ; still she 
spends incredible patience on crochet. I believe she can learn to sing 
simple melodies, and she will do what she can to please me. In spite of 
her remark about roasting Pug, he is *'hers devotedly," although she 
seldom speaks to him. Sometimes I am conscious of that very attraction, 
when she sits by me with her crochet, communing silently with herself 
and me. 

I hope she may remember some of the Indian songs — lullabies, and 
war chants and harvest dances, like the Manzanita and the Clover. I 
will give a unique evening then to the friends who have entertained me 
so charmingly during our stay here. She talks very well now, and 
knows what I want of her. Today, to prove that she understood, she 
fell into a monotonous rocking movement with her feet, accompanying 
herself with a growling note or two, which she kept up for several 
minutes without pause. It was the oddest "song and dance" I ever 
saw. 

I have learned much from her, too. vSif-san-di pek-i-d-vish is a cer- 
tain singing, dancing, gaming, fasting ceremonial, by which the great 
spirits of earth and forest are conciliated. This averts such disasters as 
fires in the woods ; scarcity of rain ; land-slides in the winter after 
heavy rains ; perhaps earthquakes. Then there is the U-ma-laik, or 
Salmon dance; the Woodpecker dance ; dance of the White Deer; 
Boat dance, and so on. 

I mean to get a tonic for Mary ; she doesn't seem quite well. In fact, 
I am far from well, myself. It's natural, I suppose ; in the fall of the 
year, when the leaves drop, nature must be at her lowest ebb. 

Jan. 5, 1872. I am amused at Mary in my dressing-room, she is so in- 
terested in my bright fineries — my curling-tongs, my little gold hair- 
pins, my powder-box ; and oh, how she loves perfume and scented soap ! 
She never wearies of my Saratoga trunk; *'hegh! heghl" she says, 
lifting all its lids, and plunging her hands into its empty compartments. 



A LITTLE CURIO. 275 

She thought the hat -box must be meant to carry Pug in. She thinks 
my silk skirts sound like the leaves that I said fell in the autumn. 

But Mary isn't well, and the doctor's tonic doesn't seem to help her. 
Perhaps she needs a priestess-doctor, such as her mother was ; perhaps 
the Indian medicines of roots and herbs, gathered in the full or the dark 
moon, or with some other witch-like proviso, alone, will send the ichor 
along her veins. 

If I believed that ! 

I have thought today, that, perhaps, and all innocently, I am depriv- 
ing my little ward of a part of her birthright. If heretofore I have 
thought of anything beyond taking her for an amusement and a play- 
thing, it has been with the vague idea that in giving her civilization, I 
was hanging upon her life the great jewel, the one pearl. Just now it 
occurs to me, that there usually comes a day in a little squaw's existence 
when she is espied by some susceptible brave, and he makes commercial 
advances to her father ; then, without further ceremony, lakes her re- 
joicing to his wickiup. Such a day can never come to Mary, if she stays 
with me. Thus, has she, through me, lost home, husband, and children. 
But then, what folly to accuse myself! The idea was suggested by a 
question of hers. 

"How much," she asked, "did he (meaning my husband) pay for you? 
Many dollars, I suppose, because your hair is the color of dried grass, 
and your eyes like two openings in the clouds. He likes you." 

* ' He does love me, I should die if he did not ! " I cried impetuously. 
But her face, the three fern leaves on its chin standing bluelyout, settled 
into that stubborn calm which is so much her characteristic, and I could 
not coax her into that contented and pleasing mood, which now she 
oftener wears. 

March 15. I can scarcely write for tears — Mary, little Indian Mil-choi- 
mil, is dead ! 

And she loved me — I cannot doubt it — for she followed me with her 
eyes when I left her, and when I returned held my hand closely between 
her weak fingers. I must write no more, for I am quite worn with the 
events of the last few days. 

March 30. I must finish little Mary's history in my diary ; it will take 
few words. 

I did not dream she was going to die ; I really did not ! but the rest 
saw it, months ago. I had her photograph taken, one day, and she said, 
then, that would kill her. I laughed at her superstition, and to reassure 
her let her see me sit for mine, directly after. 

She took a sudden cold, which developed, alarmingly soon, into pneu- 
monia. She said, so yearningly, when she was uneasy with fever, that 
the salmon were beginning to run up the Klamath ; and, then, again ^ 
that the thimble berries would ripen in June ; and told, as she refused a 
drink from the faucet, how cool and fresh the water lay, up there, in lit- 
tle pools among the rocks, under the shade of the banks. Oh, it just 
hurt my heart to hear her longing voice ! 

I insisted that they should take her up on the steamer, her little shoes 



276 LAND OF SUNSHINE. 

tucked in beside her, and bury her out among the pines — a little alien 
whom I had robbed of home and family — a human curio, which I tore 
from its environments, and would have attached to me like an ornament 
to my watch chain. I hope God will forgive me ! A woman can be so 
careless and so cruel ! 

Away up there, under the pines, with their gently-swaying tops, I 
shall always think of her as sleeping, in her red calico dress, her strings 
of shells'around her neck, the red-woodpecker tufts in her braided hair. 

Sleep, little Mil-ch6i-mil, sleep well. Run, salmon, run up the Klam- 
ath ; swirl, cool waters, among the mountain pools ; ripen,- berries, upon 
the bush ; clasp hands, winds, and whisper near the spot where she 
sleeps ; for to you all she belonged, and never to crowded street, and 
bell, and book. 

But had she a soul ? oh, she had — I know she had ! 

Alameda, Cal. 

' The Big Bonanza. 

BY THEODORE H. HTTTELL. 

[CONCI^UDED. ] 

GfT took but a comparatively short time, under the management of 
J such men as crowded over from the western side of the Sierra Nevada, 
^ to find out, not only that the blue stuff that had been contemptuously 
rejected in the neighborhood of Gold Hill was substantially the same as 
that which was found at Ophir, but also that the vein which furnished 
it extended all the way between the two places, and a mile or two south- 
erly from Gold Hill to what became known as Silver City in Gold 
Canon, a distance of about twenty-two thousand feet, or a little more 
than four miles. It was a large, irregular layer or dyke of metalliferous 
rocks, chiefly quartz, with bunches, pockets or streaks of exceedingly 
rich ore running through it, lying between what was called the foot- 
wall, which was generally hard diorite, on the lower side, and the hang- 
ing wall, consisting of porphyritic rocks, on the upper side. It would 
seem that when the mountain was originally formed or was forming, 
there was an immense split or series of splits in its mass, and naturally 
in its weakest part, a thousand feet wide in some places and narrowing 
or "pinching" to a mere trace in others, but forming a continuous line 
of fissure, into which nature interjected from the unknown depths be- 
low, and under conditions of heat and chemical action that are incon- 
ceivable to the present dwellers upon the earth, the materials, includ- 
ing some native gold and silver and many argentiferous and other ores, 
that form the great vein. It was formed under substantially the same 
conditions as the great veins of Potosi, Guanajuato, Zacatecas and 
Chihuahua. All are of the same kind, having much the same general 
topographical position with reference to the mountains in which they 
are found, with nearly like directions and nearly similar dips ; and all, 
as before stated, belong to one and the same family of gigantic 
developments. 



THE BIG BONANZA. 277 

In the case of the Mouut Davidson vein or Comstock lode, as, not- 
withstanding the character of "Old Pancake," it got to be called, it 
will be noticed that when O'Reilly and McLaughlin first struck the 
ledge, a little above and back of what is now Virginia City, it turned 
into the mountain or, in other words, seemed to dip westerly ; but on 
further investigation, it was found that the dip was decidedly easterly, 
out of or away from the perpendicular axis of the mountain. It might, 
on account of this general direction, be supposed that it was like a 
stratum of the sedimentary rocks and had been lifted up like many of 
the strata with the general rise of the mountain chain ; and it is indeed 
possible that its position may have been more or less shifted in the 
course of time and the slow changes of myriads of years ; but it is to 
be borne in mind that it is not in any respect a stratum and was not 
formed or deposited in any manner like the limestones or the sand- 
stones of comparatively recent geological periods. It was of plutonic, 
not neptunic, origin. It was not formed on the top of other forma- 
tions, but it protruded up through them. It does not lie along or in 
conformity with other rocks, but cuts or splits right through them, 
changing their character more or less on each side ; and it goes down, 
probably getting richer and richer as it descends, to depths that can 
never be reached, and the composition of which we can only surmise — 
depths where the heat is sufficient to melt and vaporize metals and the 
pressure great enough to crystallize diamonds. 

When and how the great split in Mount Davidson and the injection 
into it of the fluid silica, with its metals and metalliferous ores, took 
place are questions that geology will some day answer ; but for the 
present purpose it is sufficient that after lying there for millions of 
years — as many other lodes as yet undiscovered are still lying among 
the mountains — the Comstock lode was found ; and men were also found 
who knew or soon learned how to appreciate and use it. Its extent was 
of course at first unknown, but there was enough of the ore in sight to 
make it well worth working and sinking for more. This sinking com- 
menced at the Ophir mine, where the vein was found to dip into the 
mountain, and was carried on in the beginning with ordinary hand 
windlass and bucket. The product was so promising that the windlass 
was soon succeeded by a horse-power whim ; and not long afterward 
the horse-power was succeeded by a steam-engine, which was used, not 
only to carry the men up and down and hoist ore, but also to pump 
out the water that trickled and seeped into the excavation. The shaft 
or incline followed the well-defined ore body between the foot wall on 
the one side and the hanging wall on the other, because outside of them 
there was no metal or ore, and it was found that the vein grew wider 
and better as it went down, until at a depth of less than two hundred 
feet it was fifty feet across. As excavation and removal of the ore pro- 
ceeded, the problem presented itself of how to keep up the hanging 
wall and superincumbent mass. Pillars were left in many places, but 
the ore was comparatively soft and would not sustain any great amount 
of pressure. Large timbers were also used as in ordinary tunnels, but 



278 LAND OF SUNSHINE 

the great weight warped and twisted them out of shape, and in some 
instances squeezed them into less than half their original size or 
crushed them into splinters. 

For the purpose of meeting this difficulty, Philip Deidesheimer, a 
Californian mining engineer, who had been consulted on the subject, 
suggested the use of what were called "square sets," consisting of 
short, thick, heavy timbers mortised and tenoned at the ends and braced 
diagonally, so as to form cribs four or five feet square. These could be 
piled up on top or by the side of one another, so as to fill up almost any 
sized or shaped space. They were found to answer the purpose admira- 
bly — much better than anything else that could be devised — and after- 
ward vast cavities, hundreds of feet wide and nearly a thousand feet 
in depth, that had been emptied of ore, were thus filled up. 

In addition to the Ophir, as the ledge was found to extend southward 
to Silver City, other mines were opened at various points all the way to 
that place and beyond. These mines received different names, in some 
cases those of the first claimants, such as Best and Belcher, Gould and 
Curry, Savage, Hale and Norcross, ChoUar, and so on, and in other 
cases more fanciful ones, such as Sierra Nevada, Mexican, California, 
Virginia, Potosi, Yellow Jacket and Crown Point. On nearly all the 
claims shafts were sunk and work commenced ; and as it had become 
known that the vein dipped eastwardly, many of these shafts were 
located in favorable places east of the outcroppings of the ledge, which 
might thus be struck by sinking perpendicularly. In less than two 
years nearly a hundred mines were opened ; and though all were not 
profitable, several bonanzas or pockets of rich ore were encountered, 
and several of the mining companies at work made large profits, such 
as the Ophir, Gould and Curry, Savage, Hale and Norcross, Chollar, 
Potosi, Yellow Jacket, and Crown Point. All of these and a few others 
had their bonanzas ; and up to 1870, ten years after the silver discovery 
occurred, the Comstock mines had yielded over a hundred millions of 
dollars. 

Among the young, active and intelligent Californians, who had 
drifted over to Washoe in the early days were John W. Mackay and 
James G. Fair. They were both of Irish birth and both ordinary work- 
ing miners, without wealth or influence. But they went into the Washoe 
business and especially the underground business with great energy and 
became recognized as men of superior skill in their line. Both by close 
and persistent attention to their work rapidly advanced and by degrees 
got to be interested in the mines in which they labored. Fair became 
superintendent of the Ophir mine and Mackay of the Caledonian and 
part owner of the Kentuck, which, though not among the great mines, 
were well managed and yielded large returns. In the meanwhile they 
had come together and joined forces with James C. Flood and William 
S. O'Brien of San Francisco, who were as skillful in stock transactions 
as Mackay and Fair were in mining operations, and thereby constituted 
what was known and became famous as the bonanza firm of Flood 
& O'Brien. In that connection they invested in Hale and Norcross 



THE BIG BONANZA. 279 

and several other of the Comstock mines. In Hale and Norcross 
they made some money ; but in several others, which they endeavored 
to develop, they lost, or at least made nothing. Though little or noth- 
ing of note was rewarding their labor they were learning ali the time 
and had implicit faith in the mines. Their confidence, or rather the 
confidence of Mackay — for he was the '* brains " of the mining branch 
of the firm as Flood was of the stock branch of it — was phenome- 
nal. Other men have persisted in risks and perilous undertakings ; and 
some have won and got credit for undeserved luck ; but Mackay and 
Fair in the mines, supported by Flood and O'Brien in the stock center 
of San Francisco, though they could not look into the mountain, be- 
lieved implicitly in its bonanza character and invested their money and 
labor with that kind of assurance based on knowledge and good judg- 
ment, which lies at the bottom of all great undertakings. Their ven- 
tures were in no proper sense a "gamble." They pictured to their own 
minds, and on trustworthy data, the nature of the great vein under their 
feet ; and they proceeded to lay out their plan of campaign in search of 
the treasures, which they had convinced themselves were still buried in 
the mountain, with the same faith and reasonable certainty of success 
that a merchant relies on in sending his products to a market which in 
the ordinary and natural course of trade must be remunerative. As the 
great merchant exercises and displays a genius for commercial profit, so 
the bonanza firm, in their operations on the Comstock lode, exercised 
and displayed a genius for bonanza. 

There were toward the northerly end of the great Comstock vein, as 
known in the early Seventies, several claims that had never yielded any- 
thing of sufficient value to encourage much exploration. They em- 
braced a lineal distance on the main lode of thirteen hundred and ten 
feet, but the outcroppings were few and nothing of importance was pro- 
duced from the same kind of shafts and inclines that had paid so well in 
other mines. The common understanding was that the ground had been 
tested and found worthless. But Mackay and Fair thought differently. 
They reasoned that the Comstock was a great vein filling up an immense 
continuous fissure. It was known to be wide and extensive in the Ophir 
mine, just north of the neglected claims, and in the Gould and Curry 
south of them, and to extend into the Mexican, Union Consolidated and 
Sierra Nevada, north of the Ophir, and into the Savage, Hale and Nor- 
cross, ChoUar, Potosi, Yellow Jacket and Crown Point, south of the 
Gould and Curry. They were all evidently locations on one and the same 
great vein. It might be, and was likely to be, pinched in some places- 
that was the nature of great metalliferous veins — but there was no good 
reason to infer, because there was a pinch or very little good ore at 
the surface or because there might be a pinch here and there below the 
surface of the reported barren ground, that it should extend throughout 
its whole distance. The likelihood was that as good and perhaps better 
deposits could be found in that large and centrally located extent of 
ground than in the claims on both sides of it. Ophir was only six hun- 
dred and seventy-five feet in length, and Mexican six hundred feet north 



28o LAND OF SUNSHINE. 

of that ; while Best and Belcher on the other side was only two hundred 
and twenty-four feet, followed by Gould and Curry of nine hundred and 
twenty-one feet. They were all bonanza mines ; and why should the 
large intervening space of thirteen hundred and ten feet all be pinched 
and barren ? There was no good reason ; and Mackay and Fair would 
not and did not believe it to be ; and they were willing to spend their 
time and money in justification of their faith. 

It was not very diflScult, with the bad name the reported barren 
ground had acquired after ten or twelve years of neglect, to buy it all 
up for a comparatively small sum of money. The bonanza firm seem to 
have commenced with purchasing the various claims to the seven hun- 
dred and twenty-one feet, next north of the Best and Belcher, which 
they united into the so-called Consolidated Virginia mine, and then 
bought the six hundred feet, next north and up to the Ophir, which they 
called the California. The two mines together, being thenceforth sub- 
stantially under the same ownership and management, were usually 
named in conjunction as the Consolidated Virginia and California. It 
is said that the bonanza firm paid out about one hundred thousand dol- 
lars, for which they purchased about three-fourths and the entire control 
of the two mines, and they consummated their bargain and took posses- 
sion and mangement in January, 1872. They determined to devote 
their attention first to a thorough exploration of the Consolidated Vir- 
ginia ; and for this purpose they commenced with levying an assessment 
of over two hundred thousand dollars upon its stock — most of which 
they had of course to pay themselves — and expending it in develop- 
ment. They had a shaft, four hundred feet deep on the ground ; but 
their main and important work was, by consent of, and under arrange- 
ment with, the two mines next south of them, to run a drift or tunnel 
from the deep shaft of the Gould and Curry mine, at a depth of nearly 
twelve hundred feet below the surface, through the Best and Belcher 
ground and into Consolidated Virginia. It was a costly operation, as 
they had to run eight hundred feet before reaching the edge of their 
ground ; and, after reaching it, they ran a hundred feet or more into the 
Consolidated Virginia without finding anything except a mere thread. 
At one time they lost even this ; and the prospects were very unfavor- 
able ; but the same confidence that had induced them to run their tun- 
nel induced them to continue it. And continue it they did. They 
knew they were on the vein because the hanging wall and the foot wall 
were present and, by persistently following them, they finally came to a 
place where the vein widened — and widened rapidly. The further they 
went the better became the prospects. It now became very certain that 
they would want their separate shaft ; and it was accordingly pushed 
downward day and night without interruption until it reached the depth 
of the tunnel, or eleven hundred and sixty-seven feet, and struck the ore 
body which had been first found in the tunnel communicating with the 
Gould and Curry shaft. The ore body was not of the very best ; but it 
was good and was getting better the further they went into it. A drift 
of two hundred and fifty feet was run from the bottom of the shaft and 



THE BIG BONANZA. 281 

it went the entire distance through rich ore. They had struck a portion 
of the Big Bonanza. The ore ran up from sixty dollars a ton to more 
than six hundred ; and in every direction, as they advanced, it grew 
wider and richer. The shaft was sunk down to the twelve hundred feet 
level ; and there still continued an increase in the extent and value of 
the deposit. 

In the meanwhile large quantities of the ore were being taken out ; 
and by the end of October, 1872, the bonanza firm were shipping bullion 
to the value of about a quarter of a million of dollars every month. 
Without saying much or anticipating all, they knew they had an ex- 
ceedingly valuable mine, and they proceeded now with redoubled energy 
to find out the extent of what they had. 

Neither Mackay nor Fair was at that time especially interested in the 
stock market. They were not anxious to have their mine or their suc- 
cess in it known. They were perfectly well aware that they had found a 
great deposit ; but they wanted, before making their final arrangements 
about it, to know exactly how large and valuable it was. By the end of 
1 874, they had gone down to the fifteen hundred feet level ; and at that 
depth the ore was richer than ever. They had evidently struck some- 
thing unprecedented ; and the more they examined and probed and ran 
cross-cuts through it the larger and more valuable the bonanza seemed 
to become ; and curiously enough the California ground was now sup- 
posed to have a larger and more valuable bonanza than the Consolidated 
Virginia. By January, 1875, the seven hundred and ten feet of the Con- 
solidated Virginia were estimated — and the company stock, which had 
been increased from 10,700 to 108,000 shares, sold — at the rate of seventy- 
five millions of dollars ; while the six hundred feet of the California 
mine rose to eighty-four millions and upward. In other words, the 
thirteen hundred and ten feet of neglected and supposed barren ground, 
which in 1870 was rated at forty or fifty thousand dollars, and for which 
the bonanza firm paid about one hundred thousand dollars, was now 
worth and selling in the stock market at the rate of about one hundred 
and fifty millions. At this rate every running inch of the ground along 
the vein was worth over ten thousand dollars ; and every one of the two 
hundred and sixteen thousand shares, in which the two mines were di- 
vided, was worth on an average seven hundred dollars. But on the 
other hand, and in justification of these prices, an immense body of 
ore of the richest description, from one hundred and fifty to three hun- 
dred and twenty feet wide and more than five hundred feet deep, was in 
actual sight ; and in a short time and for a number of months actual 
dividends of over two millions of dollars were paid monthly, or at the 
rate of about ten dollars per share or one hundred and thirty dollars on 
each running foot every month. 

Such was the huge deposit found by Mackay and Fair in the Consoli- 
dated Virginia and California mines, or the Big Bonanza as it was 
called. The ore was not all of the same character ; but the most of it 
was very valuable and some of it exceedingly rich. In general color it 
ranged from pale green and bluish gray to deep black, some of it con- 



282 LAND OF SUNSHINE. 

taining native silver, all more or less gold, and in many places there 
were masses of crystals of quartz, blue, violet, purple, olive-green, rose, 
pink or white. The most gorgeous jewel-bespangled caverns, with 
whose story Sheherazade beguiled Shariar from his bloody-minded pur- 
pose, and the most gem-filled of the "dark, unfathomed caves of ocean," 
were nothing in comparison. Here were at least five hundred thousand 
square yards of ore, and it was supposed to be worth at least three hun- 
dred dollars in gold and silver a square yard. It was not the bonanza 
firm that gave it this value. The mine actually yielded something in 
the neighborhaod of that valuation. Experts at the time fixed the 
value much higher. The lowest estimates put on it were over a hun- 
dred million ; the director of the United States mint thought that the 
ore in sight indicated three hundred millions of dollars, and Deides- 
heimer, the engineer, who rendered the working of the mines practicable 
by his suggestion of the cubic frames of timber, was disposed to place 
the value at some fifteen hundred millions. 

Some men have been bom to great fortunes, though rarely to anything 
like one hundred or even fifty millions of dollars, and some have man- 
aged, by a long course of attention to careful business, to accumulate 
great fortunes. In these cases, as a general rule they, by degrees, grow 
into or up with their fortunes ; and there is nothing specially remark- 
able or interesting in contemplating these or their wealth. But let the 
reader imagine these hard-working miners down in the lower levels 
of the Comstock, who had the brains to conceive and believe in the con- 
tinuance of the vein through the barren ground between the Ophir and 
the Best and Belcher mines and had the pluck to put all their money and 
all their labor into the work of proving the truth of their convictions — 
imagine the feelings of these men, still young, vigorous, sober, sound in 
body and mind, with nearly all of life before them, when they suddenly 
burst into what seemed one of the great treasure-houses of nature, where 
she had been elaborating and storing wealth for uncounted and un- 
countable myriads of years ; and it was all theirs. 

One of the old Californian pioneers relates how, at Weber Creek, in 
1848, he did his first day's work at mining. After laboring severely till 
near evening and clearing oflf several feet of surface dirt from the top of 
a large rock, he unearthed some thirty dollars worth of bright, shining 
gold that was lying there before him. He did not pick it up at first ; he 
left it lie for a time, and enjoyed the consciousness, without touching it, 
that there it was within his grasp, and more of the same kind all along 
the creek. The enjoyment was worth more than the gold. If thirty 
dollars in golden grains, thus exposed on the rough surface of a piece of 
bed-rock, can make a man feel glorious, what language can express the 
feelings of Mackay when he struck the Big Bonanza of over a hundred 
and fifty millions ? 

San Francisco, Cal. 



UNPUBLISHED DOCUMENTS~THE VICEROY'S REPORT 
CONCLUDED. 



m 



Early California. 

ED DOCUMENTS~THE VICEROY 
CONCLUDED. 

HE following installment concludes the (translated) re- 
. port of the Viceroy Revilla Gigedo, reviewing the his- 
tory of California from 1768 to 1793. The translation 
was begun in the June number. 

228. These naval forces I deem for the present sufficient in Acapulco, 
for the purpose of cruising frequently along the norihern and southern 
coasts ; for watching and impeding smuggling in our establishments 
which the vessels of any foreign power might attempt ; for carrying the 
yearly supplies to the '* presidios" and missions of the Californias ; for 
assisting the peninsula in case of invasion ; and for undertaking voy- 
ages to higher latitudes if circumstances should so require it, either to 
acquire information about the progress made in these remote northern 
provinces by the English or Russians, or in reference to the fur trade, 
or because necessity arises to make a special examination of certain 
parts of the coast. 

229. It may be that we shall require in the future a larger fleet for 
the objects indicated, according to what events may happen. But no 
matter if we increase or not this naval force in the Pacific, we will al- 
ways be able, as far as it is possible, to protect our commerce, reduce 
the expenses of the department, and defeat, as much as is within our 
power, the combinations upon which the English have calculated. 

Fourth Proposition about the Better Management and 

Improvement of the Special Funds of the 

Missions of tlie Californias. 

230. The fourth proposition contained herein must be considered as 
an incident of the second, the same as proposition five will be subor- 
dinate to the third ; and this because the present has reference to the 
development of the salines of San Bias, whose products are to be ap- 
plied for the expenses of the department, and because proposition five 
will treat about the exercise of greater care in the administration of the 
special funds of the California missions, so that this capital may not be 
impaired, and a new burden imposed upon the treasury. 

231. These funds, if properly cared for, are sufficient for maintaining 
the actual missions ; but ever since the expulsion of the Jesuits, who 
personally managed the landed properties (fincas), the products thereof, 
which the society formerly used for pious purposes, have begun to 
decrease. 

- 232. For this reason it was considered convenient to relieve the man- 
agement of funded ecclesiastical properties from the charge of these 
revenues, and confide same, in accordance with a royal order, to the 
former auditors of the cashier's department of the royal treasury, don 
Francisco de Salas Carrillo ; but at the death of this magistrate a still 
greater decadence was noted. 

233. There were many applicants for the vacant administration, and 
my predecessor, don Manuel Antonio Flores, thought that the safest 
thing to do would be to place the management in charge of the two 
magistrates of said royal treasury and hold them jointly responsible. 

234. So he decided and advised His Majesty, accompanying his letter 
(number 159, of January 27, 1789) with an authenticated copy of the 
proceedings. But in another letter (number 178, of March 27th) 
he informed that this measure, far from producing any good, was fast 
precipitating the funds to utter ruin, and that they could be saved only 



284 LAND OF SUNSHINE. 

by an active, intelligent and zealous general manager, who should fre- 
quently inspect the estates and be capable of developing their resources 
and disposing at a fair price of the products ; and who also should keep 
watch over the conduct of the subaltern administrators. Such a general 
manager should have no other office or employment, and should be 
paid a competent salary. 

235. These letters he addressed to the Marquis de Bajamar, the same 
as I did with my number 22 of Nov. 26, 1789, wherein I agreed with the 
opinion of my predecessor in reference to confiding the estates to a 
General Administrator of the Californias ; because, among different 
other notable matters in the management of those properties, I noted, 
that after estimating in four or five thousand dollars the construction of 
a water reservoir on the estate, called Arroyozarco, more than forty 
thousand dollars had been expended and the work is not yet finished. 

236. Afterward I forwarded with my letter (number 202 of Nov. 30, 
1790) an authenticated copy of the proceedings had for the purpose of 
complying with the royal order of May 20, 1781, which commanded the 
sale of the rural properties of the special funds, providing that the 
product of such sale should be placed with the necessary guarantees at 
interest. 

237. This measure was not carried out, because the auditor, don 
Francisco Salas Carrillo, presented a diffuse representation in which he 
persisted in making out that the special fund would suffer still more in 
case its landed properties should be sold, stating therein that if the 
necessary improvements should be made the estate "Ibarra" would 
produce $40,000 every year, and the holdings of Arroyozarco four or five 
thousand dollars. 

238. With such fair prospects in sight, the sale of the properties was 
suspended. After listening to the argument of the fiscal of the royal 
treasury and to the advisory opinion of the Royal Commission of Coun- 
cillors the viceroy, don Matias de Galvez, informed His Majesty of these 
proceedings, in a letter (number 670 of April 27, 1784), and in conse- 
quence thereof, the royal order of December 14, 1785, decided in favor 
of the measures proposed by Carrillo until its results should be known. 

239. These results were far from satisfactory, for instead of a yearly 
net product of $40,000 derived from the Ibarra estate, the whole income 
for a period of five years (1784 to 1788 in which latter year Carrillo died) 
only amounted to |32,023 ; and in another period of five years (1785 to 
1789) the estate of Arroyozarco suffered a loss of $\ ,324. 

240- For this reason, the fiscal of the royal treasury petitioned for, 
the Assessor General of this vice-kingdom agreed thereto, and I decreed 
in conformity therewith, that the rural property of the special funds of 
the Missions of the Californias should be sold at public auction to the 
highest bidder or bidders, with the express condition that the pur- 
chaser should acquire said property subject to the payment of a per- 
petual annuity (d censo perpetuo), and that no cash deposit should be 
made on the sale price, but that the buyer should furnish the corre- 
sponding bonds so as to insure the payment of the interest and also the 
value of all the live-stock. 

241. In my letter, number 202, I reported on this matter, propos- 
ing also if it should not be possible to effect a favorable sale of the es- 
tates, to place same under the charge of a general manager, having the 
qualities mentioned by my predecessor, even if his salary should be 
triple the amount now paid to the magistrates of the treasury for man- 
aging these funds, which they are unable to do properly, owing to other 
official duties requiring their prior attention and impeding these magis- 
trates absolutely from personally visiting and inspecting said estates, 
which impoverish more and more every day, as is proven by the former 
expenditure of $98,000 and by the $140,000 requi;red, according to the 



EARLY CALIFORNIA. 285 

estimate of the engineer, don Miguel Constanzo, for the purpose of fin- 
ishing the water reservoir at Arroyozarco. 

242. This has been the estate which suffered most, because its prod- 
ucts give no revenue whatsoever ; and as, besides, large amounts had to 
be expended in continuing the improvements, it became necessary to 
rent this property, and consequently another interminable lawsuit arose 
about the insufficiency of the sureties on the bond of the lessee (already 
deceased), and about complaints and discords of the settlers or sub-less- 
ees of the same estate. 

243. In my letter (No. 283 of July 23, 1791) I reported all this to the 
Marquis de Bajamar, repeating my proposition to sell the properties ; 
and again called attention to my own opinions and those of my prede- 
cessor. I begged to be informed at the earliest convenience of the sov- 
ereign decision of His Majesty, so as to be able to save the public funds 
of this Vice-Kingdom being burdened with a considerable part of the 
costs which the missions of the Californias will cause to it, in case that 
the special funds are insufficient for maintaining said missions. 

244. The landed properties of the special funds are valued at $527,- 
500; its capitals loaned out on interest amount to $188,000; therefore 
the total is the large sum of $715,500, whose yearly interest at the rate 
of five per cent, should be $35,575. The missionaries receive every 
year a little above $22,000 ; consequently a balance should remain of 
$12,000 to $13,000 to be used for the establishment of new missions, 
traveling expenses and transportation of the missionaries by land and 
water. 

245. These last two items are neither of frequent occurrence nor 
very expensive. At an average they may amount yearly to about two 
or three thousand dollars. Deducting this from the before mentioned 
balance, the remainder will serve to increase the special funds ; and as 
these balances are the most available resources, they are to be safely in- 
vested, and with the revenues derived therefrom not only the actual ex- 
penses can be covered, but also those which in the future may be re- 
quired for the spiritual conquest and for subduing pagan Indians. But 
all these fair hopes will vanish if no stop is put to the ruination of the 
estates. 

246. This calamity can be guarded against by the disposal or sale 
of the properties, and also by placing the estates under the charge of an 
intelligent, honest and active general manager ; although in my opinion 
it would be preferable to dispose of these lands in the manner indicated 
by the fiscal of the Royal Treasury, whose propositions are (and had 
to be) siispended until Your Excellency informs me if His Majesty ap- 
proves this measure. 

Fifth Proposition, about Conserving the Primitive Man- 
ner of Managing: the Salines of ZapotiUa. 

247. Under date of June 18, 1790, I received the decisions sanction- 
ing the measure in reference to restoring the salines of Zapotilla to 
the former mode of management. This measure I supported by an au- 
thentic copy of the actuations, which I enclosed in the letter (No. 368 
of February 26 of the same year), addressed to don Antonio Vald^z. 

248. The simple and safe management of these salines had been 
changed, in the hope that the product would be increased by working 
the salines directly on account of the royal treasury. But the contrary 
happened: for since 1781, when the new administration was installed, 
until 1788, the out-put decreased and the considerable sum of nearly $73,- 
COO was lost. 

249. After the salines were again placed under the former manage- 
ment, it was possible to bring them back to their old standard of pro- 
ducing $75,000 a year and without exposing this money to be inverted 
in extravagant and useless expenditures. Besides, the towns and settle- 



286 LAND OF SUNSHINE. 

ments within the jurisdiction of the saltworks have been improved. 
The reason for it is that the salt wells are rented at the rate of eight dol- 
lars each ; the product is more than thirty thousand "cargas" [about 
300 pounds in a "carga"] of salt, for which the king pays 6 reales [75c] 
per "carga," and sells it for sixteen reales [$2]. Consequently the lessee 
does not lose the price of his labor in working the wells, and the just 
profits of the royal treasury are assured v^ithout any danger of bank- 
ruptcies nor any salaries to administrator or interventor, for the reason 
that the management has again been entrusted to the Commissary of the 
department of San Bias ; and, for the present there exists no motive to 
change this state of affairs. 

Remarks to Obviate a Difficulty which mig-ht be AUegred 
against New Enterprises and Expenses. 

250. As the enterprises necessary for the new establishment at the 
port of La Bodega, the examination of the stretch of coast to Juan de 
Fuca strait, the occupation of the entrance of Ezeta and of the Colum- 
bia river (to all of which I have referred in §§ 185 to 195 and 216 to 219), 
must occasion expenses to the royal treasury, which will be still further 
increased by the cost of fortifying the "presidios" of the Californias 
(of which II 220 to 223 treat), it may seem that these propositions 
contradict the contents of ^^ 196 to 198, wherein I oppose every project, 
no matter how advantageous it may be, which compels us to incur great 
expenses. But in reference to these propositions I must make the fol- 
lowing distinctions : 

251 . Our establishments of the Californias reach to the *' presidio " of 
San Francisco, and if, as the English think, this is to be the boundary 
line, then they might establish themselves at the port of La Bodega, 
which is so close to that peninsula, that it is practically the same as if 
they were on it. 

252. Consequently, as such pernicious neighbors must surely be 
avoided and at once, we cannot do less than occupy without delay said 
port; and therefore it is apparent that this is not one of those projects 
based upon future advantages or which ori;5inate heavy expenditures. 

253. Neither can we dispense with a minute exploration of the stretch 
of coast up to Juan de Fuca strait, because we ignore what mediums the 
English may acquire for approaching our establishments, and neither 
know if the Columbia river, 'immediate to the entrance of Ezeta, is the 
supposed passage between the two oceans ; a matter which it is absolutely 
necessary to investigate. The costs thereof will not be exorbitant and 
this exploration does not compel us to continue in larger expenditures. 

254. The expenses would be greater if we had to build establishments 
at the entrance of Ezeta, in case that the Columbia river should really 
be the passage or if other matters of great importance should compel us 
thereto. 

255. It would also be very expensive to build or construct regular 
fortifications and to garrison same with the corresponding number of 
California presidial troops, as it seems is required by the proximity of 
foreign vessels, and the facility with which an enemy in open war might 
invade and take said peninsula, absolutely defenseless as it is. But 
neither this very serious matter, nor the promptly required establish- 
ment at the port of La Bodega, nor the conditional occupation of the 
entrance of Ezeta have any other remedy, but to do our best and at once 
furnish all the moi^ey required for these purposes. The treasury should 
in preference to all other actual needs, no matter how important they 
may be, use its revenues for sustaining and maintaining these new fortifi- 
cations and additional troops. Besides, in the special treaties already 
made or to be hereafter entered into with the English or Russians, a pre- 
cise condition or stipulation should be inserted, prohibiting either of 
them from settling on localities immediate to our possessions of the 



EARLY CALIFORNIA. 287 

Californias. These territories of ours can at otice be placed in a state of 
adequate defense for resisting invasions or attacks from vessels, by the 
means about which I advised in my letter (No. 124 of November 30, 1792) 
and which I repeat in the second proposition under ^^ 220 to 223. 

256. I am perfectly well aware that such defenses are insufficient 
against a formal and decisive invasion, as also that it is not probable that 
the English will agree to any snch stipulation or condition. But how- 
soever this may be. I think to have removed the apparent contradiction 
of II 196 and following, by proving that the steps to be taken and the 
expenses to be incurred are for the purpose of defending and maintaining 
our peninsula of the Californias, and not projects based upon future 
advantages ; but that they are simply precautionary measures to guard 
against the alienation of a territory we conquered at the cost of many 
lives, hardships and treasure. 

257. This would not be the case if we pretended the absolute posses- 
sion of all the extensive coasts north of the Californias ; because this is 
a project to which I am opposed and which I consider a distant, adven- 
turous and costly enterprise. 

Statement tbat the Occupation of the Port of Nutka or of 

any other Harbor on the remote coasts North of 

the Californias is Useless to Spain. 

258. The preservation on our part of the port of Nutka, has in my 
opinion been as useless to us, as would be the occupation of any other 
advanced locality, excepting those in the immediate vacinity of our 
establishments in the Californias, for the reason that such occupation 
will always be productive of large expenditures and grave obligations 
and may even be the cause of involving our Court in troubles and diffi- 
culties with the Court of Saint James. 

It is Proposed to Cede the Port of Nutka to the £ng^lish. 

259. Therefore I am of the opinion that we should cede voluntarily 
and absolutely our establishment at Nutka to the English ; for according 
to everything I have been able to understand and discover about the 
ideas of the English commander, Vancouver, and his emisary, Brough- 
ton, their desire and ambition seems to be to raise the English flag in 
that port without recognizing the flag of Spain ; and this rather impelled 
by a spirit of vainglory to uphold a claim which has been controverted, 
into a point of honor, than for real interest and advantages to be derived, 
which in truth are very problematic so far as they have reference to the 
fur trade. 

260. In J 205, I stated that the English had gathered the first fruits ; 
in efiiect, diffierent merchants of that nation, residents of the East Indies, 
fitted out in 1 786 two vessels and placing same in charge of the lieutenant 
of the navy, John Mears, traded during that year and the next. 

26 1 . When Mears undertook his second expedition , he entered into the 
port of San Lorenzo de Nutka. For the purpose of facilitating his trade 
with the Indians (and also to be better able to defend himself against 
the natives and the inclement weather) he considered it convenient to 
reside ashore. For this object he choose a small piece of land, fenced it in, 
within the stockade built a house or temporary shelter, and raised the 
English flag. 

262. It may have happened, as this officer avows in the diary of his 
voyage, that Macuma, cacique, chief or headman of the natives inhabit- 
ing the district of Nutka, sold him that piece of land whereon Mears 
built said provisional hut ; but it is also certain that the same Indian in 
his voluntary statement made by him in the presence of witnesses 
worthy of faith, insisted he had never made any such sale or donation. 

263. Notwithstanding this, let it be supposed that the English have a 
just right to the establishment acquired by Mears, and consequently 



288 LAND OF SUNSHINE, 

there seems to be no difficulty in complying with the last convention 
made between our court and that of Saint James, about returning to the 
English all of which they had possession in April, 1789. 

264. To carry this stipulation into effect, the captain of the first- 
class, don Juan de la Bodega y Cuadra, known as an honorable and intel- 
ligent gentleman, was chosen and appointed. His orders were to pro- 
ceed promptly to Nutka ; to treat with the commissioner of the court of 
Saint James, to deliver unto him the part belonging to the English, and 
to settle amicably whatsoever difficulty might arise. 

265. The commander of the Spanish expedition and George Van- 
couver, English commissioner, having met at Nutka, Cuadra fitly judged 
that his first step, considering the spirit of the treaty, should be to 
inform or state to the English the boundaries of the lands corresponding 
to each. But Vancouver, who possibly could find no ground upon which 
to take possession of all the buildings and territories as he had been 
commanded by his court, answered that his orders stated that full sur- 
render of all the territory and port of San lyorenzo should be made to 
him, and that his instructions did not authorize him to enter into dis- 
cussions about the legitimacy of these rights. 

266. Howsoever these orders may have been dictated, they are open 
to the suspicion either that the English had very little knowledge about 
the places claimed by them, or that they desired to acquire what was not 
theirs, but which might be useful. Cuadra, with the object of conserv- 
ing harmony and of proving to the court of Saint James our sincerity, 
was inclined to yield to every reasonable claim, and gave to understand, 
as it seems, that he was ready to comply with Vancouver's request. 

267. The English commander, satisfied and pleased with this com- 
plaisance, made his plans for placing a guard at the establishment sur- 
rendered to him and to continue on his voyage. He ordered that the 
** Dedalo" should be unloaded, and the cargo and ammunition deposited 
in the warehouses. But after Vancouver's crew had been engaged in 
this work for a few days, the commander, don Juan de la Cuadra, 
changed his mind, thinking he had exceeded his powers, and con- 
sidered it safer to acknowledge his error than to continue a procedure 
contrary to the true spirit of his instructions. 

268. Therefore he informed Vancouver, that having maturely con- 
sidered the orders given him for complying with his mission, he thought 
he could venture to surrender to him absolutely the port of Nutka and 
the territories of its districts, but only place him, Vancouver, in pos- 
session of that part which had been obtained or acquired by Mears and 
whereon the abandoned hut had been built. 

269. Still Cuadra proposed that, Vancouver being convinced of the 
right which the English nation had to the whole district and exclusively 
to the port of Nutka, he would at once place the whole temporarily 
under his orders, and formal surrender thereof should be made as soon 
as their sovereigns should decide upon this point. 

270. The English commander could well have afforded to accept this 
provisional cession, but he did not deem it convenient ; yet he is entitled 
to some excuse for his apparent displeasure when Cuadra informed him 
of his new decision, by reason of the loss of time and useless work 
suffered by his crews in unloading and loading the *' Dedalo," and also 
because this delay compelled him to return next year, in case our court 
should decide to surrender the whole of the district and the harbor of 
Nutka. 

271. This commander has had no reasons for exaggerating what he 
supposes himself to have suffered, nor yet for saying that my orders to 
don Juan de la Cuadra were obscure, because these instructions agree 
and are in conformity with the sovereign commands of the king. If 
Vancouver was firmly convinced of England's legitimate right to the 
territory and port of Nutka, and that this would be the final decision. 



EARLY CALIFORNIA. 289 

then he could have easily agreed to the provisional surrender proposed 
to him. 

272. After all, if Cuadra's change compelled Vancouver to delay his 
stay in Nutka and to impose work upon the ciews, which of his own 
accord he discharged, it also afforded the English commander an oppor- 
tunity for reconnoitering the posts of San Francisco and Monterey, for 
providing himself with fresh supplies not obtainable in the Sandwich 
Islands, and for resting his men without the fears and precaution which 
communication with those islanders awaken . 

273. Finally the delay of one year in his expedition, about which 
Vancouver complains, seems to me to be without foundation, because 
he could neither know the time required for examining the coast, nor 
the point from which he could start on his return to Europe. 

274. All the foregoing demonstrates clearly the true designs of the 
British, and still more, knowing, as is evident, that the profits which 
can come from the possession of Nutka are very precarious, because the 
English cannot now hope that this locality will become the trade cen- 
ter for otter skins, where they may have facilities for acquiring from 
the Indians large quantities thereof, for the reason, that the bulk of 
this kind of furs comes from the interior, and that at the present time 
the Nutka Indians have hardly any intercourse with the Nuchimases. 

275. Formerly the channel of Fuca was unknown, and consequently 
the vessels did not go up by the northern outlet to the '* rancherias " of 
the Nuchimases, who, not being able to dispose directly of their mer- 
chandise, were compelled to sell same to the Indians of Nutka, ex- 
pressly occupied in this trade. But now the vessels visit those ranch- 
erias and trade directly with the Indians. 

276. I have mentioned briefly these points so as to prove that if the 
BCnglish nation, in the hope of continuing without loss in the fur trade, 
or for other reasons, whose dangers would be greater to us if their set- 
tlements should be nearer to ours of the Californias, desires to sustain 
as a point of honor the possession of the establishment of San Lorenzo 
de Nutka, then it seems to me that we should be greatly gratified in 
having the best of opportunities in selling to them as a favor our com- 
plaisance to their pretentions. Because those possessions far from 
being useful to us, will be the cause of heavy expenses and damages 
against which we must guard. 

The Propositions are Ratified and the Report Brought 

to an End. 

277. In my opinion, the dangers which threaten the peninsula of 
the Californias and the rest of the Spanish possessions situated on the 
coasts of the South Sea, can be avoided if the measures contained in 
these five propositions (and which I have tried to prove in this diffuse 
report) are carried out. 

278 I now arrive at its conclusion, and hope that Your Excellency 
will receive it as proof of my zeal, love and profound acknowledgment 
of the sovereign virtues of the King, informing His Majesty of the 
contents, so that he may advise me of his royal pleasure. God, etc. , 
etc. Mexico, April 12, 1793. 

The Count de Rkvii,i.a. Gigedo. 

This is a true copy of letter number 162 of the correspondence with 
the government at Madrid through the Secretary of State. 

So I certify. Cari,os Maria de BuSTamanTE. 




IN THE 

LION'S DEN 



g??J A <;:? ^'rw a;>fe ^;^ ^^r^ 



A MUCH It might not be so dazzling a form of conquest, but it would 

BETTER cost Icss and leave a better taste in the mouth if Uncle 

INVESTMENT. Sam would "liberate" the arid lands of the West. 
There is an area many times as large as the whole Philippine 
archipelago, right here inside his own fences, which he could 
convert from desert into good homes for twenty million Americans. 
He wouldn't have to crowd anyone out, the campaign would 
make no widows and orphans (though it would make no generals"), 
and he would be getting something for his money — as now he is 
not. The old gentleman used to have a reputation for being a pretty 
good hand at a bargain. If the West can nudge him sufficiently on this 
point — and it is now rather planning to try — it will be doing a service as 
great to Uncle Sam as to itself. It is time for a concerted movement 
for the development of our own country. It is a better country than 
the ones we are gunning after — better for Americans, at any rate. It 
will support two hundred million people before it is as crowded as the 
Philippines are now. And water will earn a good deal more in the 
West than gunpowder will among the heathen, as a business invest- 
ment. 



LITTLE 

JOHNNY'S 

i^SOP. 

thoress 
Rescue 
gested 



A Devoted Son was considerably Chagrined to see Fire break 
out in a Neighbor's house whither his Mother had gone to make 
a Call. It went against his Finer Feelings to perceive the Au- 
of his Being at a Third-story window, waving Loudly for 
His Embarrassment increased when the absurd Bystanders sug- 
that he would better shin up the fire-escape and bring her 



Down. 

"That is all very well," he replied with Dignity, "for you people 
who have no Real Reverence for Women. The man who Lays his Hand 
on them, save in the way of Base Flattery, is a Coward. My mother has 
no real Business up there, but there she Is. And who shall Dare to 
Haul her Down." 

Moral : Any place is good enough for the flag. 

MORE A Self-Respecting Person (and Properly so, as he was a 

LITTLE Billionaire and of enormous Muscular development) seeing 

JOHNNY. two Newsboys fighting on the street, felt a Humane Impulse 
to Pull them Apart. Having inherited the love of Fair play, he took the 
Bigger boy by the Scruff of the neck and kicked him Four Blocks. But 
though a Champion of the Downtrodden, he was No Fool. Having had 
a Business training himself, and knowing that Some Other big boy 
might come along Any Minute and bully the Poor Little Fellow again, 
he put the little fellow's Pennies in his own Pants Pocket where they 
would be Safe, and tied the Little Fellow up in the Dog House, where 
he promised to Educate him. 

" Lemme go ! I don't want to," cried the Ungrateful brat. But the 
Good Man picked up a Club and said, soothingly : '* Sh ! Sonny ! 
You don't know what's Good for you. Under my Enlightened Rule 
you will enjoy a far larger Measure of Freedom than you could possi- 
' |v have Running around the Streets by yourself. I will let you Sell 



IN THE LION'S DEN. 291 

Papers, and I will take Care of your Money for you ; and if you are a 
Very good little boy, maybe I'll Adopt you some day." 

Meantime the first Bad Boy was pulling the Hair of another Smaller 
Fellow. The which being observed by the Self-Respecting person, he 
Flew to the Rescue. "Kick him. Sonny! " he cried. ** When I get 
there I'll teach him to Weylerize the Helpless ! " And he laid the Bad 
boy out with a punch in the Belt. 

The Small One danced with Glee, crying : " Didn't we Do 
him!" But his Deliverer answered : " We nothing ! / did it. It's 
my Mission to Relieve the Oppressed. Here, let me take Care of your 
Papers for you." 

The Small One put his Thumb up to see if his Nose was still On, 
and threw a pebble at the Good Man, who thereupon sprang upon him 
and Smote him, and kept smiting. About half who saw the scrap said : 
" Oh, let the kid go and play." But the Self-Respecting person had 
his temper Wxth him. ** I don't Like the Job," he confessed, " for this 
brat is only 70 pounds and I'm at 240. But I owe a Duty to Humanity. 
There has not been a Moment when I could have Retired with Honor. 
If I let him Up, he'll think I'm Afraid of him. Besides, he isn't Fit to 
run around Alone, and if I don't take care of him some Unprincipled 
Person will certainly Hurt him and take away his Hard-earned Pennies. 
I've got to Pound him till he Squeals, for I feel Responsible to Civiliz- 
ation for him." 

This fable teaches how unwise it is to be Smaller than your Bene- 
factor. 

Roosevelt for Vice-President ? When someone gets up San those 
Juan Hill ahead of him ! As '* Teddy " is not dead yet, there unselfish 

need be no hurry about burying him. Historically, that is S0UL8 

what the Vice Presidency means. It is the political grave. And that 
fact is no stranger to the very kind gentlemen to whom "Teddy " is the 
Handwriting on the Wall, and who have no other polite hope of eras- 
ing him. Roosevelt has nothing to drive him to suicide ; and as he 
is not many kinds of a fool he doubtless will not be led. 

Certainly no one can accuse the Youth's Companion of lodging opinions 
incendiary opinions. Its most structural characteristic, per- of a 

haps, is a conservatism so serious as sometimes to verge on conservative 

timidity. It has something like three-quarters of a million subscribers 
and several million readers ; being far ahead, in circulation, of any 
other publication in America. It has won this vast commercial suc- 
cess in every State in the Union, by taking the last pains not to offend 
anyone. So it means something when the Youth's Companion says 
editorially (in its issue of Sept. 7) : 

" It is a matter of common comment that the people are tired of the conflict [in the 
Philippines] and wish to see it ended. Those who regard the war as an immoral at- 
tack upon a people . . . have been reinforced by politicians who think they see 

... an opportunity for party success. Besides . , . many supporters of the 
administration are apprehensive lest their political opponents are correct in their esti- 
mate of the eflfect of the war upon future elections. On the other side there is no en- 
thusiasm for the war. It is merely regarded as a painful national duty. . . . Carry- 
ing on a distant war ... is new business to the American people. They do not 
like it, and only accept its cruel, distasteful burdens when they must." 

The proposition to set aside as a national park the wonderful a test 
Petrified Forest near Holbrook, Ariz., should be carried out — OF our 

and will be, unless in our zeal to convert the heathen we are giviuzation 

going to turn heathen ourselves. There are many "petrified forests " 
in the Southwest ; but that marvelous area strewn with logs and chips 
of agate and chalcedony and amethyst is incomparably the finest on 
earth. It is rapidly being despoiled by relic-seekers and money-grub- 
bers. What they could readily carry off, of this heavy material, would 
not count so fast in a deposit so enormous ; but vandals are even blow- 



292 LAND OF SUNSHINE. 

ing up "logs " of ten tons of agate to get a fist-size specimen from the 
heart. There is a great deal more in New Mexico and Arizona which a 
civilized gorernment should preserve — like " Inscription Rock " and the 
chief ruins of the cave- villages and cliff-dwellings, the monuments of 
**the Cities that were Forgotten" on the plains of Gran Quivira, the 
matchless Natural Bridge of Arizona, and so on. But it can make a 
good beginning at the Petrified Forest. Unless these steps are taken 
soon, our posterity will wonder what colossal conceit made their philis- 
tine forefathers account themselves civilized. The scrubbiest nation 
takes better care of these things than we do. Mexico, Peru, even Spain, 
protect their antiquities, governmentally. We do not. Isn*t it about 
time we began to catch up ? While it is very glorious to know that we 
can " lick " them, there might also be some quiet satisfaction in know- 
ing that we were more intellectual. 

If** adopted," President McKinley will be the Sixteenth Amendment 
to the Constitution of the United States. 

LET us It would be comic, if it were not so tragically serious, to ob- 

LEARN serve how few Americans today really know anything about 

TO READ. the Declaration of Independence or the Constitution of the 
United States — except the names. Not one voter in a hundred can 
give a reasonably intelligent summary, even, of the contents of those 
fundamental documents ; not one voter in a thousand can quote a par- 
agraph. Not only the noblest and wisest creed ever devised by patriots, 
but the actual charter and explanation of our government, these 
papers have become mere curios. Everyone has heard of them, very 
few know what they are. Very few care to know. They might about 
as well be the hotel rules bannered inside a room, which no guest reads. 
And this is what we fondly believe to be the smartest and most business- 
like nation on earth ! 

THERE'S NO There seems to be a wholly un-American impression among 

GETTING some certain people who believe themselves very good citizens, 

OUT OF IT. that an American has no business to discuss politics. It is a fact 
so sure and clear that no sane man dare dispute when he stops to face it, 
that while despots very kindly save their subjects the brainfag of worry- 
ing about politics, a republic rests wholly on the responsibility of every 
voter to bear his share of the government. When |)eople are too lazy, 
too cowardly or too fastidious to •* meddle " with their own government, 
they have ceased to be fit citizens of a republic. When a majority of 
them lose the ability or the care, then the republic is no longer. It is 
definitely launched to some new sea — of despotism, of militarism, of 
heelerocracy, or whatever its tendency may be. But the United States 
has not yet ceased to be a republic. The people are still the govern- 
ment ; the administration is simply a servant hired for four years, hon- 
ored by having — and honored because it has — charge of the house sub- 
ject to its employer's will. It cannot even recommend its own successor 
as house-keeper ; it can even be turned out of the house before it has 
served the time for which it was hired. To pretend that the master of 
the house has no right to criticise the servant is to betray absolute igno- 
rance of the American form of government and of all others. 

Now, any government has to think. A government under one hat 
can think in silence ; a republic can think only by discussion. And 
that is the way this republic always has thought. It is the way it 
learned to think Negro slavery wrong — after nearly 100 years of deem- 
ing it "all right" and "the will of God." It is the way it came to 
think of the Republican party and Abraham Lincoln. It is the way it 
came to think of everything it has ever done — except the Philippine 
war, the only large national act in which the people or Congress were 
never consulted. It is the way it will do everything as long as it re- 
mains a republic. 



IN THE LION'S DEN. 293 

This being the case, it is every citizen's duty to know what is going 
on, to form the most intelligent opinion he can, and to discuss matters 
of public policy in whatsoever forum is at his command. It may be 
easier or more politic to shut his mouth and let someone else think for 
him or let things go by default ; but it is not his duty as an American 
citizen. He may blind himself with " party fealty " (and many noble 
men do) ; he may shirk it for laziness or cowardice (and so do many who 
are not noble) ; but if he is the full stature of an American he will know 
his part and take it, at any cost. 

Nor is there any disability clause. Clergymen, magazine editors, col- 
lege professors— even these are American citizens. And it is well that 
they be. Their profession does not acquit them of the duties of citizen- 
ship. And no man who at all understands the American genius wishes 
them acquitted. They must not skulk behind the petticoats of their 
profession and beg oflf from the plain duties of a citizen as if they were 
more sacred clay, and exempt from plain men's responsibilities. Priv- 
ileged classes do not belong in a republic. Every back is entitled to the 
common burden of the patriot. We may all make mistakes in bearing 
it ; but to a democracy no other mistake is so fatal as the idea that we 
can get rid of it. 

And it is noticeable that we never virtuously reprove editors, profes- 
sors or clergymen who "go outside their calling" (as the thoughtless 
say) to favor our side of the question. Their impertinence becomes 
evident only when they oppose us. Yet only an ignoramus is unaware 
that the Opposition is the safety of all governments. 

The administration newspapers are all trembling (but mighty what 
secretly) for Admiral Dewey's sanity. How does he dare dis- dewey 

pute the wise reporter and the editorial hack, who have as- says. 

sured us, rather hysterically, that the Filipinos are savages, Aguinaldo a 
selfish despot, and the whole lot saved from killing one another only 
by our Christian kindness in killing them ; and that everyone who 
wished to give these poor devils a show is a "copperhead" and a 
"traitor?" 

In the August *'Den" were printed some of Dewey's official words to 
the Secretary of the Navy. Here follows the pith of what he says to 
the London Bai/y News : 

•• I know the Filipinos intimately, and they know I am their friend. 
. , . The Filipinos are capable of governing themselves ; they have all 
qualifications for it. . . . I have never been in favor of violence towards 
the Filipinos. The islands are at this moment blockaded by a fleet, 
and war reigns in the interior. This abnormal state of affairs should 
cease. ... I should like to see autonomy first conceded ; and then an- 
nexation might be talked about. I should like to see violence at once 
put a stop to. According to my view, the concession of self-govern- 
ment ought to be the most just and the most logical solution." 

Can this be the real reason why Cousin George is coming home ? And 
do you see the administration papers printing his words ? Not much ! 
The readers who are so unlucky as to read nothing else do not dream of 
the size nor the authority of the opposition to the war. As someone 
has well said : ** an 'organ' is valuable to an administration not for 
what it prints but for what it leaves out." 

Meantime the American people are not borrowing any trouble about 
George Dewey's sanity. They love him and believe in him. He may 
think with or against the administration — or us — as he will ; he has 
quite as much chance to know the islands as Prest. McKinley has, and 
we have as strict confidence in his honesty. It would be natural for a 
war hero — its greatest hero— to believe in the war. If Dewey doesn't, 
so much the worse for the stay-at-homes who do. 

ChAS. F. lyUMMIS. 



294 





THAT 
WHICH IS 



WRITTDM 



HIS 



It is rarely that we can add a new bead 
to the rosary of "classics.*' The printing 
press has become a disease. Every year some- 
thing like 3500 new books befall us. Of these, maybe (in 
a good year) one hundred are really admirable, two or 
three times as many are probably worth while. Probably not much 
more than six-sevenths of the annual new books are practically worth- 
less. But we are in great luck if among the best books of two or three 
years we find one genuine classic. That is an elusive word, compact of 
so many and so rare qualities ! So much literature comes so close to its 
fence that in the contemporary glance we count it inside — and so little 
literature ever really gets there ! 

I do not believe, however, that there can be any serious doubt that 
Ernest Seton Thompson's Wild Animals I Have Known will stand the 
long test. Here are the classic grace, simplicity and fancy ; above all, 
they body the classic spirit. They are not polishings of the trivial nor 
the provincial ; they are as elemental as the hates and loves and hopes 
and fears which we call " human," indeed, but which are in fact 
animal. A man must have brains and experience to realize this ; but 
Mr. Thompson has both. As he truly observes, man has no qualifica- 
tion the beasts do not in some degree share ; nor the beasts any trait 
which is not in man. And from this primal wisdom Mr. Thompson 
has gone forth into paths of detail of rare beauty and truth. His book 
takes rank at once with Rab and the Jungle Stories, than which no more 
could be said. It is the kind of a book no American child should be 
deprived of; and one person who has grown hard with the frontier is 
sorry for the man who does not melt to it. ** The King of Currumpaw" 
is the greatest wolf in literature except Akela ; and '* Raggylug " the 
most notable rabbit, not excepting the bunny of Wonderland ; 
and "Vixen" a figure never to be forgotten, mother- fox as she 
was ; and "Bingo " and " WuUy " and " Redruff"" are worthy of their 
company. As for ** the Pacing Mustang," there is no nobler horse on 
any page. 

The dress is worthy of so fine a book ; an ornament to any shelf — as 
the contents are a grace to any mind. Mr. Thompson's own illustra- 
tions (he is admitted the foremost living illustrator of animals) adorn 
nearly every page. But his great triumph is that he has drawn the 
Four-feet in such words that rough hunter and cold naturalist and 
tender child all know that it is not only beautiful but true. Chas. 
Scribner's Sons, New York. $2. 

Why a man who can write such stories as the first four in The 
Lion and the Unicorn should ever attempt martial and other 
ELEMENT. fields to him unripe, is one of the things no fellow can find 

out. These pages have more than once said severe things of Richard 
Harding Davis ; and all intentionally. But that is only when he med- 
dles with things que no le toe an. As a writer of short stories, he has few 
equals. If the precise knowledge which must inform a book of wars 
or travel be outside his equipment, he has just the hand for proper 
short stories. He knows people — in his orbit — and a great deal of the 



THAT WHICH IS WRITTEN. 295 

world as fashionables know it. He has a very fine sense of construc- 
tion and treatment, and an unusual aptitude in the word. It is a rare 
gift to write such tales as have made him famous, and he would do well 
to tie by it. 

The title story in this present book, and " On the Fever Ship," are 
admirably human documents. "The Man with One Talent," though 
marred with Mr. Davis's pattern of travel, is a strong thing ; and *'The 
Vagrant" has attractions. The last head in the book is apparently a 
" filler " only. It does not belong here ; nor, apparently, anywhere 
else in steady type. But the collection as a whole is Davis at his best 
side — and that is always delightful. Chas. Scribner's Sons, New York. 
$1.25. 

The wide and merited success of Horace Annesley Vachell's more 
Procession of Lift %\v^& new interest to his work; and there California 

will doubtless be welcome for his A Drama in Sunshine^ an- op vache.l 

other strong novel of California, reprinted from an edition of last year. 

Not so compact nor so convincing as its predecessor, this story is more 
stirring with adventure. A land-l^om and a Mussel Slough feud with 
the evicted squatters are the general stage-setting ; against which a 
dozen characters, in Mr. Vachell's recognizable hand, love, hate, in- 
trigue, swindle, stab, hang, and get shot. 

Mr. Vachell's work is good. His plot is well within the limits of the 
law, and is worked out conscientiously and without hitch. Such things 
have happened in California. He has, too, without the master's hand, a 
good hold upon his characters. He cares for them — and they care for 
him. They have verisimilitude and vitality ; and though often a little 
overdrawn, and without the quickest instinct of "enough ! " they do not 
go beyond patience. "Chillingworth" is doubtless the best conception 
in the book, with his strength and weakness, his rise and fall and 
getting up again. But "Damaris" and "Joan" and "Casanegra" — 
even "Mellish" and "Nora" — are good company, and the story is no- 
where laggard. 

Mr. Vachell's rather blighted affection for California (that is, San 
Francisco and Santa Barbara) is neither to be wondered at nor harshly 
judged. He is English — and that is a great gulf fixed between the twain, 
bravely as his climatic approval doth bridge it. Were it not for this 
natal accident, he might find the material for his final masterpiece in a 
novel of the (average) Britisher in California. It has the making of 
the most humorous, the most pathetic, the gentlest yet the most sar- 
castic fiction yet written in the West — almost, in fact, of The American 
Novel, from which it should fall short only by its geographic limitations. 
Mr. Vachell, of course, will not write it ; nor do I know quite who may. 
But so long as he gives us novels up to these two, we shall not blame 
him that he leaves the moon unplucked. The Macmillan Co., 66 Fifth 
Avenue, New York. |1.50. 

A civil engineer with unmistakable literary turn, Wolcott Le the 
Clear Beard has built some irrigating reservoirs in the South- mythical 

west, and now presents a book often very clever vStories of front itR 

New Mexico and Arizona, under title Sand and Cactus. Those are evi- 
dently the features Mr. Beard saw most of in his professional way ; the 
things he heard after the day's work were of "tough" people wholly— 
"tin-horns," devil-may-care cowboys, saloon-throned Bad Men, irre- 
deemable Mexicans, and all the other familiar "properties" which every 
visitor hears. The large advantage of Mr. Beard is that he has the Gift ; 
and that instead of parroting these familiar inventions he makes a new 
painting of their colors. His constructive skill is excellent, his char- 
acterization quick and graphic, his instinct for a story uncommonly 
good. It is no small success that he has made every one of these ten a 
"rattling good story" — though in fact nearly every one is decidedly "too 



296 LAND OF SUNSHINE. 

good to be true." Without Owen Wister's real genius for grasping 
the verities of things, as a rule, even in a brief acquaintance, 
Mr. Beard has something of Wister's imaginative power. If his char- 
acters are mostly drawn from the Wild West vaudeville instead of from 
life — and ipuch longer and rougher experience with both Territories rec- 
ognizes very few familiar faces in the book — they are vital on the printed 
page ; and perhaps that is enough. The engineers are real ; some of the 
gamblers fairly so ; and "Sheriff Barton" is as actual as he is amiable. 
The rest are the fine old "properties" by which the West is represented 
in melodrama — and the West's own fault, for it never tires, even yet, of 
rehearsing its myths to every willing ear. Few indeed hear them to so 
good advantage. Even those who have seen the toughness can rarely 
turn their furniture to such account. And while one might not recog- 
nize his mother's portrait, he can admire the colorist — and wish she did 
look like that. 

One may be sorry that Mr. Beard did not find anything more interest- 
ing or more accurate in the Mexican population of the Territories, in- 
stead of swallowing the character whole from the border tough. But 
there should be no complaint of this. The Mexican is always handy 
for a stage villain, though not strictly original. The real paisano is not 
so picturesque as the Wolfville stuffed type ; and Mr. Beard's strength is 
the dramatic, not the actual. This is equally visible in his plots ; all of 
which are well taken — and nearly all as likely as a fairy-tale. Some 
would be absurd, in less beguiling hands ; but the author has the trick 
of entertaining us so well that it seems ungrateful to smile at certain 
innoceneies. 

There is no real need, however, in the misspelling of latigo, biznaga, 
"bronk," zahuaro (here steadily "sujuarro ! ") and the like. Certainly 
the vulgar term " Greaser " should not be so intimate in a book from 
this firm. It is a word confined to the same breeding in the West that 
is gauged by the use of "Nigger" in the East; a sure stamp of low 
breeding — or of a ** tenderfoot " — and as ignorant as it is coarse. It 
should not disfigure later editions — into which such readable stories are 
reasonably certain to run. Chas. Scribner's Sons, New York. $1.50. 

It was a Boston publication, of course, which gravely announced 
in a recent number * ' the instantaneous photograph showed 
that not a single sitter had moved." 

No one who reads it ever has'to ask "Is Life worth living?" The wittiest of weeklies* 
it is also a stalwart for good citizenship and humanity. It is never a skulker, never 
an opportunist, never an apologist. Its high standards of morals and manners, its 
courage and the quality of its edge have made it a class by itself among the " humor- 
ous papers " of the world. 

The union of the successful young Doubleday & McClure Co. with the old and com- 
manding firm of Harper & Bros, is the most interesting combination in the history of 
American publishing. It should be good for both parties to the contract, and decidedly 
good for the reading public. 

"A bird in the bush is worth two in the hand," says Bird-Lore, the competent and 
beautiful little magazine for bird-lovers. Which is very true of the large study. I,ife 
is more scientific than a stuffed skin, as well as more beautiful. Frank M. Chapman, 
Englewood, N. J. |1 a year, 

Chas. A. Keeler, of this staff", will issue at once with Elder & Shepard, San Fran- 
cisco, A First Glance at the Birds. I^ater, the same house is to publish his complete 
Bird-Notes Afield. Mr. Keeler's popular ornithology is authoritative as science and 
full of poetic sentiment. 

Bliss Perry has come into the editorship of the Atlantic Monthly, the quietest maga- 
zine in America but one of the very best. 

The Southern Pacific Railway issues for free distribution two attractive booklets, 
full of compact information and pictures, of Wayside Notes Along the Sunset Route, and 
California South of Tehachapi. The company's regular monthly Sunset is well known 
for its beautiful illustrations. 

Chas. F. IvUMMIS. 



297 




oeeeoeoeeoeeeeo eoeeoeeeeeeeeeee 00000000 eooeoooooooe»e00O«o«eoe«eeoeeee 

HElANDVy^lOVE 



V llf^"3^i*. 



9eoeeoo«< 



AND HINTS Of WH/. 




......4 





C. M. Davis Kng. Co. SOUTHERN CAI.IFORNIA '^WINTER." ^^°^- ^^ ^^""^^ ^- ^'"'"'• 
Snow on the peaks, flowers at their feet. 




C. M. Davis Eng. Co. Photos, by Robert Charlton. 

COMMENCEMENT SCENES AT POMONA COLLEGE. 

Wash Exercises — The Procession — Planting the Tree. 



300 



LAND OF SUNSHINE. 




C. M. Davis Eng. Co. Photo, by Robt Chailton. 

POMONA COLLEGK COMMENCEMENT — AT SCIENCE HALL. 



30I 



It' 



CALIFORNIA BABIES 



II |! II 



1*1 




C. M. Da»is Eng. Co. 



"me and jocko." 



Photo, by Robt. Charlton. 



302 



LAND OF SUNSHINE. 




C. M. Davis Eng. Co. 



FEUCIDADES 




CM. Davis Enf. Co. <«j ^ET AI^ONG SWIMMINGI^Y." Photo, by Schumacber, 



CALIFORNIA BABIES. 



303 




C. M. Davis Eng. Co. " HOI<DING MY OWN." Photo, by Schumacher. 



i!^ 



C. M. Davis Enp. C > 



WILDFLOWERS. 



Photo, by Agnes D. Brown. 






^#^T._^»^ "^3 




lht>..> ^-J^t•.\^. I.: wii.T.ii "N- ~ I. 



C. M. Davis Eng. Cx SUNSHINERS. 



when answering advertisements, please mention that you "saw it m the I^and of Sunshinb." 



'K|\l^) 




for ^' 

people, 




DESSERTS , 




'''Taint nun too much cos it's Knoxes.'' 

IT'S NOT liTKE PIE 

IT'S HEAI.THY. 

Endorsed by all users. That " invaluable little 
ceipt book " sent free for 2c. stamp. Knox's 
parkling, and Knox's Acidulated Gela- 
iine at yourgrocers, or pint sample, postpaid, 5c. 
ink Gelatine with every package. 

C. B. KNOX, Johnstown, X. Y. 



90% OF AMERICAN WOMEN 

wash dishes three times each day. If you 
are one of these, wear a pair of " Good- 
year" Rubber Gloves and always have 
soft, white hands. Sent by mail, post- 
paid, on receipt of $1.50. Agents wanted. 
Address M. O. Dept., 

M. F. Reese Supply Co., Setauket, N. Y. 




ILL develop or reduce 
any part of the body 

A Perfect Complexion Beautifier 
and 

Remover of Wrinkles 

Dr. John Wilson Gibbs' 

THE ONLY 

Electric Massage Roller 

(Patented United States, Europe, 
Canada.) 
" Ks work is not confined to the 
- -a^Bi-uass^^ face. alone, but will do good to any 
Trade-Mark Registered. part of the body to which it is ap- 
plied, developing or reducing as desired. It is a very pretty 
addition to the toilet-table." — Chicago Tribune. 

"This delicate Electric Beautifier removes all facial blemishes. 
It is the only positive remover of wrinkles and crow's-feet It 
never fails to perform all that is expected." — Chieago Times- 
Herald. 

"The Electric Roller is certainly productive of good results. 
I believe it the best of any appliances It is nafe and effective ." 
— Harriet Hubbard Aykr, New York World. 

For Massage and Curative Purposes 

An Electric Roller in all the term implies. The invention of a 
physician and electrician known throughout this country and 
Europe. A most perfect complexion beautifier Will remove 
wrinkles, "crow's-feet" (premature or from age), and all facial 
blemishes— POSITIVE. Whenever electricity is to be used for 
massaging or curative purposes, it has no equal. No charging. 
Will last forever. Always ready for use on ALL PARTS OF THE 
BODY, for all diseases. For Rheumatism, Sciatica, Neuralgia, 
Nervous and Circulatory Diseases, a specific The professional 
standing of the inventor (you are referred to the public press 
for the past fifteen years), with the approval of this country 
and Europe, is a perfect guarantee. PRICE : Gold, $4 00 ; 
Silver, $8.00. By mail, er at office of Gibbs'Company, 1370 
Broadway, Nkw York. Circular free. 

The Only Electric Roller. 
All others so called are Fraudulent Imitations. 




Copyright. Copyright. 

"Can take a pound a day off a patient, or put it on."— New 
York Sun, Aug. 30, 1891. Send for lecture on "Great Subject of 
Fat." NO DIETING. NO HARD WORK. 

Dr. John Wilson Gibbs' Obesity Cure 

For the Permanent Reduction and Cure of Obesity 

Purely Vegetable. Harmless and Positive. NO FAILURE. Your 
reduction is assured— reduced to stay. One- month's treatment 
$5.00. Mail, or office, 1370 Broadway, New York "On obesity. 
Dr. Gibbs is a recognized authority.— N. Y. Press, 1899." 

REDUCTION GUARANTEED 

"The cure is based on Nature's laws."— New York Herald, 
July 9, 1893. 



QUALITY IN SHOES 



jajxiannnn/UTjuLnjinjTJULrujTrLD 

There is not a shoddy pair of shoes in our entire stock. Our 
name is stamped on every shoe we sell, and we propose that our 
name shall stand for good quality, fine style and long service. 
We are building up a name, not excessive profits, and for that 5 
reason you are sure of the best at the lowest price. 



Tel. Red 3441 

225 5outh Broadway 

Los Angeles, Cal. 



m/uumnjuvinx 



C. M. Staub 5hoe Co. 

Mail Orders Solicited 



ijijxnjiJinn/innixrifuiii/inxuiJxruxruiJTJiJinjTJxrui^ 



LnriruD 



Condensed Information — Southern California 



zr ' 
iUFORNIA$ 

D«(ilfiNDSW[5, 

ILWY0RI\. 

WjtfiSLY, 



The section generally known as South- 
ern California comprises the seven coun- 
ties of Ivos Angeles, San Bernardino, 
Orange, Riverside, San Diego, Ventura 
and Santa Barbara. 
The total area of 
these counties is 
44,901 square 
miles. The coast 
line extends north- 
west and southeast 
a distance of about 
275 miles. A 
$3,000,000 deep-sea 
harbor is now un- 
der construction at 
San Pedro, near 
Ivos Angeles. 

The orange crop 
for the past sea- 
son amounted to 
$4,000,000. $1,500,- 
000 of petroleum 
is produced an- 
nually, and large 
shipments are 
made of sugar, 
vegetables, beans, 
grain, deciduous 
fruit, honey, wine, 
brandy, wool, 
hides, etc. 

Over $20,000,000 
are invested in 
mining. Thous- 
ands of dollars are 
brought here by 
tourists. 

The population 
in 1890 was 201,- 
352. The present 
population is esti- 
mated at 350,000. 

Los AngeIvES county has an area of 
4,000 square miles, some four-fifths of 
which is capable of cultivation, with 
water siipplied. The shore line is about 
85 miles in length. The population has 
increased from 33,881 in 1880 to 200,000. 
There are over 1 ,500,000 fruit trees grow- 
ing in the county. Los Angeles city, the 
commercial metropolis of Southern Cali- 
fornia, 15 miles from the coast, has a 
population of about 115.000. Eleven 
railroads center here. The street car 
mileage is nearly 200 miles. There are 
over 175 miles of graded and graveled 
streets, and 14 miles of paved streets. 
The city is entirely lighted by electric- 
ity. Its school census is 24,766 ; bank 
deposits, $12,000,000; net assessed valu- 
ation, $61,000,000; annual output of its 
manufactures, $20,000,000 ; building per- 
mits, $3,000,000, and bank 'clearance, 




$64,000,000. There is a $500,000 court 
house, a $200,000 city hall, and many 
large and costly business blocks. 

The other principal cities are Pasa- 
dena, Pomona, Azusa, Whittier, Downey, 
Santa Monica, Redondo, Long Beach, 
and San Pedro. 

San Bernardino County is the larg- 
est county in the State, is rich in miner- 
als, has fertile valleys. Population about 
35,000. The county is traversed by two 
railroads. Fine oranges and other fruits 
are raised. 

San Bernardino city, the county seat, 
is a railroad center, with about 8,000 peo- 
ple. The other principal places are 
Redlands, Ontario, Colton and Chino. 

Orange County has an area of 671 
square miles; population in 1890, 13,589. 
Much fruit and grain are raised. 

Santa Ana, the county seat, has a 
population of over 5,000. Other cities 
are Orange, Tustin, Anaheim and Fuller- 
ton. 

Riverside County has an area of 7,000 
square miles; population about 16,000. 
It is an inland county. 

Riverside is the county seat. 

Other places are South Riverside, Per- 
ris and San Jacinto. 

San Diego County is a large county, 
the most southerly in the State, adjoin- 
ing Mexico. Population about 45,000. 
The climate of the coast region is re- 
markably mild and equable. Irrigation 
is being rapidly extended. Fine lemons 
are raised near the coast, and all other 
fruits flourish. 

San Diego city, on the ample bay of 
that name, is the terminus of the Santa 
F^ railway system, with a population of 
about 25,000. 

Other cities are National City, Kscon- 
dido, Julian and Oceanside. 

Ventura County adjoins Los Ange- 
les county on the north. It is very 
mountainous. There are many profit- 
able petroleum wells. Apricots and 
other fruits are raised, also many beans. 
Population about 15,000. 

San Buenaventura, the county seat, is 
pleasantly situated on the coast. Popu- 
lation, 3,000. Other cities are Santa 
Paula, Hueneme and Fillmore. 

Santa Barbara is the most northern 
of the seven counties, with a long shore 
line, and rugged mountains in the in- 
terior. Semi-tropic fruits are largely 
raised, and beans in the northern part of 
the county. 

Santa Barbara, the county seat, is 
noted for its mild, climate. Population 
about 6,000. Other cities Lompoc, Car- 
penteria and ^anta Maria. 



Condensed Information— Southern California. 



Southern California has the advantage 
of being able to grow to perfection hor- 
ticultural products that can be raised on 
a commercial basis in few, if any, other 
sections of the United States. 

The orange is the leading horticultural 
product of Southern California, 99 per 
cent of the crop of the State being grown 
in the seven southern counties. The 
chief orange-growing sections of South- 
ern California are the San Gabriel, Po- 
mona and Santa Ana Valleys and around 
Riverside and Redlands. The fruit does 
well in certain portions of all the seven 
southern counties. 

The culture of the lemon has been 
largely extended during the past few 
years. 

The grape is extensively grown for 
wine and brandy, for raisins and table 
use. 

The olive tree flourishes in Southern 
California. 

California prunes, which have become 
a staple product and are rapidly replac- 
ing the imported article in Eastern mark- 
ets, where they command a better price, 
are largely grown in Southern California. 

The fig has been grown in California 
ever since the early days of the Mission 
fathers, but it is only during the past few 
years that attempts have been made to 
raise the improved white varieties on a 
commercial scale. 

The apricot is a Southern California 
specialty, which flourishes here and in a 
few other sections of the world. 

The peach grows to perfection through- 
out Southern California, and may be 
gathered in great quantity during six 
months of the year. 

The nectarine grows under similar con- 
ditions to the apricot. 

Apples do well in the high mountain 
valleys, where they get a touch of frost 
in winter, and near the coast, where the 
summers are cool. Around Julian, in 
San Diego county, is a celebrated apple 
producing section . 

Pears succeed well throughout South- 
ern California, but are not yet grown 
largely for export. 

Walnut culture is an important branch 
of horticulture in Southern California. 
The chief walnut growing sections are at 
Rivera near Los Angeles, in Santa Bar- 
bara county and in the Santa Ana valley 
in Orange county. 

A number of almond orchards have 
been planted, especially in the Antelope 
valley, in the northern part of Los An- 
geles county. 

The growing of winter vegetables for 
shipment to the Bast and North has be- 
come an important branch of horticul- 
ture. Celery is shipped East by the 
train load from Orange county, during 
the winter months. 
The culture of the sugar beet in South- 



ern California, with the manufacture of 
sugar therefrom, promises to become one 
of the leading industries in the State. 
There are three large beet sugar factories 
in this section. The percentage of sugar 
contained in beets raised" in this section 
is remarkably high, often running from 
15 to 20 per cent. 

Wheat and barley are grown largely in 
Los Angeles, Orange, San Diego and 
Riverside counties. Large quantities of 
wheat and barley are raised to be cut 
for hay, before the grain matures. The 
corn raised in this section is of the high- 
est standard, sometimes yielding 100 
bushels to the acre, with stalks over 20 
feet high. Orange county is the chief 
corn producing section. 

Alfalfa, the most valuable forage plant 
in the world, is raised on a large scale, 
six crops being frequently cut in one 
year, yielding from one to two tons to 
the acre at each cutting. 

The lima bean is a specialty in Ventura 
and Santa Barbara counties, the beans 
being shipped East by the trainload. 

Southern California has a world-wide 
reputation as a breeding ground for fine 
stock. 

The dairy interest is of great import- 
ance. There are a number of creameries 
and a condensed milk factory. 

Southern California honey is celebrated 
the world over, being shipped by the car- 
load to the East and Europe. 

The ocean abounds in food fish of 
many varieties. Sardines are packed on 
a large scale at San Pedro, the product 
bringing a high price in the Eastern 
market. 

Outside of horticulture, Southern Cali- 
fornia has valuable underground re- 
sources. The petroleum deposits of this 
section are most extensive, and are being 
actively developed. The petroleum out- 
put of California for 1898 is estimated at 
over $2,000,000 in value. Southern Cali- 
fornia oil is mainly used for fuel. The 
cheap petroleum fields are in Los Ange- 
les city, in Ventura county, at Summer- 
land in Santa Barbara county, at New- 
hall in the northern part of Los Angeles 
county, at Puente near Whittier, in the 
same county, and at FuUerton in Orange 
county. Other fields are being opened 
up. Oil is now worth about a dollar a 
barrel in Los Angeles. 

There are valuable gold mines in 
Southern California. The first discovery 
of placer gold in the State was made in 
Los Angeles county. At present, the 
chief gold mining section of Southern 
California is at Randsburg, just inside 
the border of Kern county. Gold mines 
are also being worked at Acton in Los 
Angeles county, in Riverside county near 
Perris, on the Colorado desert in San 
Diego county, and at other points. 



When answering advertisements, please mention that you " saw it in the L,amj> of Sunshine." 




Buy Direct from the Producers 

California Ostrich Feathers 

FOR 55C. 

We will send prepaid a handsome demi-plume ; 
for $1.45, a bunch of 3 tips ; for $2.85, an 18-inch 
plume. Not woolly feathers, but fine black lustre. 
Being fresh from the birds will stay in curl and 
wear for years. Our handsome illustrated cata- 
logue mailed Free with each order, or for a 2c. 
stamp. 

OSTRICH FARM 

SOUTH PASADENA, GAL. 

Independent of the Feather Trust. 



Artistic Grille Work 



kkfv^Vj^ jflP Original Desisfii. Bfe^Sfl^^ 




Parquet Floors, Wood Carpet 

A permanent covering for floors instead of 
the health-destroying woolen carpets. 

Healthful, Clean and no Moths 

OAK FLOORS $1.25 per square yard and up. 

Try our "Nonpareil Hard Wax Polish " 

for keeping floors in good condition. 
Designers of 

FURNITURE SPECIALTIES 

Tea Tables, Card Tables, Book Cases, Cedar 
Chests, Etc. 

JNO. A. SMITH 



707 S. Broadway, 
Tel. Brown 706 



Los Angeles, Cal. 
Established 1891 



•52^ioSio^S2!o^ioilioioilJSio iliSJo ioioio ioioioiQioio^kioioloioioi^ 



I A BOOK CASE ^"^l 



FOR 

BUSINESS 

A revolving book case is the book case for 
the office and for the library. It is the book 
case for the busy business man who wants to 
put his hands on a book at a moment's notice. 

It is a book case for doctors, lawyers, students 
and readers in general. 

You can have them in any size or style from 
a small two shelf case, which holds a complete 
encyclopaedia set and dictionary, to a large case 
of six shelves, 30 inches square, which contains 
40 feet of shelving room. The prices are from 
$11.00 to |40.00. 

The wood is solid oak. These cases revolve 

just as easy when they are loaded with books 

as they do when empty. They never get out 

of order, they are easy to operate and do not 

take up a large space in a room. 

If you are thinking about book cases, let us show you these beautiful 
Banner Revolving Cases before you buy. 

LOS ANGELES FURNITURE COMPANY 

^^"^^"^^K^plaiEs 225-227-229 S. Broadway, Los Angeles, Cal. ^ 



49 

49 
49 
49 
49 
49 
49 
49 
49 
49 
49 
49 
49 
49 
49 
49 
49 







When ansvirering advertisements, please mention tnat you 



It in tne i«and op sunshinb. 



YOUNG 

OR OLD 



EVERY WOMAN 

Who Values Bargains 



Importers and Manufacturers 

OF 

DRESS SKIRTS 

UNDERSKIRTS 

SILK WAISTS 

SHIRT WAISTS 
MORNING ROBES 
DRESSING SACQUES 

WRAPPERS 

COI.LARETTES 

JACKETS 

CAPES 
TAILOR SUITS 



in stylish, dainty, 
serviceable goods, 
should call and in- 
spect our stock or 

Write 

for 

Catalogue 

Skirts Made to Order 



NEW YORK SKIRT CO., 

341 South Spring St.. Los Angeles, Cal. 





Equipped Establishment in the Southwest 



Artistic 
Turniture 

Made 
to Order 



Send for Designs 
and Estimates 



Los Angeles, Cal. 




WHEN YOU VISIT 

SAN DIEGO 

REMEMBER . . . 




ROOMS 

$1.00 Per Day 

AND UP 



American and European Plan. Centrally 
located. Elevators and fire escapes. Baths, 
hot and cold water in all suites. Modern 
conveniences. Fine large sample rooms for 
commercial travelers. 
Cafe and Grille Room open all hours. 



J. E. O'BRIEN, Prop. 



When'answering advertisements, please mention that you ''saw it in the Land op St3nshinb.» 



CALIFORNIA CREAM OF LEMON 

Lemon is nature's gift, and is well known as an 
emollient for the skin. Cream of Lieiuon 
is the whole lemon ground to a smooth paste. 
The toilet article par excellence. 
V^ f^ verybody — travelers, golfers, cyclists — should 
y' i^ use this wonderful healing and cleansing 
Vj ^"^ lotion. It is better than soap. Put up '" 







lotion. It is better than 
handy tubes. Easily carried. 



V myi any soaps contain some lemon, but are mostly 
f^ l^\ grease, potash and other ingredients that are 



10 



objectionable and very often injurious to the 

skin, 
leaginous matter or alkali does not enter into 
Cream of Liemon. It is purely lemon. 
Nothing injurious. Everything beneficial. 



\ 



^^^^^^^'i^^'^^r^^^jr^^^^^ 



1^ ly^Tothing equals it for the bath and the scalp. 

f^ 1^ Keeps the skin clean and healthy. Prevents 

V{ ^ and cures chapped hands, pimples, eczema, Vf 

y' sunburn, tan. freckles. f* 

V^ ^end 15 cts. for 3 oz. tube, or 25 cts. for 6 oz. tube. ^ 

f^ ^^ First ask your dealer for it. Agents wanted, f^ 

Vj ^"^ California Cream of liemon Co., I^os V 

y Angeles, Cal. J^ 

^ USE LEMON INSTEAD OF SOAP R 



Deafness Cannot Be Cured 

By local applications as they cannot reach the 
diseased portion of the ear. There is only one 
way to cure deafness, and that is by constitu- 
tional remedies. Deafness is caused by an in- 
flamed condition of the mucous lining of the 
Eustachian Tube. When this tube is inflamed 
you have a rumbling sound or imperfect hear- 
ing, and when it is entirely closed, Deafness is 
the result, and unless the inflammation can be 
taken out and this tube restored to its normal 
condition, hearing will be destoyed forever ; 
nine cases out of ten are caused by catarrh, 
which is nothing but an inflamed condition of 
the mucous surfaces, 

We will give One Hundred Dollars for any 
case of Deafness (caused by catarrh) that can- 
not be cured by Hall's Catarrh Cure. Send for 
circulars ; free. 

F. J. CHENEY & CO., Toledo, O. 

«®"Sold by Druggists, 75c. 

make the finest table 
meat. Can raise them 
yourself. See F. A. SCHNELL about it. 

424 N. Beaudry Ave., L,os Angeles. 



BELGIAN HARES 



We Sell the Earth-- 



■ff* BASSETT & SMITH 

We deal in all kinds of Real Estate. 
Orchard and Resident Property. 
Write for descriptive pamphlet. 

Y. M. C. A. BUILDING 
LOS ANGELES, CAL. 



GO TO THE 

American 
Engraving 
Company 



For 

High Grade 



Half-Tones and 
Line Etchings 




Concert Pbonograp0 

Mr. Edison has perfected the Phonograph. 
This is the instrument. 



It perfectly reproduces the human voice 
—JUST AS lyOUD— just as clear— just as 
sweet. 

It duplicates instrumental music with 
pure-toned brilliance and satisfying in- 
tensity. Used with Edison Concert Re- 
cords, its reproduction is free from all 
mechanical noises. Only the music or the 
voice is heard. It is strong and vibrant 
enough to fill the largest auditorium. It 
is smooth and broad enough for the parlor. 

The highest type of talking machine 
ever before produced bears no comparison 
with the Edison Concert Phonograph. 
The price is $1^5. Full particulars can 
be obtained from all dealers in Phono- 
graphs, or by addressing The National 
Phonograph Co., New York, asking for 
Concert Catalogue No. 109. 

Six other styles of Phonographs, in- 
cluding the £dison Gem, price $7.50. 
PETER BACIGAI.UPI, 933 Market St., 
San Francisco, Cal., Pacific Coast 
Agency for National Phonograph Co., 
New York. 

NONE GENUINE WITHOUT THIS 




^aru. 



special Subscription Offer 



Mission 
cMemories 




75 l^iervs of the Franciscan cMissions 
Of California. 
Complete Collection 
Nothing Overlooked 

^rice. In Embossed Pa.per Cdhers, 75c. 
** In Yucca Cdbers, : : $t M 




i 11.50 
[, IIJ5 



Southern California 
Illustrated 



THce . . . 75c. 







"lf'(lll//il!,. 



f»;i-^>* . 



53 Carefully Selected ^e^ws of 

Southern California Scenery. Size 9 by t2 
Handsomely Bound 

^ The lid 01 MM One Yeni i "Soiefn CQlinla isied." {1.50 

Land of Sunshine Publishing Co. 

\2\yi South Broadway 

LOS ANGELES, CAL. 



WINSTON 
CHURCHILL 



Richard Carvel 



130th Thousand 

16th Edition 
CLOTH, $1.50 



i 00.000 IN LESS THAN THREE MONTHS 



" RICHARD CARVEL, — one of the most 
delightful and fascinating- studies of manners 
and stories of adventure which has yet appeared 
in our literature." 

—Hamilton W Mabie in The Outlook. 



" A third satisfaction to be derived from a read- 
ing of this book lies in the conviction that first 
dawns upon the reader's mind, and then grows 
in force and positiveness as he proceeds with the 
story, that we have in this new writer one who 
has studied his art and, to an extraordinary de- 
gree, mastered it. . . . As a whole, it is a pro- 
duction of which not only the author, but his 
countrymen, have every reason to be proud " 

-Literature. 



"RICHARD CARVEL . . . is in every 
way strong, original and delightful ... en- 
titled to high place on the list of successful 
novels. . . . It is a charming story." 

— Buffalo Commercial. 



"■ RICHARD CARVEL is a historical ro- 
mance of revolutionary days, with the scenes laid 
partly in Maryland and partly in the London of 
George III. In breadth of canvas, massing of 
dramatic eflfect, depth of feeling, and rare whole- 
someness of spirit it has seldom if ever been 
surpassed by an American romance. . . . 
It is due of the novels that are not made for a 
day " — Chicago Tribune 

"RICHARD CARVEL seems, verily, to 
possess every quality that goes to make a gen- 
uinely great work of fiction. It has the reassur- 
ing solidity and the charming quaintness of 
' Henry Esmond ' or ' The Virginians,' with an 
additional zest that must perforce be the author's 
own." — I^ew York Home Journal. 

" RICHARD CARVEL is the most ex- 
tensive piece of semi-historical fiction which has 
yet come from an American hand ; it is on a 
larger scale than any of its predecessors, and the 
skill with which the materials have been handled 
justifies the largeness of the plan." 
—Hamilton W. Mabie in The New York Times. 



Other New Novels 



MASON.— Miranda of the Balcony. By A. 

E. W. MASON, author of "The Courtship of 

Morrice Buckler," etc. Cloth, 12mo, $1.50. 

Ready in September. 

Scenes in Spain and Morocco, etc. 

SHERWOOD. — Henry Worthington, 

Idealist. By MARGARET SHERWOOD, 

author of "An Experiment in Altruism," "A 

Puritan Bohemia," etc. Cloth, 12mo, $1.50. 

Rehdy in September. 

A vigorous study of social and economic prob- 
lems, underlying which is a simple, attractive 
love story. 

HEWLETT.— Little Novels of Italy. By 

MAURICE HEWLETT, author of "The Forest 
Lovers," etc. Cloth, 12mo, $1.50, 

Ready in September. 

A volume of short " novels," in the Italian use 
of the word. 

GIBSON. — My Lady and Allan Darke. 

By CHARLES DONNEL GIBSON. Cloth, 
12mo, $1.50, Ready in October. 

GARLAND — Main Travelled Roads. By 

HAMLIN GARLAND, author of "Rose of 
Dutcher's Coolly," etc. New Edition, with ad- 
ditional Stories. Cloth, 12mo, $1 .50. 

Ready in September. 



DIX. — Soldier Rigdale. How He Sailed 

IN THE " MAYFLOVV^ER " AND HOW HE SERVED 

Miles Standish. By BEULAH MARIE DIX, 
author of " Hugh Gwyeth, a Roundhead Cava- 
lier." In the series, of 5^orz>j from American 
History. Cloth , 8vo, $1.50- 

Ready in September. 
Miss Dix's " Hugh Gwyeth " was, it will be 
remembered, the book of which the Saturday 
Review (London) wrote, " We found it difficult to 
tear ourselves away from the fascinating nar- 
rative." 

CASTLE. — Young April. By EGERTON 

CASTLE, author of "The Pride of Jennico " 

Cloth, 12mo, SI. 50. Ready in October. 

In this book, as in its forerunner, there is a 

rare degree of beauty and distinction of literary 

style. Full of dash and color. It is illustrated 

with ten full-page half-tones from drawings by 

Wenzell. 

CANAVAN. — Ben Comee. A Tale of 
Rogers' Rangers. By M. j CANAVAN. 
Illustrated by George Gibbs. Cloth, 12mo, 
$1.50. Ready in October. 

BRUN.— Tales of Languedoc. By SAMUEL 
JACQUES BRUN. With an introduction by 
Harriet W. Preston. New Edition. Cloth, 
12mo, »1.50. Ready in October . 

Folk-lore and fairy tales beautifully illustrated 

by Ernest C. Peixotto. 



F. riarion Crawford 

VIA CRUCIS: A Romance of the Second Crusade 



ByF. MARION CRAWFORD, author of " Saracinesca," " Corleone, ' " 
With twelve full-page illustrations by Louis Loeb. Buckram, 12mo, 



Ave Roma Immortalis, 
Ready in October. 



etc. 



SEND FOR THE NEW ANNOUNCEMENT LIST OF BOOKS ISSUED 

THIS FALL BY 

THE MACMILLAN COMPANY, Publishers 

NEW YORK 



When answering advertisements, please mention that you " saw it in the Land of Suiwhinb." 



Works of Chas. F. Lummis 



Published by Harper & Bros., N. Y. 

The Awakening of a Nation ; Mexico today. 

Superbly illustrated from photographs made 
by the author expressly for this work. $2.60. 

" The best book on the Republic of Mexico that 
has yet been pnhlishcCL,"— Brooklyn Eagle. 

" He is as complete a specimen of the American 
as could be found in a day's journey. We can, in 
fact, scarcely recall a career that htfs been as 
wholly unique as that of Mr. Lummis. Other 
men have been as extensive travelers, but none, 
unless we except some of the Arctic explorers, 
have seen and done such strange things. His 
name is an assurance that the task he basset 
himself here would be well don&."— Philadelphia 
Telegraph. 

'• Among the few Americans who have made a 
specialty of the Southwest, Chas. F. Lummis 
stands out by reason of his graphic style, his 
power of putting things, his broad human nature 
and his cosmopolitanism. If he had done noth- 
ing more than write his latest book on Mexico, 
he would deserve thanks. " — San Francisco 
Chronicle. 

** We commend most heartily the discrimination 
and the enthusiasm with which the author has 
written of the country concerning which, through 
years of the most intimate study, he has become 
so much of an authority." — Boston Herald. 

" Unquestionably the most entertaining story 
of modern Mexican life and character which has 
been •written." —Boston Journal. 

" Mr. LummJs's work has been approved so 
generally that it is scarcely needful to say that it 
offers us information obtainable nowhere else." 
—Philadelphia Bulletin. 

" As fascinating to read as any novel."— iV. Y. 
Commercial Advertiser, 

"Not a somnolent line in it. Thoroughly 
grounded in Spanish-American history, with 
Spanish at tongue and pen's end and an extensive 
personal acquaintance with the lands to the south 
of us." — N. y. Nation. 

Published by Chas, Scribner's Sons, N. Y. 

The King of the Broncos, and other stories 

of New Mexico. Illustrated by V. Perard 
from photos, by the author. With portrait. 
$1.26. 
• A master of style." — N. Y. Evangelist. 
'■ Noteworthy in strong style, dramatic force, 
hearty human nature and deep human interest." 
— S. P. Chronicle. 
" Mr. Lummis seems likely in time to take the 
place of Bret Harte and Joaquin Miller as literary 
representative of the wild and gorgeous west. 
Certainly, no one of his age is writing stories so 
stirring, so full of the local color of the region of 
Sierra, Mesa, Canon."— TA^ Critic, N. Y. 

" No one who really knows that Southwestern 
country can compare with him in the power of 
making its characteristics live in books." 

— Boston /(jMrna/ of Education. 

A New Mexico David, and other stories of 
the Southwest. Illustrated. $1.25. 
" vigorous and novel studies ... as distinctly 

valuable as they are vividly interesting." 

— Boston Commonwealth. 

A Tramp Across the Continent. $1.25. 

" His book has such heart in it, such simplicity 
and strength, it is as good to read as any story of 
adventure may be." 

— The Saturday Review, London, Eng. 



The Land of Poco Tiempo. illustrated. $2.50 

!! ^ charming volume. "— The Academy, Londo n 
Uniformly and surpassingly brilliant." 

—Boston Traveller. 

Published by Herbert S. Stone & Co., Chicago. 

The Enchanted Burro: stories of New 

Mexico and Peru. 16 full-page illustrations 

by Chas. Abel Corwin from the author's 

photographs. $1.50. 

"We have today no storyteller who blends 

literary g^race and scientific accuracy quite so 

acceptably."— Los Angeles Express. 

" Twelve short stories which are crisp and clear 
as gems. So vivid, so convincing, that the reader 
feels that his own eyes have had glimpses of 
scenes remote but no longer unfamiliar." 

— The Bookman, JV. Y. 
" These stories make a distinct place for them- 
selves in the annals of fiction." 

—Boston Herald. 

Published by the Century Co., N. Y. 

Some Strange Corners of Our Country. 

Illustrated. I1.50. 

" He has written a great book, every page of 
which is worth a careful reading." 

—Mail and Express, N. Y. 

" The most unique and perhaps the most de- 
lightful and interesting book yet written on 
American history." 

— Thomas IVentworth Higgtnson. 

The Man who Married the Moon, and other 
Pueblo Indian Folkstories. Illustrated 
by George Wharton Edwards. $1.50. 

•• Deserves to be classed with the best of its 
kind yet produced in our country." 

—The Nation, N. Y. 

" We can insist on the great pleasure some of 
these stories must give the reader ; and one, ' The 
Mother Moon,' is as poetic and beautifhl as any- 
thing we have ever read, in or out of folklore." 
—N. Y. Times. 

The Gold Fish of Gran Chimu. |l5o 

A story of Peruvian adventure. Superbly illus- 
trated from the author's photographs and from 
antiquities exhumed by him in the ruins of Peru. 

" Novel and touching. . . . The spirit throughout 
is alert and gay, and the sympathy with delicately 
strung natures charming : even the literal trans- 
lation of a foreign idiom (a very dangerous ex- 
periment) adds to the grace and naturalness of 
Mr. Lummis'stale."— rA«iVa^*o«, N. Y. 



Published by A. C. McClurg & Co., Chicago. 

The Spanish Pioneers. Illustrated. I1.50. 

" At times quite as brilliant as Parkman." 

—Boston Traveller. 

" The world has accepted this young man, ha 
found that there was much to learn in the direction 
of his interests, found that he was an attractive 
and reliable guide ; and he has not been long in 
coming to a point where he is regarded as master 
of his field."— 7"*^ Interior, Chicago. 



Hummel Bros. & Co. furnish best help. 300 W. Second St TeL Main 509 



Educational 

Department. 




Lus Angeles Academy. 



POMONA COLLEGE Skt""""^ 

Courses leadinfi^to degrees of B.A., B.S., and 
B.L. Its degrees are recognized by University 
of California, Stanford University, and all 
the Eastern Universities. 

Also preparatory School, fitting for all Col- 
leges, and a School of Music of high grade. 

Address, FRANK T.. FERGUSON, 

President. 



Pasadena. 

MISS OKTOfi'S 
Boarding and Day School lor Qirls 

Certificate admits to Eastern Colleges. 

It4 S. Euclid ATe. 

LASELL SEMINARY FOR Y0UN6 WOMEN 

AUBURNDALE, MASS. 

" In your walking and sitting so much more 
erect ; in your general health ; in your conversa- 
tion ; in your way of meeting people, and in in- 
numerable ways, I could see the benefit you are 
receiving from your training and associations at 
I^asell. All this you must know is very gratifying 
tome." 

So a father wrote to his daughter after her 
Christmas vacation at home. It is unsolicited 
testimony as to I^aseirs success in some im- 
portant lines. 

Those who think the time of their daughters 
is worth more than money, and in the quality of 
the conditions which are about them during 
school-life desire the very best that the East can 
offer, will do well to send for the illustrated cat- 
alogue. C. C. BRAGDON, Principal. 



Occidental College 

I<OS ANGELES, CAI.. 

Three Courses: classical, uterary. 

Scientific, leading to degrees of B. A., B. L., and 
B. S. Thorough Preparatory Department. 

Winter term began January 3, 1899. 

Address the President, 

Rev. Guy TV. YTadswortli. 

GHAFFEY COLLEGE, ontan., c,i. 

Well endowed. Most healthful location. 

Enter from 8th grade. 

Opens Sept. 29. $250.00 per year. 
Elm Hali, for young ladies, under charge ol 

cultured lady teachers. Highest standards . 
West Hall, for boys, home of family of Dean, 

and gentlemen teachers. 

WHAT A FATHER THINKS .... 

An unsolicited opinion 
from the father of one of 
our boys : 

* • * "Our best thanks are 
due you for your unfailing kind- 
ness shown our son durmg his 
residence at the Academy, and 
while he seems to have done 
very well with his studies, what 
is of far more consequence is 
the influence which makes for 
manliness and character build- 
ing, already apparent in this 
child after a single term." 

Fifth Annual Catalogue ot 

Los Angeles 
Academy 

Mailed to any address upon ap- 
plication to W. R. WHEAT, Bus- 
iness Manager. 

Fall term commences Septem- 
ber 26, 1899. 

SANFORD A. HOOPER, A.M., 

Head Master. 

GRENVILLEC. EMERY, A. M., 
EDWARD L. HARDY, B. L.. 

Associale Masters 



212 Surest third street 

Is the oldest established, has the largest attendance, and is the best equipped 
business college on the Pacific Coast. Catalogue and circulars free. 




GIRLS' COLLEGIATE SCHOOL 



Gills' Collegiate School. 

ALICK K. Pa&SOKB, B. a., 
JBAKHB W. DBKirBN, 

Principals. 



Sontli Grand ATenue, I<ob Ang^eles 



j/OwoQOBi/A 




226 S. Spring St., Los Angeles, Cai,. 

Oldest, largest and best. Send for catalogue. 
N. G. Pelkek, President 
John W. Hood, John W. Lackbt, 

Vice-President Secretary 

Telephone Green 1848. 



We Manufacture all kinds of 



RUBBER GOODS 



When you purchase and want 



The Best Rubber Hose 




DIFFERENT IN EVERY FEATURE. 

The Brownsberger Home School of 
Shorthand and Typewriting. 

903 South Broadway, I^os Angeles, Cal. 




Large lawn and porches where pupils study and dictate. In- 
dividual instruction only. Half-day attendance all that is 
necessary. Only teachers of long experience do any teaching. 
This is the only Shorthand School on the coast that has a busi- 
ness office training department. A new machine furnished 
each pupil at his home without extra charge. Send for catalogue. 

Cor. Broadway and Ninth St. Tel. White 4871 



A MODERN ART SCHOOL 

At the University of Southern 
California. 

Directed by 

Prof. W. L. JUDSON. 

Offices, 415 Blanchard Art Building, 
lyos Angeles, Cal. 



See that Our Name is on every length. 
FOR SAI.£ BY AI.I. DEAI.EBS. 



GOODYEAR RUBBER COMPANY 

573, 575, 677, 579 MARKET STREET 

B. H. PBASK, Vice-Pres. and Manager. 

SA.N FRANCISCO. 



A. G. GARDNER 



FIANO . . . 
. . . HOUSE 



118 Winston St. Tel. Brown 1335. 



We Sell, Rent, Repair and 
Tune Pianos. 



Most expert repairer of stringed instruments 
in the city. 

Music furnished for entertainments. 



When answering advertisements, please mention that you " saw it in the I<AifD of Sttnshinb.' 



OI.OB8T AND LAROBST BANK IN SOl^THBRN ! 

CALIFORNIA. | 

Farmers and Merchants Bank 

OF LOS ANOBLBS, CAL. 

Capital (paid up) - - $500,000.00 
Surplus and Reserve - 925,000.00 

Total - - $1,425,000.00 

OFFICBRS : 

I. W. Hbixman President 

H. W. Hbllman Vice-President 

Hbnrt J. Plbishman Cashier 

6. A. J. Hbimann Asstotant Cashier 

dirbctors : 
W. H. Perry, C. K. Thom, J. P. Francis 

O.W. CHBCDS, I.W.HELLMAN.Jr., I. N. VaNNUYS 
A. 6I.A88BZ.I., H. W. HELLMAN, I. W. HBLX.MAN. | 

Special Collection Department. Correspond- 
ence Invited. Safety Deposit Boxes for rent. 



W. C. Patterson President 

W. GiLLBLEN Vice-President 

W. D. Wool WINE Cashier 

E. W. CoE Asst. Cashier 




Cor. First and Spring Sts. 

Capital $600,000 

Surplus and Undivided Profits 60,000 

This bank has the best location of any bank in 
IvOS Angeles. It has the largest capital of any 
National Bank in Southern California, and is the 
only United States Depositary in Southern Cali- 
fornia. 



• • •••••••••••••••• •••••••• •••••••••••••••••••••••••4 



American 
Beet Sugar Co. 



FACTORIES AT 

Oxnard and Chino, California 



GUARANTEED 



To be the Finest Sugars 
And will Preserve Fruits 



First National Bank 

OF I.OS Airox:i.Ks. 

Largest National Banic in Southern 
California. 



Capital Stock $400,000 

Surplus and Undivided Profits over 260,000 
J. M. Elliott, Prest., W.G. Kerckhoff, V.Pres. 
Frank A. Gibson, Cashier. 
W. T. 8. Hammond, Assistant Cashier. 
directors: 
F. Q. Story, 
H. Jevne, 
J. C. Drake. 
All Departments ot a Modem Banking Business 
Conducted. 



""^J-T^i 



J. M. Elliott, 
J. D. Bicknell. 



J. D. Hooker, 
W. G. Kerckhoff, 





CORNER MAIN AND SECOND STREETS 



Officers and Directors. 

H. W. Hellman, J. A. Graves, M. t,. <* 

Fleming, F. O. Johnson, H, J. Fleishman, ,1 

J. H. Shankland. W. L- Graves. S; 

J. F. Sartori, President j 

Maurice S. Hellman, Vice-Pres. S5 

W. D. Long TEAR, Cashier 

Interest Paid on Ordinary and Term Deposits j 





FOR' MEATS, FISH, GRAVIES, 

SOUPS, AC. THIS SAUCE 

HAS NO EQUAL 

Manufactured and Bottled only by 

GEORGE WILLIAA/IS CO., 

LOS ANGELESj Cal. 




If this sauce is not satisfactory, return it to your W 



grocer and he will refund your money. 

GsoBSB Williams Co. 



^ 



-T^jTT^s-z^r-z^ -2^ z^^nz^s^z^^^z^ :z^:z^ 



A Different California 

Some of your ideas of California may be wrong. Especially you may not know that in Fresno 
and Kings Counties may be found some of the best land in the State on Laguna de Tache grant 
lately put on the market in len-acre tracts, or larger, at $35.00 per acre, including perpetual water 
right, at 62}i cents per acre annual rental, the cheapest water in California. Send your name 
and address and receive the local newspaper free for two months, that will give you reliable inform a- 

*^°"- Address : NARES & SAUNDERS, 



1840 Mariposa Street, Fresno, Cal. 



Hummel Bros. & Co., Lar